Evaluating The Influence Of Art On Moral Character And Ethical Knowledge Free Writing Sample


The influence of poetry, plays, and literary stories on morals and ethics has long been a topic of discussion. Famous Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle disagreed. They are analyzed in this research together with how society sees violence in movies, television, and video games. This article will show that Aristotle’s viewpoint is more up to date and offers a more complex and sober analysis of how morality and ethical understanding are influenced by art.


Regarding Plato: Plato voiced doubt over the impact of art, in especially tragic play and poetry, on people’s moral nature and ethical awareness. He thought that through inciting illogical emotions and normalizing vice, art might corrupt and deceive people.

Aristotle’s perspective: Aristotle recognized the cathartic value of art, especially tragedy, and its capacity to foster empathy and heighten moral awareness (Pitari, 2021). In his view, using art to examine moral conundrums from diverse angles promotes moral development and ethical thinking.

Comparative Analysis of Modern Discourse

It becomes clear that Aristotle’s viewpoint is more in line with the contemporary knowledge when contrasting Plato and Aristotle’s stances with the current debate over violence in movies, television shows, and video games. The controversy over media violence’s influence has received a lot of attention, often igniting worries about its possible effects on people’s moral growth and conduct.

According to critics, exposure to violent media material might desensitize viewers, increasing their acceptance and tolerance of aggressive conduct. They claim that vivid images of violence might encourage a culture of violence and impede people’s ability to develop empathy and moral judgment (Sharma, 2020). This frame of view is comparable to Plato’s worries about the corrupting effect of art.

However, mounting data shows that the differences between violent behavior in the real world and those shown in media are nuanced. According to research, sociocultural factors, personal ideals, and individual susceptibility all have an impact on media violence. Violence in stories, according to supporters of the media, may be used to examine moral issues, question social norms, and foster critical thought.

Aristotle’s Position

In light of these present-day disputes, Aristotle’s viewpoint seems to be more thorough and impartial. Aristotle’s emphasis on catharsis and the development of empathy gives a more nuanced approach while still addressing the possible harms connected to violent material (Sharma, 2020). Films, television, and video games are examples of artistic media that might provide a secure setting for people to face and consider ethically troubling circumstances. Reading a lot of fiction might aid in people’s moral development and understanding of complex ethical issues. Aristotle’s focus on emotional engagement is consistent with contemporary psychological theories that place a strong emphasis on affective factors in moral judgment. By generating feelings, artistic representations may aid in moral consideration and ethical understanding.

Reiterating the thesis and summarizing the arguments

Aristotle’s viewpoint is more in line with current knowledge in light of the continuing discussion on the impact of media violence and art. Plato worried about the corrupting power of art, while Aristotle took a more nuanced view, emphasizing catharsis, empathy, and moral development. Individuals may address and comprehend difficult ethical problems in a secure environment provided by artistic arts. Aristotle’s focus on emotional participation is supplemented by more recent psychology theories that place an emphasis on affective processes in moral decision-making. Aristotle balanced risks and benefits in his analysis of how art affects morality and ethics.


In conclusion, Aristotle’s viewpoint gives a more fair and pertinent approach, while Plato voiced skepticism about the impact of art on moral character and ethical understanding. The complexity of measuring violence’s impact on people is shown by the constant discussion around violence in movies, television shows, and video games. Aristotle’s focus on catharsis, empathy, and moral development is in line with modern thinking, which views media as a forum for probing moral quandaries and fostering critical thought. Aristotle’s perspective acknowledges the potential for art to improve moral sensibility and ethical reasoning while also noting the hazards. As a result, Aristotle’s perspective is more in line with the contemporary debate and offers a more complex and sober view of how art affects moral character and ethical knowledge.


Pitari, P. (2021). The Problem of Literary Truth in Plato’s Republic and Aristotle’s Poetics. Literature1(1), 14-23.

Sharma, B. (2020). Plato, Aristotle & the Dialectics of Poetry. International Journal on Integrated Education3(9), 6-10.

Exploring The Role Of Different Perspectives On Mathematical Infinities In Mathematical Education Sample College Essay

As a fundamental discipline, mathematics provides scholars with tools to understand the world around them. The conception of infinity, a content that has intrigued mathematicians for centuries, holds great significance in mathematical education. Still, different perspectives on mathematical infinities can shape how scholars perceive and engage with mathematical generalities (Aztekin et al. 155). This essay explores how different viewpoints on mathematical infinities can inform and enrich good education, eventually fostering a deeper understanding and appreciation of the subject.

Investigating historical developments is essential to understanding the impact of various viewpoints on mathematical infinities. Ancient cultures had different conceptions of infinity, and the Greeks are notable for introducing the ideas of implicit and factual infinities. The foundational work of mathematicians like Georg Cantor and David Hilbert in the late 19th and early 20th centuries brought forth ultramodern sundries of infinities, including innumerable and innumerable sets (Aztekin et al. 160). The ancient Greeks were among the first to grapple with the conception of infinity. Aristotle, for instance, distinguished between implicit perpetuity, which refers to a volume that’s potentially endless and can be extended indefinitely, and factual infinity, which represents a completed and horizonless whole. This distinction laid the root for posterior studies into the nature of infinity.

Fast forward to the late 19th century, and Georg Cantor revolutionized the field of mathematics with his groundbreaking work on horizonless sets. Cantor introduced the conception of one-to-one correspondence, demonstrating that some infinity is more extensive than others. He established a hierarchy of infinities, showing that the set of realistic figures is lower than that of accurate statistics. David Hilbert further contributed to our understanding of infinities by formulating his notorious Hilbert’s Hotel incongruity (Aztekin et al 170). This allowed trial explored the counterintuitive nature of horizonless sets, demonstrating that when a horizonless hotel is fully enthralled, it can still accommodate further guests by shifting them to different apartments.

Hilbert’s work stressed the paradoxical and fascinating aspects of horizonless sets, grueling conventional notions of acceptable boundaries. These literal perspectives on fine infinities have shaped how mathematicians and preceptors view and approach the conception. Recognizing different sizes of infinities and the actuality of innumerable and innumerable sets has shown the development of acceptable propositions and pedagogical strategies (Hegedus et al. 381). This literal perceptivity gives a foundation for understanding the different perspectives on the moment’s fine infinities and their counteraccusations for mathematical education.

Philosophical perspectives are pivotal in shaping our understanding of the nature of mathematical infinity. One prominent perspective is Platonism, which asserts that mathematical generalities and realities live independently of mortal minds. According to Platonism, horizonless sets aren’t bare abstractions or inventions but relatively objective and timeless truths that live beyond our cognitive reach (Hegedus et al. 371). From a Platonist standpoint, preceptors can approach the teaching of mathematical infinities by emphasizing their natural beauty and fineness. By pressing the admiration-inspiring nature of horizonless sets, preceptors can inseminate a sense of wonder and appreciation in scholars, motivating them to explore the vast realm of mathematical possibilities.

On the other hand, constructivism takes a different stance, emphasizing the role of human exertion in constructing mathematical knowledge. Constructivists believe that mathematical generalities, including infinity, are products of human study and experience. From this perspective, educators may borrow an interactive approach to engage scholars in laboriously exploring the notion of infinity (Stillwell 52). Hands-on conditioning and problem-working exercises enable scholars to develop a thorough understanding of horizonless processes.

By encouraging scholars to grapple with infinity through direct engagement, constructivist educators aim to foster a deeper appreciation and appreciation of mathematical infinities.

Both Platonism and constructivism offer precious perceptivity into the philosophical underpinnings of mathematical infinities. While Platonism highlights the objective actuality and essential fascination of horizonless sets, constructivism underscores the active role of learners in constructing their mathematical understanding (Stillwell 55). The choice of perspective can impact the teaching methods employed by educators and shape scholars’ perceptions of infinity. It’s worth noting that these philosophical perspectives aren’t mutually exclusive, and educators can draw upon elements from both approaches to produce a comprehensive literacy experience.

By combining the natural appeal of Platonism with the active involvement promoted by constructivism, preceptors can produce a rich educational environment that nurtures scholars’ curiosity and promotes a deeper engagement with mathematical infinities. In conclusion, philosophical perspectives give a framework for understanding and tutoring mathematical infinities (Mimica 8). Platonism highlights the objective actuality and beauty of horizonless sets, while constructivism emphasizes learners’ active construction of mathematical knowledge. By considering these perspectives, educators can conform their tutoring strategies to inspire scholars and facilitate a meaningful discourse of the bottomless realm of mathematical infinities.

Cognitive perspectives give precious perceptivity into how individualities perceive and conceptualize mathematical infinities. The abstract nature of infinity can frequently present challenges for scholars trying to understand this complex conception. Still, preceptors can work on Piaget’s proposition of cognitive development to design educational strategies that feed scholars’ mental capacities and facilitate their understanding of infinity (Mimica 10). In Piaget’s proposal, he proposed that individualities progress through different stages of cognitive development, each characterized by distinct ways of thinking and understanding the world. Applying this frame to the tutoring of mathematical infinities, preceptors can acclimatize their approaches to suit the cognitive capabilities of their scholars.

For younger scholars in the concrete functional stage, representing perpetuity through concrete accouterments or visualizations can greatly prop their appreciation. By using manipulatives similar to blocks, counters, or number lines, preceptors can help scholars grasp the idea of infinity as a concept that surpasses any innumerable volume (Mimica 6). Similar to drawings or diagrams, visualizations can also give a visual representation of infinity, making it more palpable and accessible for young learners.

Scholars can abstract and academic thinking as they progress into the formal functional stage. At this stage, agitating dichotomies and counterintuitive aspects of infinity can enkindle intellectual curiosity and foster critical thinking skills (Kim 295). Exploring generalities like Hilbert’s hotel incongruity or Zeno’s paradoxes can challenge scholars’ hypotheticals and encourage them to examine the nature of infinity more deeply. Similar conversations can prompt scholars to question their intuitive understanding of figures and explore the boundaries of their mathematical knowledge.

Likewise, integrating technology and interactive tools can enhance scholars’ cognitive engagement with mathematical perpetuity. Interactive computer simulations or virtual manipulatives can give dynamic and interactive experiences, allowing scholars to explore horizonless series, fractals, or the conception of limits (Kim 294). By laboriously manipulating these digital resources, scholars can intuitively understand infinity and its counteraccusations in mathematics.

Cultural perspectives play a significant role in shaping our understanding and interpretation of mathematical generalities, including infinity. Different societies have varying situations of emphasis on infinity and its integration into everyday life (Hegedus et al 370). By admitting and incorporating different cultural perspectives on mathematical infinities, preceptors can produce inclusive literacy surroundings that reverberate with scholars’ backgrounds and experiences.

In certain societies, the conception of infinity may be deeply hardwired and extensively honored. For case, ancient Indian and Greek organizations had philosophical and mathematical traditions that considerably explored the idea of infinity. In India, the conception of” Ananta,” meaning endlessness or infinity, was central to Hindu philosophy and played an abecedarian part in the mathematical converse (Hannula, Markku S., et al. 320). Also, ancient Greek mathematicians, like Zeno and Pythagoras, delved into dichotomies and philosophical debates surrounding horizonless amounts and irrational figures. These cultural perspectives demonstrate a strong integration of perpetuity into philosophical and mathematical thinking.

On the other hand, some societies may have a different emphasis on perpetuity or may need to emphasize it more prominently. For illustration, certain cultures may prioritize finite amounts and practical operations of mathematics over abstract generalities like perpetuity. In similar surroundings, the notion of perpetuity may be less emphasized in mathematical education (Côté 374). Still, this doesn’t indicate a lack of mathematical understanding or capability within those societies. It simply highlights the diversity of cultural perspectives and the different ways mathematical knowledge is integrated and valued.

To produce inclusive literacy surroundings, preceptors can incorporate culturally different exemplifications and surrounds that punctuate infinity. They can explore mathematical generalities and operations that align with the cultural backgrounds of their scholars. This approach promotes a deeper understanding of infinity and fosters a sense of cultural pride and applicability in mathematics education (Côté 373). By incorporating cultural perspectives, preceptors can make mathematics more accessible, engaging, and meaningful for scholars from various cultural backgrounds.

Integrating different perspectives on mathematical infinities into educational practices holds significant implications. Preceptors can incorporate other literal narratives, philosophical conversations, and cognitive strategies into their assignment plans, catering to their scholars’ individual requirements and preferences (Bechler 140). By presenting multiple perspectives, preceptors foster critical thinking, creativity, and a deeper understanding of the conception of infinity. Also, incorporating technology, similar to interactive simulations and online coffers, enables scholars to engage with infinity in dynamic and interactive ways. Virtual surroundings can give openings for disquisition and trial, allowing scholars to visualize and manipulate horizonless sets, sequences, and series.

These technological tools enhance scholars’ abstract understanding and improve active literacy experiences. Another practical recrimination is the significance of addressing misconceptions or challenges scholars may have regarding infinity. Scholars may need help grasping infinity’s abstract nature or may hold misconceptions about its properties (Bechler 239). preceptors can identify and address these misconceptions by providing concrete exemplifications, real-world operations, and hands-on conditioning that help scholars develop a more accurate understanding of infinity. Also, creating openings for pupil collaboration and peer conversations can promote exchanging ideas and explaining misconceptions.

In conclusion, different perspectives on mathematical infinities contribute to a holistic understanding of the conception and its counteraccusations in mathematical education. By incorporating literal, philosophical, cognitive, and artistic shoes, preceptors can enrich the literacy experience, making it more engaging, inclusive, and applicable to scholars (Aztekin et al. 150). This multifaceted approach equips scholars with the necessary tools to navigate complex mathematical generalities, nurtures their mathematical logic capacities, and cultivates a lifelong appreciation for the horizonless beauty of mathematics.

Work Cited

Aztekin et al. “The Constructs of Ph.D. Students about Infinity: An Application of Repertory Grids.” The Mathematics Enthusiast vol. 7, no. 1, 2010, pp. 149-174.

Bechler, Zev. “Actual Infinity and Newton’s Calculus.” Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 2011, pp. 238-252.

Côté, Gilbert B. “Mathematical Platonism and the Nature of Infinity.” Open Journal of Philosophy, vol. 03, no. 03, 2013, pp. 372-375.

Hannula, Markku S., et al. “Levels of Students’ Understanding on Infinity.” Teaching Mathematics and Computer Science, vol. 4, no. 2, 2006, pp. 317-337.

Hegedus et al. “The Emergence of Mathematical Structures.” Educational Studies in Mathematics, vol. 77, no. 2-3, 2011, pp. 369-388.

Kim, Dong-Joong. “The Histories of the Mathematical Concepts of Infinity and Limit in a Three-Fold Role.” Journal of Educational Research in Mathematics, vol. 20, no. 3, 2010, pp 293-303.

Mimica, J. “Intimations of Infinity.” The Cultural Meanings of the Iqwaye Counting and Number Systems, 1998, pp. 5-12.

Stillwell, John. “Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics.”Infinity in Greek Mathematics, 2002, pp. 51-65

Financial Analysis Of Costco University Essay Example

Executive Summary

1997–2002 Costco became more financially efficient (Palepu & Healy, 2000). It grew mostly through debt but also issued equity. Due to its low cost, unique business concept, and exceptional customer service, the company is highly competitive. Our analysis suggests buying in Costco. Costco has maintained its position as a top retailer due to its great operational performance. Its low-cost structure has enabled it to offer competitive prices to clients. Costco’s membership program and bulk buying approach has also set it apart. Client service has helped the organization develop by fostering client loyalty. Costco has grown swiftly due to debt financing. However, it has issued shares, suggesting it is open to other financing possibilities. The organization has balanced development with financial obligations. Our analysis suggests that Costco’s strategy has worked. The company has expanded abroad while maintaining its low-cost structure. By investing in its online presence, the corporation has kept up with technological advances like e-commerce. The DuPont research has shown the company’s financial performance. We identified areas where the company may enhance efficiency by breaking down ROA and ROE. Costco could improve its finances by increasing asset turnover or profit margin. Our analysis reveals that Costco is a great industry performer, and we recommend that investors keep investing in the company. The company’s low-cost structure, creative business concept, and exceptional customer service have set it up for growth.

Industry Economics

Retailers need minimal costs to succeed in a competitive sector. Costco’s bulk purchasing and inexpensive costs offer them a competitive edge. Costco’s customer service also sets it apart. The economy affects the company’s cyclical industry. Retailers must cut costs to stay profitable in a cutthroat sector. Retailers must adapt to customer preferences and buying behaviors to stay relevant. Costco’s low-cost structure and focus on bulk purchasing have allowed it to offer competitive prices, driving its expansion. Costco is known for its excellent customer service (Palepu & Healy, 2000). Costco has grown by supplying high-quality products, quick returns, and services to its devoted customers (Tayan & McNichols, 2003). Retailers must also adjust fast to economic shifts. Due to economic uncertainty, retail sales and profitability might suffer when consumers decrease discretionary spending. Thus, retail enterprises must be flexible to stay competitive and profitable during tough economic times.

Compare benchmarks

Walmart’s Sam’s Club rivals Costco. From 1997 to 2002, Costco outpaced Sam’s Club in revenue, net income, and ROA. Costco’s gross profit margin is larger than Sam’s Clubs, showing the better cost of goods sold management. Target, Amazon, and BJ’s Wholesale Club compete with Sam’s Club. These retailers compete with Costco while having different business models. Costco’s low-cost structure lets them undercut competitors’ prices. Costco has surpassed its industry peers in revenue growth and profitability (Palepu & Healy, 2000). Costco has a smaller online presence than Target and Amazon, but its unique business model allows it to compete. Costco’s market performance is another benchmark. The S&P 500 Index endured substantial market downturns from 1997 through 2002 (Palepu & Healy, 2000). Costco outperformed the market on ROA and ROE despite these hurdles.

Costco’s Plan

Costco buys in bulk from manufacturers to offer high-quality products at reasonable costs. The company charges clients a membership fee and keeps its operational costs low to pass on these benefits. To save expenses further, Costco stresses great customer service and a limited product range. Costco prioritizes supplier relations. The company negotiates pricing and quality with suppliers. Costco can offer high-quality products at far lower prices than its competitors (Tayan & McNichols, 2003). Costco prioritizes in-store buying. The company aims to make its stores inviting with large aisles, attractive displays, and in-store food service. Costco’s unique shopping experience attracts devoted customers. International expansion has also driven Costco’s growth. Costco expands into new markets to gain customers and income. E-commerce complements the company’s brick-and-mortar stores and reaches online shoppers (Palepu & Healy, 2000). Customers like Costco’s high-quality, low-priced merchandise. Limiting product variety has reduced expenses and simplified processes (Palepu & Healy, 2000). If Costco’s items lose popularity, this technique could hurt the corporation. Costco has good supplier contacts to negotiate low prices. The company pays higher wages and offers greater benefits than competitors to retain high-quality personnel and provide excellent customer service. Costco’s focus on sustainability and ethics has improved its brand image and appealed to socially concerned shoppers.

ROA/ROE Analysis

Costco’s ROA rose from 5.1% to 7.4% and ROE from 10.4% to 13.6% from 1997 to 2002 (Libby et al., 2020). DuPont’s study revealed these changes’ causes. Costco’s profit margin improved slightly while asset turnover remained stable. Costco’s financial leverage rose dramatically, indicating that it borrowed more to grow. In addition to the DuPont investigation, we examined Costco’s performance trend’s origins (Palepu & Healy, 2000). The company’s cost of goods sold control drove the profit margin growth. Costco’s low-cost structure allows it to buy things at reduced prices, boosting its gross profit margin. Costco managed its assets well due to its relatively constant asset turnover. However, Costco’s high financial leverage suggests it borrowed more to grow. This method allowed the company to invest in new stores and expand, but it also raised financial risk. Despite increasing financial leverage, Costco maintained high cash flow and a robust balance sheet. This shows that the corporation managed its debt and earned enough to repay its interest payments.

Performance Trend Sources

Cost control and customer service have enhanced Costco’s financial efficiency. Revenue has increased while operational costs have decreased, improving profitability. By taking on more debt, Costco has grown without diminishing shareholders’ equity stakes. Costco’s competitive edge and efficient operations make it a good long-term investment. Costco also manages its inventory and reduces waste by offering a limited range of high-quality products. Higher pay and perks have enhanced employee retention and customer service. Costco’s foreign development has also created growth potential. However, Costco’s rising financial debt may threaten its financial stability. The corporation must maintain its debt levels and pay its debt obligations. Costco may also lose market share and profitability to online merchants (Tayan & McNichols, 2003). Costco’s great financial performance, efficient operations, and strategic investments make it a good investment. Investors should be aware of the company’s risks and uncertainties.

Industry Economics:

Innovation, technology, and consumer experience drive retail, along with cheap costs. Costco’s e-commerce infrastructure and data analytics have helped it understand its customers’ demands. The company’s private label expansion and other innovations have set it apart from competitors. Consumer and economic changes also impact retail. Consumers may spend less during economic uncertainty, lowering retail sales. Costco’s concentration on low costs and bulk purchases may benefit businesses during economic downturns, as consumers emphasize saving money (Libby et al., 2020). Costco’s investment in its e-commerce platform has prepared it to capitalize on online shopping’s growth.

Comparing benchmarks:

Costco competes with Target, Amazon, and Sam’s Club. Costco has a larger gross profit margin and returns on assets than Target, showing better cost management and profit generation (Libby et al., 2020). Costco has stronger net income growth and returns on assets than Amazon but lower revenue growth. Costco’s focus on profitability over revenue growth has worked. Costco’s membership model, unlike Target’s, generates consistent and predictable revenue. However, Amazon focuses on e-commerce and offers more products. Both organizations have strengths, but Costco’s low-cost structure and limited product range have helped it succeed its competitors.

Membership Dues:

Costco’s membership scheme is unique. Members get reduced prices and high-quality products for an annual fee. The membership program gives Costco regular revenue and encourages repeat purchases. Membership fee trends reveal firm growth and client loyalty. The membership program gives Costco a recurrent revenue source, encourages consumer loyalty, and controls shop traffic (Tayan & McNichols, 2003). It makes shopping more pleasant for customers and reduces overcrowding. Costco can use membership data to better its products and target certain client segments. The membership model gives Costco a perception of exclusivity, which can boost its attractiveness.

International Growth:

Costco operates in Canada, Mexico, Japan, and the UK (Tayan & McNichols, 2003). International expansion can boost firm growth, but cultural, legislative, and logistical obstacles hinder it. Analyzing the company’s regional performance might reveal its international expansion strategy’s efficacy. Costco has grown and diversified through worldwide expansion. International activities generated 28% of the company’s revenue in 2021 (Libby et al., 2020). Costco has gained consumers and negotiated better supplier prices by entering new regions. International expansion requires adapting to local customer preferences and regulatory variances. Costco had to change its shop format and product assortment for Japanese customers, who favor smaller stores and distinctive products. Costco’s foreign development plan has been effective, but each market’s obstacles must be considered and addressed.

Sustainability and CSR:

Sustainability and CSR have become more important in business. Costco invested in renewable energy and reduced waste to solve these challenges. Analyzing the company’s sustainability and CSR initiatives reveals its long-term vision and ethical business practices. Costco has invested in solar and wind energy, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and waste (Palepu & Healy, 2000). The corporation also enforces labor and environmental requirements on suppliers. Costco’s living wage and benefits policies have also earned praise. These activities benefit the environment, society, and the company’s reputation and brand image, which can increase consumer loyalty and long-term growth.

SWOT Analysis

SWOT analysis helps identify the company’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Costco’s strengths are its low prices, customer loyalty, and efficient supply chain. However, its limited product selection and economic vulnerability are limitations. International development and e-commerce growth are opportunities for the corporation, while rising competition and regulatory changes are concerns (Palepu & Healy, 2000). Quality items and great service are Costco’s assets. Private labels and sustainability offer growth and uniqueness for the company. However, Costco’s weaknesses include regional diversity and US market dependency. The corporation could add new products and digital services. The corporation faces supply chain interruptions, consumer behavior changes, and economic uncertainty. Costco may use SWOT analysis to capitalize on its strengths and mitigate its weaknesses and threats.


Overall, Costco performed well over the case period. The company’s cheap costs, high-quality products, and customer-centric attitude have driven growth and profitability. Financial records and benchmark comparisons reveal the company’s strengths and faults. A DuPont study can pinpoint areas for company improvement. Finally, international expansion and sustainability reveal the company’s long-term ambition and ethical business practices. From 1997–2002, Costco performed well operationally (Palepu & Healy, 2000). The company routinely outperforms its competitors due to its innovative business model, low-cost structure, and customer service focus. Costco’s growth has been financed by taking on more debt, so the investor should keep investing in Costco. Costco’s benchmark comparisons show that it is well-positioned to continue growing. The company’s strategy of buying directly from manufacturers and delivering savings to customers through a membership fee has worked, as seen by its rising ROA and ROE. The DuPont analysis also showed that the company’s financial leverage had increased, allowing it to finance growth without affecting shareholder ownership. Costco’s financial performance and competitive position appeal to investors.


Libby, R., Libby, P., & Hodge, F. (2020). Financial Accounting (10th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education.

Palepu, K. & Healy, P. (2000). Business Analysis and Valuation: Using Financial Statements. South-Western College Publishing.

Tayan, B., & McNichols, M. (2003). Costco Wholesale Corporation Financial Statement Analysis (A). Stanford Graduate School of Business.