Evolution Of American Foreign Policy In The Eisenhower And Kennedy Administrations Essay Example

Discuss the evolution of American foreign policy in the Eisenhower and Kennedy Administrations. Why did Eisenhower and Kennedy advocate for various policies and what does that tell us about American foreign policy during the period and America’s approach to the Cold War?

During his tenure as president of the United States, President Eisenhower presided over the country from 1953 to 1961. He was regarded as a liberal conservatism in his day. He was intensely concerned about foreign and military affairs at the time. Cold War tensions with Russia and hostility with the Soviet Union dominated his administration as well. The United States also created worldwide renewable energy, which is the central premise of Dr. Strangelove, since there were plenty of tensions for both the Soviet Union and the United States of America at the time. He backed mutually assured destruction, which he referred to as heavy retribution, and he advocated for an equal or stronger strike on the Soviet Union than the United States. He was also a supporter of nations in Latin America and the Middle East who were opposed to communism at the time. The president that succeeded Eisenhower was John F. Kennedy (1961-1963), who is most remembered for founding the Peace Corps, signing the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, and initiating the space race. During his tenure, there was also hostility against communist countries. He attempted to prevent communism from being adopted in third-world nations by using nonviolent means to do it. His foreign policy was more adaptable than Eisenhower’s, and he employed informal discussions and bureaucracy to put an end to communism, in contrast to Eisenhower.

Discuss the evolution of American foreign policy in the Eisenhower and Kennedy Administrations.

In the opinion of Kennedy’s close advisors, Eisenhower’s foreign policy apparatus was completely overtaken, sluggish to react, unduly dependent on obstructionism and huge reprisal, and complacency. Their concern was that the State Department is incapable of putting their emerging global ideas into action after eight years. With a youthful and active National Security Council and White House personnel that could create their internal informal ties inside the bureaucracies of foreign affairs, the new President was keen to maintain control over foreign policy. Moreover, Kennedy believed that Eisenhower and Secretaries Dulles and Herter had all but given the newly rising republics in Africa, Asia and Latin America to the communists by their actions during the Cold War. Kenned believed that each country should realize if it desires harm or good fortunes to the US and that the nation will be willing to spend whatever it takes, endure any workload, encounter any struggles, endorse any companion, oppose any foe to ensure the survival and fulfillment of liberty. The implementation of president Kennedy’s policies on foregin matters did not match up to his rousing discourse. .

!961 was when president Kennedy provided the order for Eisenhower’s invasion of Cuba’s Bay of Pigs, which had been planned by Eisenhower. The army physical assault, which was conducted by Cuban exiles in the absence of critical air assistance, was a colossal failure because of erroneous information. When Kennedy appeared ill-prepared and it was clear that something was wrong. Following that, Kennedy’s stern language against the Soviet Union in Berlin did not help to ameliorate the situation; rather, the Soviets erected the Berlin Wall to separate East and West Berlin from one other (Transcript Of Truman Doctrine, 1947). The resolution not to find a middle ground opposing communists in Laos, as President Eisenhower had recommended, left South Vietnam as the only country in Asia where communism might be confronted and eliminated. Kennedy’s overall track record was a great mix of triumphs and tribulations. The United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) was founded in 1961 as a distinct institution under the supervision of the Department of State, at the insistence of President John F. Kennedy. Eisenhower’s long discussions with the Soviet Union provided a foundation for the Kennedy Administration’s efforts, but the Limited Test Ban Treaty put to paper by president Kennedy only prohibited testing of nuclear matter atmospherically and did not prohibit subterranean nuclear testing. During the Vietnam War, the Kennedy regime backed the toppling of President Diem, reasoning that any future country ought to be an upgrade over Diem’s regime. They were completely incorrect. In addition, U.S. attempts in Western Europe, such as backing for Britain’s admission into the European Economic Community and European military cooperation, were both deemed ineffective by the international community.

President Eisenhower established a well-deserved reputation for efficiency and order during his time in Europe during World War II as the Allied Supreme Commander. Under his leadership, the Department of State was incorporated into the National Security Council’s (NSC) organized system of effective structural review, and the NSC had a resurgence under his Administration. Rather than the Department of State, the National Security Council’s own Planning Board generated discussions papers for the NSC, and the Zoning Board worked to resolve interdepartmental conflicts until a policy document was presented to the NSC. The whole Council, with Eisenhower nearly really in attendance, discussed and made judgments on policy choices, which were subsequently forwarded to the president as suggestions in the form of National Security Council actions. One further group, the Operational Coordination Board, was responsible for ensuring that the bureaucracies followed out the suggestions that had been authorized by President Obama (Bacevich). Dulles made a clear distinction between the policy evaluation process and the day-to-day activities of the Department of State, which he considered to be the sole domain of the Department of State. As a result, Dulles considered that certain matters, such as covert activities, were too delicate to be addressed by the whole National Security Council (NSC). Due to his tight links to the President and his even strong connection with his brother, CIA Director Allen Dulles, John Foster Dulles was regarded as the second most important person at every National Security Council meeting, after only the President. President Eisenhower frequently took the lead in the debates, but Dulles maintained his most prominent foreign policy advisor throughout his presidency.

Dulles was an outspoken opponent of communism. According to this Secretary of State, there were no gray areas; countries were either members of the liberal world or members of the Soviet Union; he had little patience for neutrality or non-alignment. Secretary Dulles had another propensity to use theatrical expressions when he spoke. The President of the United States said in a 1954 address that the USA would respond to Soviet acts of aggression not particularly where they happened but where the US selected, premised on its disincentive of overwhelming retaliating capability. Dulles explained in an interview later in 1956 how he had communicated to the Chinese and the North Koreans that if the socialist countries did not sign the Korean ceasefire, the USA would use its nuclear weapons against them. Dulles stated that by bringing the world to the verge of nuclear catastrophe, he was able to bring the Korean War to a end and prevent a broader battle. In the aftermath, Dulles was connected with the ideals of overwhelming retribution and brinkmanship, which were described as “an uncontrollably irresponsible mix of nuclear provocations and face-to-face confrontation. While the so-called nuclear threat to China was less certain than Dulles had stated, the Eisenhower Administration’s strategy of huge retribution was predicated on mutual nuclear deterrence and was significantly more cautious in its approach to the situation.

Why did Eisenhower and Kennedy advocate for various policies and what does that tell us about American foreign policy during the period and America’s approach to the Cold War?

The Cold War culture and political ideas influenced their writings. They had identical foreign policy ideas, and their political antagonism made them seem like a pair. Both presidents entered the cold war with a desire to outdo the Soviet Union. Both Presidents show that in 1963, these two people cared greatly about American principles and their continuation overseas without minimum or no interruption from the Cold war. With further historical information, one might conclude that these views influenced the presidents’ foreign policy, as illustrated above. Both Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy rejected global communism. In many ways, they are two of the most renowned supporters of democracy overseas (National Security Council, 1950). Beyond war, Kennedy and Eisenhower did all necessary to ensure the spread and protection of democratic, American principles overseas. Their views fueled their activities in foreign policy. Eisenhower utilized Lincoln to lead, influence, and sustain his Cold War policies, which he thought meant defending democracy at all costs. Kennedy identified the same ideas in his approach to the cold war; he intended America to dedicate itself to the maintenance of its integrity and superpower status.


To conclude, John F. Kennedy was the president who followed Dwight D. Eisenhower. From 1953 until 1961, Eisenhower served as president of the United States. In his day, he was considered a liberal-conservative. At the time, he was very interested in international and military matters. His government was marked by Cold War tensions with Russia and antagonism toward the Soviet Union. The anti-communist sentiment was high throughout Kennedy’s tenure as president. He used peaceful tactics to try to stop communism from spreading to third-world countries. Unlike Eisenhower, he used informal conversations and bureaucracy to bring an end to communism, rather than relying only on military force.


Andrew J. Bacevich (ed.), The Short American Century: A Postmortem (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012). Pp. 239. isbn978 0 674 06445 4. Journal of American Studies47(1), 293–294. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0021875812002253

National Security Council, (1950). A Report to the National Security Council on United States Objectives and Programs for National Security

Transcript Of Truman Doctrine. (1947). U.S. National Archives & Records Administration. Transcript of Truman Doctrine (1947). https://www.ourdocuments.gov/print_friendly.php?flash=true&

Evolution Of The Public Health And Child Welfare Free Sample


The world has gone through several changes since the Mesopotamian times when human beings started inventing different tools and machinery to make work easier. People focused on other things such as stabilization of human health As Mesopotamians focused on evolving agriculture. In this manner, there are several improvements, which have been done in the health care industry for the past decades. The introduction of new and improved products, services, and activities in the world leads to new health issues globally that require immediate attention. In this manner, the experts in the health care industry have to be smart enough to come up with ways to mitigate the health issues that arise. In the same way, children will always be born in the world, which means that child welfare is an important aspect to be given enough attention. In the same way as public health, child welfare is important and the past has proven enough by coming up with evolution in the sector. Experts say that health is everything. If we are not healthy then the whole world will crumble down. What is the history of evolution on public health? Who are the pioneers of the public health evolution? What are the basic public health technologies introduced to make the world a better place? Similarly, Who are the pioneers of child welfare? What are the advancements introduced in the industry to ensure that child welfare is taken care of with caution and effectiveness? The paper will focus on the evolution process in the public health sector and child welfare globally.

History provides a brief understanding of the health problems, which existed that led to the evolution of public health. All the health care services and remedies wouldn’t exist were it not for the problems that arose since prehistoric times (Tulchinsky & Varavikova, 2014). Several historic pieces of evidence have been found introducing bits about the history o public health. For instance, Egyptian texts found dating to around 1900 BCE shows that people practiced human medicine, mathematics, and veterinary science. Egypt is among the first civilized countries or colonies to ever exist in the world. In addition, Egyptians made sure to make recordings of all the activities they carried out.

During these times when agriculture and irrigation started, people succumbed to parasitic diseases. At this time, Greek Empire had also grown and was known far and wide. Egyptians sort to incorporate Greek medicine to cure the sick. Egyptians started public health through the introduction of drainage gutters and an emphasis on public hygiene. According to the EbersPapyrus, a document on Egyptian medicine, they had introduced the seclusion and isolation protocol on the sick people to carry out more research on the disease they experience.

Moving on to The Great Roman Empire, these people had improved and experienced innovations on health matters. The Romans had perfected skills such as towns planning, military camp sanitation, medical care, construction of public latrines and baths, and drainage systems. All these are factors that affect public health. Like Egypt, the Roman Empire focused on maintaining a healthy empire due to war, which they needed their men strong (Tulchinsky & Varavikova, 2014). Therefore, health was a priority in the region. The empire constructed multiple public baths and latrines to serve the poor who could not construct their own to ensure they were healthy. With time, this expertise had moved to many countries, leading to the introduction of these necessities of public health to Europe, America (formerly known as the New World), and the Middle East. The Roman empire also introduced garbage disposal activities to remove any form of dirt in the streets. All these public health activities crossed over to several countries during the time.

Years followed and diseases started to appear, affecting a large group. For instance, leprosy is among the first diseases to affect a large group. Due to this, there was the urge to come up with medical practitioners, who would serve the needs in the health care sector. During the 8th and 12th centuries, there were monastery hospitals, which were constructed to care for the sick and the dying. These monasteries paved the way for the construction of bigger hospitals in the future. For instance, Britain had already constructed 750 hospitals by the 15th century.

In 1224, Emperor Frederick II of Sicily introduced a regulation on practicing medical practice to ensure that those who practiced medical practice were well learned (Tulchinsky & Varavikova, 2014). A universal medical practice was established that required licensing to be issued for individuals who studied 3 years of philosophy and 5 years of medicine, and an additional year of general supervision. In the same way, the idea was passed on globally and people started to learn more about the medical practice to ensure enough medical practitioners in the industry.

Since these medieval times, there have been diseases that come up and are treated due to the advancements that are introduced due to technological advances. In addition, the colonial period also led to an increase in the spread of public health since the colonizers had to construct their medical facilities and those for their subjects (Tulchinsky & Varavikova, 2014). One thing led to another and in the industrial revolution era, industrialization, urbanization, and globalization led to poor human settlement environments. For instance, overcrowding led to poor nutrition, sanitation, poor housing, and poor working conditions. All these factors led to the spread of diseases.

The eighteenth-Century Reforms led to the beginning of improved medical practice. Philosophers Diderot, Voltaire, John Locke, and Rousseau among others introduced a new approach to medicine. These philosophers introduced the concept of research, philosophical debate, and systematic testing of samples to provide cure and medicine for conditions. Since then, there has been systematic testing for diseases (Tulchinsky & Varavikova, 2014). Some basic inventions were made such as the use of lemons to cure scurvy as introduced by John Woodall, between 1570-1643. Nowadays, experts carry out testing and research to develop medicines, cures, and vaccines for diseases that come up.

Child Welfare

Child welfare was also an important aspect until now. There was the urge to reduce incidences of children getting sick since most of the sicknesses affected children considering they have weak immune systems. in the past, public servants had to pass public awareness to reduce the incidences of sickness. During the nineteenth century, France introduced preventive care as a service to add on the curative care for children and women. The initiative was started in unsanitary urban slums by installing “Milk Stations,” formerly known as “Gouttes de lait.” The country then expanded the initiative by advocating for breastfeeding and the supply of clean milk to children. This effort was directed towards reducing infant deaths in France. Other countries introduced similar child welfare initiatives in the cities and towns (McGowan, 2014). The United States and European countries introduced a similar initiative and advanced it using the development of pediatrics to specialize in child nutrition. Child welfare systems increased globally after Britain realized that there were many children left orphans. This led to the introduction of foster homes, where orphans were kept until able families adopted them.

The history of the evolution of public health and child welfare has introduced several changes in the world. For instance, the global community has reached a stage where any disease that comes up can be detected earlier and cured found. We have had several pandemics globally over the years and the evolution of public health has facilitated medical practitioners who are experts in the particular field developing cure for the virus or bacteria. For instance, poliomyelitis became a pandemic before World War II leading to the crippling of millions of children globally. However, the continuous evolution helped the experts develop cures and vaccines for Poliomyelitis. Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin were the pioneers of the production of the poliomyelitis vaccine in 1955 and 1961 respectively.

As humans, we now say that the pioneers who took part in the introduction of public health safety services and products made the health care sector a productive industry. Nowadays, vaccines come in and we are assured of safety from public health issues. Historic writings from Egyptian Ebers Papyrus, Greek intelligence, and Roman skillset paved way for public health advancement in the world.


The world is created into a safe and better place as a result of the efforts of pioneers in the past. It is through efforts by people such as the Roman empires to create a safe environment to live in. Through their efforts, experts can produce any vaccine or medicine to help protect us from any disease. For instance, Covid-19 came in and the medical experts globally worked to find a cure for the virus. In addition, there are now several vaccines that have been produced and distributed globally to prevent an occurrence of the same disease in the future.


McGowan, B. G. (2014). Historical evolution of child welfare services. In Child welfare for the twenty-first century (pp. 11-44). Columbia University Press.

Tulchinsky, T., & Varavikova, E. (2014). A History of Public Health. The New Public Health, 1-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-415766-8.00001-x

External Environment Analysis Strategy Case Study Free Writing Sample

Executive Summary

Inflation refers to the phenomenon of rising prices and goods in an economy and the rate at which it rises is called the inflation rate. It affects the living standards of the people living in the country significantly. The selected article has discussed the event of the surging inflation rate in the UK. It is predicted to hit 8% in April. This will impact the working of organisations such as Tesco which is one of the Big Four companies in the UK. The strategy of increasing productivity by cutting costs and improving spending is the proposed strategy in this case study. Differentiating and categorising costs strategically, reducing work through automation, understanding cost drivers and taking effective decisions through the help of teams will help Tesco to overcome this inflationary environment.


The inflation rate of the UK has been on the rise for the last few months. This will impact the living standards of the people in the coming months. Inflation, as a concept, is the scenario of rising prices. The article chosen for the case study has highlighted this aspect. The inflation rate is an essential economic factor for all organisations. It erodes business profits, investments, market values and resource allocation. Stock markets underperform under the pressure of inflation. This leads to an adverse decrease in the company’s market value. Due to increased prices of goods, there is a reduction in people’s purchasing power. This reduces the overall sales of the organisation. In this case study, the selected company is Tesco PLC, one of the UK’s leading retailers. Being customer-focused, Tesco is quite dependent on the UK’s inflation rate. In this inflationary environment, consumers’ spending on Tesco’s products will be cut short due to the stringent purchasing power of the customers (Ilmiani and Meliza, 2022).

Case Study: Impact of Rising Inflation in The UK on Tesco


The article chosen for this case study has been published in The Guardian on the 16th of February, 2020. It focuses on an economic factor of PESTLE, inflation rate. This scenario has been observed since the reopening of the UK’s economy after the Covid-19 pandemic. In April of this year, inflation has been predicted to hit its all-time high (The Guardian, 2022). To control the increasing prices, the Bank of England might increase interest rates. Tesco PLC is one of the UK’s largest supermarkets and is part of the UK’s retail industry. Tesco PLC has been considered relevant for the scope of this case study because it has a variety of goods and services, whose sales are dependent on the inflationary environment.

Tesco’s diversified portfolio of products includes clothing, groceries, electronics, furniture, toys, software, etc (Tesco Official Website,2022). The products that will see the maximum increase in prices are household products, furniture, etc. This will lead to consumers reducing their spending on these products. The people of the UK will have to squeeze their living costs to sustain this inflationary economy. From April of this year, the estimated electric and gas bills will rise by 693 Euros. March will see a rise of 3.8% in England’s regulated rail fares (BBC News, 2022). Under the Health and Social Care Levy, employees, workers and companies will pay 1.25 Pound more in April. This will put companies like Tesco and their consumers under pressure. Monthly payments might further go up if the Bank of England decided to raise interest rates (Joseph et al., 2021).

Case Evaluation

Britain’s households are expected to lower their living standards shortly due to the climbing inflation rate. In thirty years, Britain’s inflation rate has surged to the highest point at 5.4% in December 2021. Governments limit spending in scenarios of high inflationary spending to bring balance. This in turn, in most cases, does not produce fruitful outcomes for retail businesses. Economists have predicted the consumer price index to increase from January’s 5.5% to a significant 8% in April. This 2.5% jump will push energy bills in households to soar high, putting pressure on consumers’ pockets (The Guardian, 2022).

The article presents the effect of external economic factors, that is, inflation. It is responsible for the reduction in business sales and the overall revenue generated. Governments across the world try to limit inflation for companies to run smoothly. As estimated, the biggest impact of the rising inflation in the UK will be on energy costs. Being the driving force of most business operations, this increased cost will push prices of most goods and services, especially, food items, household items and furniture (Hipwell, 2022). Tesco has occupied 25% of the UK’s retail market and generates the most sales. Thus, the rising inflation rate will adversely affect the pricing of Tesco’s wide range of items.

Inflation is outside the control of Tesco. Though the company is expanding their business globally, its profits are largely dependent on the UK’s market and the economy as a whole. Thus, this hike in inflation will directly or indirectly affect Tesco in terms of its market dominance. Tesco’s Chairman, John Allan has expressed his concern in this regard. According to him, the future will bring along horrible food price inflation which will further put added pressure on the people (Hipwell, 2022). He has also said that people will be forced to choose between whether to feed their families or heat their homes. Both Tesco and its consumers will badly suffer in this situation and is a major threat of high inflation rates (Caporale et al., 2022).

The Office for National Statistics publishes the Retail Price Index which measures inflation in the UK. It is already quite high at 7.8% as said by a research economist, Isabel Stockton of the Institute for Fiscal Studies. This has surpassed the Retail Price Index as anticipated in last year’s October budget. The projected spending of the UK’s government on debt interest in 2022 will be about 69 billion Euros, which is 11 billion Euros higher than what has been forecasted at about 58 billion Euros in 2021 (Davies, 2021). This significantly increased spending will push the rates of inflation and bring an overall impact on the UK’s economy (The Guardian, 2022).

There are possible chances of the interest rates being increased by the Bank of England. The rising inflation will harm both businesses and consumer groups. Many firms will become insolvent owing to this adverse scenario. Consumers will have very little to spend on luxuries. Tesco’s Allan has said that the rise in Tesco’s food prices will be dependent on the items. This means that though certain items will become costlier, the prices of some food items will also get cheaper. In the long run, the amount spent by consumers on certain items will also change (Haldane, 2021).

Tesco will soon struggle to keep up with this increase in inflation. The gradually increasing price of energy globally will lead to higher transport and energy bills on Tesco’s part. It will try to ease this situation by passing it to customers through increased product prices. There will be a significant surge in shipping costs and create supply problems for Tesco. The UK is currently facing staff shortages as an effect of the pandemic and Brexit. This is pushing companies to raise wages so that they can attract suitable staff to work for them. As a result, it is contributing to the high inflation in the UK (Cúrdia, 2022).

Proposed Strategy

To counter this situation of price increase, Tesco has to take some decisive steps. Analysis of companies during the period of the Great Depression shows that the most successful strategy taken by companies was to cut costs in a way that will help to increase productivity. This gave these companies a proportionately higher stakeholder return as compared to the ones that did not take the steps. The main consideration that has to be taken during the current economic scenario is that labour markets are volatile, constrained supply chains and also there is not much decrease in consumer demand. Thus, to tackle the higher inflationary environment, Tesco will need to not just cut costs but also build more scalable platforms for growth. Tesco will be able to maintain its strategic market position through reinvestments in programs that will provide greater resilience. It will help to build a stronger pricing and purchasing framework. Growing the top-line by cutting costs will help Tesco to improve its employee retention and become less dependent on volatile labour markets. As of January 2022, the operating cost inflation of Tesco runs at 5% (Reuters, 2022).

Strategic Steps for Implementation

To achieve the successful implementation of the proposed strategy in Tesco’s structure, certain strategic steps and decisions will be involved. To manage expenses effectively, Tesco needs to get high visibility of its spending. The managing teams will be able to understand the areas where the money is going and who is responsible for it. To do this, Tesco will have to establish end-to-end, repeatable and actionable spending visibility by categorising based on costs, business unit and business operations. This will significantly increase Tesco’s productivity through accountable organisational decisions that will be made based on the impact of the high inflation (Girdzijauskas et al., 2022).

During this current disruptive scenario, the odds of executives taking wrong decisions that will endanger Tesco’s long-term strategy is significant. So, it is essential to differentiate effectively between non-strategic spending and strategic spending. Protecting and targeting the signature customer as well as improving employee experiences will help Tesco to prioritise consistent ROI investments. Tesco will be able to fuel their strategy and also effectively out-invest their major competitors like Sainsbury’s, Asda, Morrisons and Waitrose. The managers of Tesco will have to identify the areas where investments need to be stopped and where to realise the cost savings to counteract high inflation (‌Ulu, 2022). They need to understand to trim costs selectively that will enable Tesco to improve operating expenses returns and achieve results through strategically investing in greater capabilities. It will beneficially maintain Tesco’s competitive advantage by reshaping its cost structure. During this disruptive economic condition, maximising the value of shareholders in the company by taking better decisions in regards to deploying the scarce resources will be strategic (Ilmiani and Meliza, 2022).

The understanding of the main drivers of cost in times of high inflation is crucial. Critically categorising costs such as rate and consumption along with drivers of spending is the way to go. It will help Tesco to implement the proposed strategy by creating different initiates for each unique driver of cost. Some possible moves are increasing buying power, improving compliance opportunities, introducing AI- deployment for procurement, using data analytics and insights. All these help to increase savings and deliver real-time results. It will help Tesco to take effective decisions in this scenario (Koester et al., 2021).

To counteract the inflationary environment, Tesco can use approaches that will help it to thrive even in the bad times. By spending better, Tesco will be able to overcome its producer pricing and fluctuating supply chain pressures. Cross-functional change can be brought about in Tesco due to this. Increasing collaboration between the internal stakeholders will help Tesco to build new projects by making better decisions. Prioritising spending can help Tesco to reduce costs by avoiding unnecessary costs and identifying savings opportunities. Eliminating insignificant work by implementing automation will help Tesco to deal with labour shortages during this volatile period. The managers of Tesco will need to effectively scrutinise the activities of Tesco to understand how they are performed and who performs them. This will lead to resetting the way of work and redesigning it to adapt to the inflationary environment‌ (Hémous and Olsen, 2022).


This Case Study has thoroughly discussed the impact of the rising inflation rate on Tesco PLC. The future of the UK’s economy will bring along higher inflation rates of 8% in April of this year. Considering the prediction to be correct, this will be the UK’s highest inflation rate in almost thirty years. This will be mainly due to the rise in petrol princess across the world which is putting pressure on the supply chain and transportation. The Covid-19 pandemic and Brexit has made the UK’s labour market volatile that have forced companies to increase wages leading to inflation. Being heavily dependent on the UK’s retail market for their overall revenue generation, Tesco will be adversely affected by such high rates of inflation. This Case Study has thus proposed the strategy of increasing productivity by reducing costs and managing to spend rather than focusing on the supply chain. This will require some steps to be followed by Tesco as mentioned here.


‌Koester, G., Lis, E., Nickel, C., Osbat, C. and Smets, F., 2021. Understanding low inflation in the euro area from 2013 to 2019: cyclical and structural drivers. ECB Occasional Paper, (2021280).

Caporale, G.M., Gil‐Alana, L.A. and Trani, T., 2022. On the persistence of UK inflation: A long‐range dependence approach. International Journal of Finance & Economics27(1), pp.439-454.




Cúrdia, V., 2022. Average Inflation Targeting in the Financial Crisis Recovery. FRBSF Economic Letter2022(01), pp.1-05.

Davies, R., 2021. Prices and inflation in the UK-A new dataset (No. 55). Centre for Economic Performance, LSE. chrome-extension://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/viewer.html?pdfurl=httpscep.lse.ac.ukpubsdownloadoccasionalop055.pdf&clen=1870044&chunk=true

‌Girdzijauskas, S., Streimikiene, D., Griesiene, I., Mikalauskiene, A. and Kyriakopoulos, G.L., 2022. New Approach to Inflation Phenomena to Ensure Sustainable Economic Growth. Sustainability14(1), p.518. https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/14/1/518

Haldane, A., 2021. Inflation: A tiger by the tail?. Online speech, Bank of England, February, 26.

‌Hémous, D. and Olsen, M., 2022. The rise of the machines: Automation, horizontal innovation, and income inequality. American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics14(1), pp.179-223.

Hipwell, D. (n.d.). Worst of Food Price Inflation Yet to Come, Tesco Chairman Says. [online] BloombergQuint. Available at: https://www.bloombergquint.com/business/tesco-chairman-says-food-price-inflation-will-get-worse [Accessed 24 Feb. 2022].


Ilmiani, A. and Meliza, M., 2022. The Influence of Banking Risk on Efficiency: The Moderating Role of Inflation Rate. Indonesian Journal of Economics, Social, and Humanities4(1), pp.73-84. http://ijesh.unri.ac.id/index.php/ijesh/article/view/106

Inflation: UK prices soar at fastest rate for almost ten years. (2021). BBC News. [online] 17 Nov. Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/business-59316544

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Lea, R., 2022. Growth should continue in 2022, but prospects are clouded by higher inflation and major uncertainties. Arbuthnot Banking Group4. chrome-extension://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/viewer.html?pdfurl=httpswww.arbuthnotlatham.co.uksitesdefaultfilesdocuments4th20January202022.pdf&clen=479652&chunk=true

Tesco Official Website (2022) https://www.tesco.com/

Tesco’s operating cost inflation running at 5% – finance chief. (2022). Reuters. [2022] 13 Jan. Available at: https://www.reuters.com/article/tesco-outlook-inflation-idUKKBN2JN0O2 [Accessed 24 Feb. 2022].

The Guardian. (2022). UK inflation forecast to hit 8% in April amid cost-of-living crisis. [online] Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/business/2022/feb/16/uk-inflation-rises-amid-cost-of-living-crisis

UK inflation rises to highest in nearly 30 years. (n.d.). The Economic Times. [online] Available at: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/international/business/uk-inflation-rises-to-highest-in-nearly-30-years/articleshow/88991315.cms [Accessed 24 Feb. 2022].

‌Ulu, Y., 2022. Directional Accuracy of MMS Survey of Inflation-Output Forecasts of G7 Countries: A ROC Analysis. Applied Mathematics and Computation6(1), pp.13-18. chrome-extension://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/viewer.html?pdfurl=httpwww.hillpublisher.comUpFile20220120220110174708.pdf&clen=240967&chunk=true