Evolution Of Cybercrimes Essay Free Essay

Computer Security

Cybercrime occurs when an individual uses a network technology or a computer device to commit an act, which deviates from the state laws. Cybercrimes include a wide range of actions, which can be seen to be against the general good.

Cyber-bullying

According to Kids Health (2018), cyber-bullying is one of the most prevalent cybercrimes in the contemporary society. Social networking has generally taken bullying to the next level. Before the emergence of sophisticated technology, bullying was mainly done physically in schools. The situation is seemingly deferent today, as bullies have turned to the use of social technologies. These bullies are known as cyber bullies.

There is no legitimate logic behind cyber bullying. Kizza (2017) holds that many bullies want to get a reaction. It is common for the perpetrator to bully the other to gratify their ego since it makes them feel in control. While some may think that it is fun to intimidate others through the Internet, the reality is that it has significant adverse impacts on the victims. Cyber bullying has detrimental consequences on the person being bullied. Victims of cyber bullying are likely to develop psychological problems. They are likely to suffer from anxiety, frustration and even have low self- esteem. Victims of cyber bullying are also likely to suffer from depression.

Compared to physical bullying, which occurs in schools, cyber bullying causes more emotional suffering of the victim. Unlike school bullying which children can escape when they are home or during holidays, cyber bullying cannot be escaped. The victim suffers wherever they go.

Evolution of Cybercrime

The traditional bullying made its way to the Internet in the early 1990s following the emergence of cheap personal computers. Children and teenager began experiencing different kinds of bullying on the various platforms including chat rooms and private messaging platforms by their classmates and strangers (Nordstrom & Lisa, 2014). The anonymity of the web provided safe cover for the perpetrators to harass and intimidate potential victims without fear that they could be identified.

Cyber bullying reached its peak in the 2000s when smartphones emerged, and everybody wanted to have them. Teenagers had the liberty and port unity to send text messages and photos to anyone they wanted to. In the mid-2000s, the emergence of several social media platforms and applications created podiums where bullies could efficiently conduct their activities. Cyber bullying was brought to the mainstream following several cases of teenage suicides (Nordstrom & Lisa, 2014). One of the initial suicide cases happened in 2007 when Tina Meir- 13-year-old committed suicide when her neighbor developed a forged MySpace profile under the name Josh Evans and used it to harass her. The perpetrators were found guilty of unauthorized use of computers but were acquitted. Her case did not only drive the state of Missouri to enact laws of cyber bullying but brought the crime to international attention.

Advances in Technology

Technological advances have significantly contributed to the evolution of cyber bullying in various ways. Technological advances have resulted in the development of social sites such as Facebook and Twitter. These sites, in turn, have developed channels where bullies create fake accounts and use them to intimidate victims without being apprehended. On the other hand, modern cyber bullying has changed from sending threatening messages to posting emotionally disturbing information and pictures of their target to the public (Yar, 2013). Technological advances have created the channels where the perpetrators can take advantage of the large population of the audience to spread bad messages concerning their victims. For example, Tyler Clement jumped off the George Washington Bridge after his roommate streamed a video of him kissing another man on Twitter. Finally, technological advances have significantly made the Internet more affordable increasing the vulnerability of the victims and making it easier for perpetrators.

Legislations Related to Cyber Bullying

According to Stansky (2009), up to mid-2000s, there were no laws that specifically addressed cyberbullying. However, in the recent times, laws have emerged in several states that leave enforcements in the hands of schools. Prosecutors, however, have always relied on existing laws to prosecute individuals who are suspected of cyber bullying cases. Criminal harassment statues, for instance, have often provided a basis for bringing charges in serious cases where cyber bullying has resulted in tragic incidences such as suicide and death (Levi, 2008).

Federally, cyber bullying can be handled under civil or criminal laws depending on the situation (Rees, 2006). Civil law is the division of the law, which deals with property rights, personal dignity and freedom from injury. Under civil laws, cyber buying can be approached in three ways

One, cyber bullying may result in defamation. This is where the perpetrator causes damage to the reputation of the victim through spreading false information. Defamations which are likely to be temporary such as unrecorded speech or live broadcasts are known as slander while those that are likely to be permanent such as a book or website publication are known as libel (Rees, 2006).

Equality In The World Today

Is everyone that lives on Earth equal? Equality has been an important topic of discussion for many centuries, however this problem still has not been solved. Equality is something that is still relevant all around the world. “Harrison Bergeron” by Kurt Vonnegut tells the story of a family living in a world where everyone is handicapped so that they are equal. If someone is too smart, their brain would be shocked to make them forget their intelligent thoughts. Also, if somebody is too skinny, fat, tall, short, ugly, or pretty, the handicaps placed on them would make them have the same abilities and characteristics as everyone else. Nobody was allowed to be better than one another, and there was no competition. One day, while Hazel and George are watching TV, a bulletin appears that states that Harrison has escaped from jail. The TV shows him coming into a ballet performance, and taking off his handicaps to dance with a ballerina. The sight was beautiful, but a government worker came in and killed Harrison. Hazel began crying, however the TV turned off and she couldn’t remember why she was crying. The theme of equality discussed in “Harrison Bergeron” branches out into various topics that have lots of relevance to this day such as gender equality, racial equality, and religious equality.

The issue of gender equality has brought much controversy throughout the course of history. Since centuries ago, women’s rights have been suppressed and they have had less rights than men. Feminist movements started during the enlightenment period and are still around today. “Global feminism has evolved around several key issues, including freedom from oppression and discrimination; equal access to economic, educational, and healthcare resources; and the power to control their own lives both inside and outside the home” (“Feminism”). These points have been brought up during the women’s march that takes place annually in Washington, D.C. Many other disputes about gender equality include those pertaining to job discrimination. A majority of the time, women are being paid less money than men for the same work being done, and they are being denied the opportunity to have the same higher-paying jobs as men (“Women’s Rights”). In certain third world countries, women are not able to work because they are not allowed to receive an education. This leads to a cycle of poverty throughout their lives. In the United States, gender equality issues are largely seen in politics because “in 2018 only 19.3 percent of the seats in the US House of Representatives were held by women, and only 22 percent of the seats in the Senate were held by women” (“Women’s Rights”). Women all around the world continue to fight for equality everyday in hopes of a better future not only for themselves, but for the generations yet to come.

The struggle for racial equality in the United States has been ongoing for centuries. Racism and racial equality movements such as “Black Lives Matter” are greatly talked about on the news and social media platforms. People are often judged by the color of their skin, and they are discriminated against in society. Luckily the conditions of African Americans in the United States has greatly improved after the Civil Rights Movement, but they are still not fully seen as equal to whites. “Racism came to national attention in the United States in 2014 and 2015, when numerous incidents of police brutality highlighted what some believed were the racist tactics of some police against African-Americans and other minorities” (“Racism”). Since these events, the Black Lives Matter movement has protested racial injustice and police violence against African Americans in the United States. In addition, minorities such as Hispanics are being discriminated because of the fact that they are immigrants. They are seen as lesser than American born citizens and are often paid less than them. Racial equality is a problem that should be solved so that everyone can have equal opportunities and not be judged by the color of their skin or their ethnicity.

America has always been the land with religious freedom, but does it have religious equality? Historical events such as the holocaust show that religious equality has been a problem since long ago and religious in-toleration is an issue in many third world countries. A religious study published in 2005 shows that Jews and Episcopalians continue to be the wealthiest and best educated Americans. The study also reports persistent inequality across religious lines in America (“Study Finds Persistent Religious Inequality”). Religious equality is a major problem in the Middle East because groups of people are being discriminated against and even killed because of the religion they choose to have. The persecution of religious minorities by ISIS is an attempt to create a religious state dominated by strict laws of Islam (“Islamic State of Iraq and Syria”). In other countries, there is a national religion that is practiced by the majority of its citizens, so if somebody follows another religion they are not equal to the rest of the population. People should be able to practice whichever religion they want freely and equally.

In summary the theme of equality that is portrayed in “Harrison Bergeron” can be seen in society today. This theme branches out into various topics such as gender equality, racial equality, and religious equality. Although some may think that everyone on Earth is equal, not everything is exactly how it seems. People around the world should unite as one and fight for the equality that everyone deserves.

Mathematical Games, Math Anxiety And Academic Performance

Students in whatever grade level maybe, games are part of them. Most of their time consumes playing games on their computers, internet, and even in their smart phone. But the few places they could not play games is in the school classrooms. Classroom teachers have gain idea with this thought on how to use game as part of their lessons so that everybody in the class would participate. There are proposal suggesting that students and teachers can become more comfortable and more successful with mathematics if they are exposed to meaningful activities that reinforce and extend their current knowledge. Almost everybody in the class would like to become a player to compete in the game. Teachers will have the opportunities to create math lessons to become more innovative with the use of game to inspire the students and to enjoy the challenge of learning mathematics.

Mathematical games as part of the lesson have been engaged for drill activities, practice exercises and motivations for the lessons. The efficiency and influence of the game as an instructional tool requires more study if the games are to be applied for teaching mathematics.

Marcus Guido in his article in a blog dated January 5,2017 said that playing math games has emerged as a way to make class engaging, but you must ensure these activities build skills and reinforce lesson content. “Gifford and Latham (2013) concluded that teachers hold the power to create, or remove, glass ceilings on children’s mathematical attainment. While Jave Mustafam, Alam Khan,Atta Ullah, 2011 said that games are considered to be unavoidable factor for enhancing and accelerating the teaching process. Because games can be used as a tool in the classroom to engage students (Mustafam J. Khan. A, Ullah, 2011).

From another perspective, gaming experience has also been recommended and incorporated to support and enrich the learning process (Hsu & Wang, 2010). The game has an important place in children’s thinking on the numbers and initiating and maintaining mathematical communication (TrawickSmith, Swaminathan, & Liu, 2016). The game has an important place in children’s thinking on the numbers and initiating and maintaining mathematical communication (TrawickSmith, Swaminathan, & Liu, 2016). As long as the game based approaches are used in classrooms, the mathematical consciousness of children is expected to increase (Marcus, Perry, Dockett, & MacDonald, 2016).

Game playing was not only a fun process but also a learning opportunity for students to use their mathematics. Mathematics as a hard subject for many students find a way to remove this conception through the use of games employing lessons in mathematics.

Math anxiety is destructive to success in mathematics. Fear in mathematics subject results in avoiding the subject itself and all related activities in school. Because of this factor students’ performance suffers. For these individuals, avoiding mathematics is as natural a response as avoiding pain, since, to them, even the mere anticipation of being confronted with a mathematical problem can be painful (Lyons and Beilock, 2012). Math anxiety may have an effect on math performance at several different levels. Firstly, evidence suggests that people with math anxiety are less willing to engage with math tasks at all ( Carey, E., Hill, F., Devine, A., & Szucs, D. 2017).

The teachers’ use of games and creative pedagogical applications might be helpful for enhancing students’ attitudes towards mathematics (Afari, Aldridge, Fraser, & Khine, 2013). Math is an important subject in school. It teaches us to understand and calculate numbers, helps us to logical thinking and analyzing. Sometimes math can be boring. It is great if we can make math fun for students, so that they will enjoy learning this important subject. If children play a math game at school or at home without reflection afterwards, then chances are they have wasted an opportunity for learning. (Dr Catherine Attard, April 12, 2015). Similarly, a student who has been reluctant to study math in the traditional way could be assigned to a study group that is playing or coding games. Educators should deploy alternatives to engage various learning types (Chorianopoulos & Giannakos, 2014).

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