Evolution Of The Arthurian Legend Sample College Essay

Comparing the earliest renditions of the Arthurian legend by Bede with the development of the legend in Geoffrey of Monmouth provides valuable insights into the tale’s evolution and the changes that occur. Bede’s historical account, found in his work “Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum” (Ecclesiastical History of the English People), and Geoffrey of Monmouth’s “Historia Regum Britanniae” (History of the Kings of Britain) are two significant texts that shed light on the transformation of the Arthurian legend.

Bede, a historian of the 8th century, offers a concise and restrained portrayal of Arthur in his work “Historia ecclesiastica.” Bede briefly acknowledges Arthur as a military leader who bravely opposed the Anglo-Saxons during the 6th century. Within this account, Bede primarily emphasizes Arthur’s military accomplishments, presenting him as a noble and courageous figure who courageously defended the Britons against their adversaries. Bede’s portrayal centers on Arthur’s role as a defender of his people, as he mentions, “Arthur, with all the kings of the Britons, fought against the Saxons” (Bede 115). Bede’s deliberate brevity and absence of embellishments highlight his intention to focus on Arthur’s historical significance rather than delve into the legendary aspects that would later define the Arthurian tale.

In contrast, a 12th-century writer, Geoffrey of Monmouth, offers a sweeping and embellished account of Arthur’s life and extraordinary achievements in his magnum opus, “Historia Regum Britanniae.” Within this literary work, Geoffrey introduces Arthur as an iconic and legendary king, delving deep into the intricacies of his lineage, birth, upbringing, and myriad adventures. With a masterful stroke, Geoffrey weaves together a tapestry of Arthur’s origin and destiny. Geoffrey’s narrative unfolds with the tale of Arthur’s extraordinary conception, resulting from the passionate union between Uther Pendragon and Igraine. It is through this union that Arthur is born, a child of prophecy and destiny.

Furthermore, Geoffrey takes great care to detail Arthur’s upbringing under the guidance of Sir Ector, an essential figure in the young prince’s life. This emphasis on Arthur’s early years establishes his humble beginnings and portrays him as a figure who rises above his circumstances to fulfill his momentous destiny. Within the pages of “Historia Regum Britanniae,” Arthur emerges as a messianic figure divinely ordained to restore Britain to its former glory. Geoffrey imbues Arthur with a sense of divine purpose, casting him as the savior of the British people. This sacred mission is interwoven into the fabric of Arthur’s character, shaping his motivations and actions throughout the narrative. Geoffrey’s portrayal of Arthur as a messianic figure adds depth to the legend and reflects the religious and spiritual sentiments of the medieval period. Geoffrey’s comprehensive account of Arthur’s life, from his lineage and upbringing to his destined role as Britain’s restorer, showcases the author’s ability to breathe new life into the legend. The embellishments and expansions introduced by Geoffrey contribute to the transformation of Arthur into an iconic figure whose exploits resonate with readers across centuries. Through his adept storytelling, Geoffrey immortalizes Arthur as a legendary king, encompassing his human attributes and extraordinary destiny.

Geoffrey’s Arthurian narrative immerses readers in a world brimming with enchantment as fantastical elements and supernatural occurrences take center stage. Within the tapestry of his work, Geoffrey weaves a rich fabric that includes iconic elements such as Arthur’s renowned sword Excalibur, the enigmatic Lady of the Lake, and the enchanter of great renown, Merlin, who assumes a pivotal role in shaping Arthur’s extraordinary life. Excalibur, Arthur’s legendary sword, assumes a mythical significance within Geoffrey’s narrative. It is portrayed as a weapon of immense power bestowed upon Arthur by the mystical Lady of the Lake. This mystical sword becomes an emblem of Arthur’s authority and a testament to his destined greatness. By introducing Excalibur into the narrative, Geoffrey adds a tangible link between Arthur and the mystical realm, heightening the otherworldly grandeur surrounding the legendary king. The Lady of the Lake, a figure shrouded in mystique and ethereal beauty, emerges as a key character in Arthurian lore as presented by Geoffrey. She bestows upon Arthur the majestic Excalibur, raising him to a divine realm of kingship. Her role as an otherworldly bestower of gifts accentuates the magical aura that permeates the Arthurian legend. Her presence adds an element of wonder and mystery to the narrative, elevating Arthur’s story beyond the boundaries of the mundane and into the realm of the extraordinary.

However, no character is as intricately intertwined with Arthur’s destiny as the wizard Merlin. Geoffrey’s narrative casts Merlin as the mastermind behind the events that shape Arthur’s life. Merlin guides Arthur through his prophetic abilities and remarkable magical prowess, ensuring the young king fulfills his divine purpose. Geoffrey explicitly references Merlin’s intervention, stating, “Merlin had the stone set up in its proper place. It is the stone which men call the Giant’s Dance” (Geoffrey 68). This passage highlights Merlin’s instrumental role in the placement of the famous stone, which will later play a significant part in Arthur’s ascent to power. Merlin’s presence in the tale adds an element of mystery and wisdom, infusing the narrative with an air of enchantment and supernatural guidance. Geoffrey amplifies the fantastical nature of the Arthurian legend by including magical elements and the pivotal role played by characters such as Excalibur, the Lady of the Lake, and Merlin. Carefully woven into the narrative, these elements transport readers into a world where the boundaries between reality and myth blur. They contribute to the enduring allure and timeless appeal of Arthurian literature, captivating audiences across generations with a sense of wonder and a yearning for the extraordinary.

Furthermore, Geoffrey expands the scope of Arthur’s conquests beyond Bede’s account. He depicts Arthur as a powerful conqueror who leads successful campaigns against various European nations, such as the Romans and the Gauls. Geoffrey writes, “He subdued Norway, Denmark, and Germany, and brought the islands of the Ocean under his control” (Geoffrey 91). This grandiose portrayal of Arthur’s military conquests amplifies his heroic and legendary status.

The tone and structure of the Arthurian tale undergo significant changes as it moves from Bede’s historical account to Geoffrey’s explicitly literary narrative. Bede’s tone is scholarly and objective, presenting Arthur as a historical figure, while Geoffrey’s is infused with grandeur, fantasy, and a sense of nationalistic pride. Geoffrey’s work blurs the line between history and legend, weaving a captivating tapestry of heroism and chivalry.

The character of Arthur evolves from a historical figure in Bede’s account to a legendary hero in Geoffrey’s narrative. Bede’s Arthur is primarily a warrior leader defending his people, while Geoffrey’s Arthur becomes a symbol of British national identity and a larger-than-life figure. Geoffrey’s inclusion of magical elements, noble lineage, and supernatural aids transforms Arthur into a legendary king. These changes are intriguing as they reflect the cultural and literary shifts over the centuries. Arthur transitions from a historical figure to a mythical hero, embodying the medieval readership’s aspirations, values, and desires.

Works Cited

Bede, Saint. Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of England. Createspace Independent Publishing Platform, 2017.

Geoffrey of Monmouth. The History of the Kings of Britain: Including the Stories of King Arthur and the Prophesies of Merlin. Gottfried & Fritz,

Association Of American Sign Language (ASL) Culture And Nursing Essay Example

Introduction

Nurses provide healthcare services to patients in clinics, homes, schools, the military, churches, communities, and emergency medical helicopters. Most patients expect nurses to communicate effectively, be culturally competent, and provide quality and safe care. However, when nurses are assigned to care for deaf patients, the issue of cultural incompetence becomes more apparent (Pendergrass et al., 2017). The problem is that some nurses could be unfamiliar with ASL culture. Also, communication is a crucial nursing skill that all nurses are expected to learn in nursing school.

On the contrary, the nursing programs’ course content rarely educates nurses on effective communication with deaf patients. The relationship between a nurse and a patient largely depends on effective communication. Unfortunately, most nurses are not effectively prepared and trained on the issues of cultural competency, thus making it difficult for them to handle deaf patients. Consequently, because of this cultural incompetence, deaf patients cannot access quality healthcare services that would otherwise improve their health outcomes.

In contrast, registered nurses (RNs) trained using educational tool kits are in a better position to understand the needs of deaf patients. They thus can communicate effectively, improving their health outcomes. The deaf community can be termed as cultural-linguistic minorities affected by similar health disparities mainly because the community of healthcare professionals fails to understand their ASL culture. Regardless of race, sexual orientation, ethnicity, gender, physical disabilities, language, or education should not impede effective communication between nurses and their patients (Richardson, 2014). Notably, it has been identified that most nurses are often anxious when handling deaf patients, mainly because they have not familiarized themselves with the culture. Surprisingly, nurses are the first care respondents, especially in healthcare emergencies in a healthcare facility. In addition, some nurses are biased toward deaf patients, which significantly affects the quality of patient care because of the misunderstanding of the American sign language (ASL) culture.

Prevalent Healthcare Beliefs and Needs of ASL Culture

ASL culture comprises a diverse community with many needs and beliefs. Although it is essential to recognize and understand that individual needs and beliefs may differ, several prevalent healthcare needs and beliefs are associated with ASL culture. One of the basic needs is visual communication. It is crucial to recognize that deaf individuals depend heavily on visual communication, such as sign language, body language, and facial expressions (Wright & Reese, 2015). Deaf patients prefer healthcare providers with significant skills in sign language or those capable of enhancing communication with the help of visual aids. In addition, deaf patients value language access, which promotes effective communication in healthcare settings. In most cases, deaf patients may require the assistance of a qualified sign language interpreter or other means of communication support, including remote video interpreting or video relay services to facilitate communication with their nurses. Adequate language access allows deaf individuals to understand their diagnosis, preventive measures, treatment options, disease management, and healthcare instructions.

Moreover, it is essential to be culturally sensitive because the deaf culture has unique traditions, customs, and norms. It is crucial that nurses demonstrate some sense of cultural sensitivity and always respect the ASL culture. In essence, nurses are expected to value and recognize ASL language as a distinct culture and understand the significance of the deaf community and identity. Also, the deaf community constantly advocates for accessibility and inclusion in healthcare settings (Lesch et al., 2019). Healthcare facilities should ensure they are well equipped with visual notifications, alarms, clear signage, sign language interpretation, videos with captions, and clearly written materials. In addition, nurses should respect deaf autonomy and identity because some deaf patients do not consider their deafness as a disability but as a cultural identity. They may prioritize independent decision-making and autonomy regarding their healthcare, including issues related to treatment, medical interventions, and communication preferences.

Furthermore, it is crucial to prioritize health literacy because deaf patients may possess varying understanding levels, just like any population. Therefore, nurses should provide health information in formats that are easily accessible to deaf patients depending on their literacy levels. Clear explanations, visual aids, clearly written materials, and ASL interpretation can play a crucial role in helping deaf patients understand their health and empowering them to participate in matters of their health actively (Sirch et al., 2017). Finally, community support is crucial as most deaf individuals find support and empowerment within their deaf community. Some deaf patients may prefer the support of individuals who are familiar with and understand ASL culture. Having a better grasp of these healthcare needs and beliefs can encourage nurses to provide patient-centered care aimed at improving the healthcare experience of deaf patients.

How ASL culture s Lifestyle Affects Their Health

ASL culture and lifestyle can significantly impact the health and life of deaf individuals. For example, communication barriers can deny deaf patients access to quality and safe healthcare services. Communication difficulties with nurses can lead to misdiagnosis, misunderstandings, and inadequate treatment. Also, limited access to educational resources and health information can impact preventive measures and understanding of health issues (Emond et al., 2015). Secondly is the issue of health disparities.

In most cases, deaf patients experience health disparities such as lower health literacy rates, reduced access to quality and safe healthcare services, and higher chronic condition rates. These outcomes can be associated with a lack of linguistically and culturally appropriate healthcare, financial barriers, reduced staffing of sign language interpreters, and discriminatory practices. In addition, deaf patients often experience more mental health challenges primarily associated with communication and language barriers, inadequate mental health services, and social isolation. As such, compared to the general population, deaf patients have a prevalence of mental health disorders such as anxiety and depression. They also experience limited health promotion because ASL culture influences health behaviors and practices.

Deaf patients lack quality exposure to health promotion forums, workshops, campaigns, and resources due to issues associated with accessibility and inadequate information specifically targeting the deaf community. Consequently, these aspects negatively impact their engagement and knowledge of healthy lifestyle choices and preventive measures. Moreover, deaf individuals have a strong self-advocacy and cultural identity that enables them to prioritize autonomy in healthcare settings. Therefore, they are more influenced by their treatment choices, healthcare decisions, engagement, and association with healthcare providers (Mahdavi et al., 2017). As such, most prefer assistance from nurses who respect their communication preferences and cultural identity and those knowledgeable about ASL culture. In addition, ASL culture places greater emphasis on community solidarity and support. Supportive communities are essential because they link deaf patients to access to information, social connections, and resources, thus improving their overall health and well-being.

Cultural And Communication Considerations That Should Be Taken When Caring for Individuals from ASL Culture

ASL culture emphasizes effective communication and vital culturally sensitive care when caring for deaf individuals. Cultural considerations demand respecting and recognizing the deaf identity, as some deaf patients do not consider their deafness a disability but rather a cultural and linguistic difference. It is, therefore, essential to avoid focusing on correcting and fixing their deafness (Hommes et al., 2018). Nurses are expected to demonstrate some level of cultural sensitivity and be open-minded. As such, nurses should value ASL culture, norms, and customs and be willing to learn the language, culture, and communication preferences.

In addition, it is crucial to involve deaf patients in discussions regarding their treatment options, supporting their decisions, and obtaining informed consent. Moreover, nurses should appreciate community involvement, facilitate, and encourage connections of deaf patients to community resources and support groups that can provide helpful additional and supportive information. Furthermore, nurses must consider communication and accessibility considerations. Nurses proficient in sign language should use it when communicating with deaf patients (Kuenburg et al., 2016). While communicating, minimizing visual distractions, maintaining good lighting, and maintaining eye contact with the patient is good. Also, nurses must remain respectful, attentive, and patient during communication. Avoid unnecessary interruptions and allow patients time to express themselves accordingly. It is equally important to note the cultural differences and communication styles, such as body language and eye contact.

Health Disparities That Should Be Considered for The ASL Culture Related to Communication

Deaf individuals may be subjected to significant limitations when accessing communication. Communication barriers may need to be clarified for effective communication with healthcare providers. These barriers may emanate from insufficient nurses who can communicate fluently using sign language or must be aware of ASL culture. The need for qualified personnel to interpret or provide supportive communication can result in misdiagnosis, inadequate medical information, and suboptimal care (Emond et al., 2015). In addition, communication barriers can lead to incomplete or delayed diagnosis of deaf patients. Difficulties in effectively giving a medical history, conveying symptoms, and other concerns can lead to understanding or missing information, resulting in accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment and preventive planning.

Moreover, deaf individuals have limited health literacy levels, which, coupled with communication barriers, can limit access to health information. The effects could be better comprehension of medical procedures, terminologies, and health-promoting practices and behaviors. Limited levels of health literacy significantly contribute to difficulties associated with managing chronic illnesses, following treatment plans, and making poor healthcare decisions.

Furthermore, communication challenges can cause reduced preventive care among deaf patients. Besides, limited information about preventive measures, like vaccinations, screenings, and health promotion campaigns, can all result in reduced preventive care. Additionally, deaf individuals could face challenges when giving informed consent because of communication barriers (Sirch et al., 2017). The lack of practical communication disadvantages deaf patients because they cannot fully grasp the benefits and risks of alternative medical treatment and procedures. More understanding of informed consent can be needed when making informed decisions regarding their health, resulting in better healthcare services.

How ASL Culture Communicates with Their Healthcare Providers and Whether It Impacts Their Care

Deaf individuals often communicate with healthcare providers through various methods, primarily counting on visual communication. ASL is the primary communication method deaf patients use to communicate with their healthcare providers. It becomes more effective if healthcare providers are conversant with ASL or have qualified ASL interpreters (Lesch et al., 2019). Effective communication in ASL allows nuanced and precise discussions regarding the symptoms, treatment options, medical history, and follow-up of healthcare instructions. Deaf patients who can communicate directly and comfortably in their preferred language positively impact their health and overall well-being. Nurses and deaf patients can also communicate through written communication. Healthcare providers can use medical forms, written instructions, and notes to convey information.

However, it is imperative to note that this mode of communication cannot be sufficient because deaf individuals have different literacy levels, and some may struggle to understand complex medical terminology. Likewise, clarifications may not be possible, as in the case of ASL interaction. Finally, deaf patients and healthcare providers can use assistive communication technologies. Assistive technologies are crucial in enhancing communication. A good example is remote video interpreting (VPI) and video relay services (VRS) which use real-time communication and thus can be interpreted via video calls (Wright & Reese, 2015). Although assistive communication technologies are essential in bridging communication between healthcare providers and deaf individuals, particularly those who do not have sign language skills, their reliability and availability may vary or be readily available, or their suitability may not support all healthcare interactions.

Conclusion

Nurses provide for patients in clinics, homes, schools, the military, churches, communities, and emergency medical helicopters. Most patients expect nurses to communicate effectively, to be culturally competent, and to offer high-quality, safe care. When nurses are assigned to care for deaf patients, however, the issue of cultural ineptitude becomes more apparent. The issue is that some nurses may need to be more familiar with ASL culture. Furthermore, communication is a critical nursing skill that all nurses must master in nursing school. The deaf population is a cultural-linguistic minority that suffers from similar health inequities, partly because the healthcare community does not comprehend their ASL culture. Regardless of race, sexual orientation, ethnicity, gender, physical impairments, language, or education, nurses and their patients should be able to communicate effectively.

References

Emond, A., Ridd, M., Sutherland, H., Allsop, L., Alexander, A., & Kyle, J. (2015). Access to primary care affects the health of Deaf people. British Journal of General Practice65(631), 95–96.

Hommes, R. E., Borash, A. I., Hartwig, K., & DeGracia, D. (2018). American Sign Language interpreters perceptions of barriers to healthcare communication in deaf and hard-of-hearing patients. Journal of community health43, 956-961.

Kuenburg, A., Fellinger, P., & Fellinger, J. (2016). Health care access among deaf people. The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education21(1), 1-10.

Lesch, H., Burcher, K., Wharton, T., Chapple, R., & Chapple, K. (2019). Barriers to healthcare services and support for signing deaf older adults. Rehabilitation Psychology64(2), 237.

Mahdavi, R., Bagheri asl, A., Abadi, M. A. J., & Namazi, N. (2017). Perceived barriers to following dietary recommendations in hypertensive patients. Journal of the American College of Nutrition36(3), 193-199.

Pendergrass, K. M., Nemeth, L., Newman, S. D., Jenkins, C. M., & Jones, E. G. (2017). Nurse practitioner perceptions of barriers and facilitators in providing health care for deaf American Sign Language users: A qualitative socio‐ecological approach. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners29(6), 316–323.

Richardson, K. J. (2014). Deaf culture: Competencies and best practices. The nurse practitioner39(5), 20–28.

Sirch, L., Salvador, L., & Palese, A. (2017). Communication difficulties experienced by deaf male patients during their in‐hospital stay: findings from a qualitative descriptive study. Scandinavian Journal of caring sciences31(2), 368-377.

Wright, G. W., & Reese, R. J. (2015). Strengthening cultural sensitivity in mental health counseling for deaf clients. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development43(4), 275–287.

Biden’s Speech Analysis Essay Example

The united states president should deliver a union address, often abbreviated as (SOTU). It involves the president’s annual speech and delivery of the message to the joint session of the united states Congress near the beginning of most calendar years on the contemporary state of the Nation. The announcement of the president usually involves addressing the most crucial issues facing the citizens while at the same time offering suggestions and ideas on how to address the problem and the new proposed laws a policy direction. President Biden directly addressed the American citizens on February seven about the historical progress of the Nation based on past facts, the current situation, and what was projected in the future progress of the Nation.

In his speech, President Biden focused on the need to bring the country together, rebuild the economy for the better and create an equitable environment for all the country’s citizens. Joe Biden’s speech focused more on the current situation in America, especially the impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic (The White House, 2023). He further emphasized and encouraged the citizens to take responsibility for their health and safety. According to Biden, COVID–19 can be described to be the latest threat to their democracy since the civil war ended. He analyses how the pandemic impacted their education system and business two years back and finally robbed a lot of the citizens.

To a great extent, Biden starts his speech by expressing his higher gratitude to the medical professionals and other essential workers who worked hard to keep the country secure during the tough times (The White House, 2023). The speech highlights the concerns and role of equality and economic justice as the basis for the poly recommendation (The White House, 2023). He notes the need to address the gap between the rich and the poor, thus ensuring the overall welfare of American citizens. Biden proposes to address equality, where the wealthiest should be tasked more than the average and poor citizens. The revenue should thus be invested in education, health needs, and infrastructure. In his speech, he promises to ensure social justice for all citizens of America regardless of race, gender, religion, or any other aspects of discrimination (The White House, 2023)

Several guests were invited to attend the Union address by the White House because each of them tended to personify issues and themes to be addressed during the Biden speech. Others were representations of the Biden – Harris Administration’s policies at work for the American citizens. Both the second Gentleman and Mr. Douglas and the first lady were present at the speech. Maurice and Kandice Barron were invited as critical guests (The White House, 2023). Barron was the three-year daughter who was a survivor of pediatric cancer. She represented gratitude for President Biden’s striving to counter the impacts of cancer. It was a story to give people impacted by cancer hope and possibility in the fight against the increasing rate of instances of cancer. Another guest Lynette Bonar was enrolled as a member of the Navajo Nation and joined the speech and the opening of the Tuba City Regional Health Care Corporation’s Specialty Care Center. The first cancer center opened on a Native American reservation. Bono (Dublin, Ireland) was a guest who is a groundbreaking activist In the fight against HIV/AIDS and extreme poverty. Other guests included teachers, small business people, healthcare workers, and immigrants. The invitation of such people was crucial 6 to indicate the need for education, the provision of a conducive environment for business, the value of health care, and the role of the Biden administration in support of immigration reforms (The White House, 2023). The Biden selection for the event was suitable as it closely illustrated the values of the speech he delivered to the American citizens. By using them, he was in a position to pass the message of hope, courage, patriotism, and service to the public, and thus, the goal was achieved of policies proposals (The White House, 2023)

During the speech, Biden was able to build a bipartisan consensus in his state union address, and this can be noted by how he used a positive tone during the speech, avoiding partisan rhetoric and, more important, acknowledging the past. He spoke about unity and compromise, emphasizing the need to work together to achieve progress (The White House, 2023). Biden acknowledged the role of each of the parties in making progress in the Nation while at a distance, avoiding direct attack and blame on the actions of the opposition. He also precisely called for bipartisanship in infrastructure and immigration reform. He achieved in addressing the issues concerning the economy, creation of employment, and pulling up the living standards of all the citizens (The White House, 2023)

During the speech, Biden set an optimistic tone for the upcoming year by stressing the need for unity and the power of working together to make a better America (The White House, 2023). He encourages the citizens to stick together to address the country’s challenges while advancing to a better country. He promises potential rewards for those who hold hands together in continuing to make America a more fantastic place to live in. He sets an optimistic tone for the new year by emphasizing resilience and togetherness in fighting the challenges. He makes the American fully feel to be part of the great America (The White House, 2023)

Biden successfully delivered the Union address both visually and vocally. He applied tone variation during his speech to drive emotions where possible and emphasized them on different occasions. He effectively pauses to convey meaning and message depending on the guests’ moods (The White House, 2023). Biden’s nonverbal style was also effective, as he used gestures, facial expressions, and general movement to add emphasis and emotion to his speech. Biden’s speech was effective, as he made a case for his values, policies, and initiatives while attempting to build a bipartisan consensus. President Biden’s State of the Union address was powerful and inspirational. He was able to effectively craft his values, identify targeted issues, and offer policy suggestions (The White House, 2023)

In his speech, President Biden focused on the need to bring the country together, rebuild the economy, and create an equitable future for all Americans (The White House, 2023). Biden emphasized the need for unity by noting that the Nation’s strength lies in its diversity and that no one should be left behind. He was passionate about addressing the worker’s needs and the programs in place to create more jobs. As well as discussed closely international issues like inflation and the war in Ukraine, which interfered with the economy. He also discussed the need to address systemic racism, inequality, and healthcare and education’s importance. Biden spoke about the need to protect American democracy by ensuring the integrity of elections, protecting voting rights, and rejecting efforts to divide the Nation.

Work Cited

Shogan, C.J. & Neale, T.H. (December 7, 2012). The President’s State of the Union Address:

Tradition, Function, and Policy Implications. UNT Digital Library – University of North

Texas. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31328/

The White House. (2023, February 8). President Biden’s State of the Union Address [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gzcBTUvVp7M