Examining My Implicit Biases Free Essay

IAT Results Analysis

Before taking the Harvard’s Implicit Association Test (IAT), I considered myself as a person free of racism, even at the subconscious level. I used the IAT to measure my implicit attitudes at the unconscious level, and I was surprised by the results. Schlachter and Rolf (2016) identify the IAT as a test that assesses the strength of associations between concepts, such as minority populations, and evaluations, including stereotypes. Social work professionals regularly interact with people from different backgrounds, cultures, and life experiences. As a result, I took IAT measures across race, ethnicity, religion, gender, sexuality, age, and ability. I was somehow surprised by the IAT results, especially after testing my implicit biases across different diversity levels. Before taking the implicit attitude test, I identified myself as African American/Black, Muslim, immigrant, single heterosexual female with a neutral political ideology. My cultural identity, including personalities, such as sex, race, nationality, sexuality, religious beliefs, and ethnicity, contribute to the implicit associations I have formed about members of other cultural or social groups.

The IAT included images of individuals from different cultural backgrounds, in conjunction with either a negative word or positive words. Marini et al. (2021) posit that when someone clicks quickly on a positive word attributed to a person of a particular race, the respondent possesses a stronger unconscious association. On the other hand, when an individual quickly clicks on the negative word every time they see an image of a particular race, it indicates that the respondent holds an implicit negative bias towards people of that race (Martini et al., 2021). Based on this assumption, I was surprised that I hold implicit negative biases towards individuals from different cultural backgrounds, including race, sexuality, political affiliation, and religion.

Although social work professionals focus on respecting and accepting cultural diversity, implicit bias often affect their decisions and judgements. In other words, my implicit biases may impact my objectivity by creating barriers to effective engagement with certain cultural groups. As an effective blind spot, it is difficult for me to see past my implicit biases, though they may influence my actions as a macro social work professional. According to Schlachter and Rolf (2016), unconscious bias reveals the origins of implicit attitudes and racial prejudices. Many factors impact prejudice and implicit biases, including physical differences, direct exposure to each other, media portrayal of different cultural groups, and the established norms and patterns of interactions among various cultural groups. Bandura’s social learning theory plays a vital role in helping people understand how the environment influences development of certain behaviors and attitudes towards individuals from different cultural groups (Ahn et al., 2019). Bandura’s theory suggests that social learning is passive and occurs subconsciously after repeated exposure (Ahn et al., 2019). After taking the IAT test, I realized that my ethnicity, religious affiliation, and gender influenced my beliefs and attitudes towards other people, particularly those we do not share similar cultural identity. Equally, I noticed that the popular and mass media have significantly influenced my perceptions towards people of certain social groups. Although I may feel that I embrace cultural diversity, I need to acknowledge that my cultural identity, personality, and environmental factors, such as friends and the media may promote implicit biases.

Dimensions of Oppression and Marginalization

Differences that are stigmatized and stereotyped can result in prejudice, oppression, and discrimination. Prejudice is based on preconceived stereotypes rather than reason or experience (Netting et al., 2017). Prejudice contributes to discrimination, which Banaji et al. (2021) identify as the prejudicial or unfair treatment of people or groups based on characteristics, such as race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, ability, and age. On the other hand, oppression is a complex, hegemonic, and multidimensional systems that sustains in-group superiority and privilege (Netting et al., 2017). Common systems of oppression that may influence my future clients and their communities are racism, ethnocentrism, classism, sexism, heterosexism, ageism, and ableism. Netting et al. (2017) identify issues experienced by macro social workers when they work with diverse population groups. For instance, the life expectancy of people of color lags behind that of the general population. Netting et al. (2017) noted that the leading cause of death among young men of color is homicide caused by systems of oppression and marginalization.

The four I’s of oppression that may influence my future clients, and their communities are ideological, internalized, interpersonal, and institutional. The “ideological” dimension includes the dominant narratives that promote prejudice against minority groups, such as Blacks and Latino. For instance, in the U.S., the oppressive system maintains the idea that the dominant “White” group is somehow better than minority groups and, in some measures, has the right to control the marginalized communities. Netting et al. (2017) identify some of the dominant narratives as “stronger, hand working, intelligent, noble, capable, deserving, advanced, and superior. On the other hand, the dominant group uses power and authority to promote negative stereotypes and ideologies for the minority groups, such as “lazy, worthless, stupid, weak, inferior, incompetent, and less deserving. Based on the IAT results, I believe that assessing institutional oppression may influence how I interact with my future clients and their communities.

Institutional oppression is demonstrated by how systems and institutions reinforce and manifest ideologies that promote explicit or implicit biases. As a macro social worker, my vision is to work with migrant, Black, and Latino communities experiencing marginalization and systemic racism. Institutional oppression may influence how I work with them in dismantling the reinforced ideologies that perpetuate prejudice and discrimination. Interpersonal oppression breeds both explicit and implicit biases. For instance, interpersonal sexism contributes to explicit/implicit sexual abuse or harassment of women and girls, such as making sexist jokes. Also, interpersonal racism contributes to individuals making racist jokes and stereotypes without thinking they hurt targeted individuals or groups. As a social worker, I need to appreciate that many individuals are not consciously oppressive but have internalized implicit biases and negative stereotypes that they consider normal when interacting with members of other social or cultural groups. Different populations experience oppressive conditions due to systemic discriminatory practices. To deal with racism, I need to work with people of color who have experienced systemic racism and marginalization. American racial biases permeate societal structures, institutional structures, and individual mental structures.

Cultural Competence and Cultural Humility

The U.S. is constantly undergoing major demographic changes, including shifts in the growth of Latino, Asian, Black, and other Native populations. The demographic changes challenge social workers to determine effective ways of engaging with culturally diverse populations. Diversity, more than ethnicity and race, includes the sociocultural experiences of individuals, including social class, national origin, color, immigration status, gender identity, age, marital status, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, and physical/physical/mental disabilities. Social work services include addressing culturally appropriate and competent interventions, such as racial identity formation for people of color, the interrelationship among race, ethnicity, class, and gender, and working with low-income families and older adults, including appreciating the importance of spirituality and religion in the lives of clients and their communities. Equally, cultural competency enables the social worker to engage diverse populations in empowerment, community building, challenging explicit and implicit biases, practicing cultural humility, and promoting culturally adapted interventions.

Cultural competence involves acknowledging and accepting differences in behavior, appearance, and culture. Netting et al. (2017) acknowledge cultural competence as a product and a process that includes self-awareness and respect for diversity. Six points on a continuum of cultural competence suggest a process of growth in practitioner and agency awareness, skills, and knowledge. The first part of the competency continuum is cultural destructiveness, which Netting et al. (2017) define as the biases, policies, and practices that are destructive to individuals within cultures. The second point along the cultural competence continuum is cultural incapacity. Netting et al. (2017) define cultural incapacity as the condition in which a person, system, or agency cannot help members of different ethnic or cultural groups, including lacking respect towards their beliefs and traditions. The third point is cultural blindness, which involves believing that culture does not play an important role in developing solutions targeted towards marginalized ethnic or cultural groups. Netting et al. (2017) identify cultural pre-competence as the condition in which a macro social worker, agency, or system acknowledges their cultural deficiencies and begins to address them through hiring or outreach practices. Cultural pre-competence contributes to cultural competence. Cultural competence occurs when a macro social worker accepts and respects cultural differences and expands cultural knowledge and resources, leading to cultural proficiency. Netting et al. (2017) posit that cultural proficiency occurs when a social worker holds culture in high esteem, increases cultural knowledge, and enhances cultural practice through research.

Cultural humility in professional identity encourages self-evolvement to bridge the social distance and power imbalances between social workers and their clients’ systems. McLeod et al. (2016) identify cultural humility as the attitude and practice of engaging clients at the micro, mezzo, and macro levels with humility while learning, communicating, and making culturally-adaptive interventions. Cultural humility is a goal for cross-cultural practice. One of the components of cultural humility is having a life-long commitment to self-evaluation and self-critic. According to Netting et al. (2017), lifelong commitment to self-evaluation and critique involves assessing implicit and explicit biases and attitudes that influence how a social worker views a person, group, or community. As a social worker, I will use cultural humility to reflect on how my past experiences with clients from marginalized communities may have influenced my perception towards them. Besides, cultural humility’s component of resolving power imbalances play a vital role in macro social work practice. As a social worker, this component helps me to establish and sustain relationships that acknowledge and equalize the power imbalances. The last component of cultural humility emphasizes incorporating the target community’s perspectives when forming a partnership to avoid conflicts. For instance, when working with Black clients, I will ask them how they perceive some of the implicit biases that may damage effective non-paternalistic partnerships. Identifying those biases and stereotypes play a vital role in reducing conflicts and developing culturally-adaptive interventions.


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Banaji, M. R., Fiske, S. T., & Massey, D. S. (2021). Systemic racism: Individuals and interactions, institutions and society. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications6(1), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41235-021-00349-3

Marini, M., Waterman, P. D., Breedlove, E., Chen, J. T., Testa, C., Reisner, S. L., Pardee, D. J., Mayer, K. H., & Krieger, N. (2021). The target/perpetrator brief-implicit association test (B-IAT): An implicit instrument for efficiently measuring discrimination based on race/ethnicity, sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, weight, and age. BMC Public Health21(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10171-7

McLeod, B. A., Gilmore, J., & Jones, J. T. (2016). Solutions to structural racism: One organization’s community-engaged approach in the aftermath of civil unrest. Social Work62(1), 77-79. https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/sww067

Netting, F. E., Kettner, P. M., McMurtry, S. L., & Thomas, M. L. (2016). Social work macro practice (6th ed.). Pearson.

Schlachter, S., & Rolf, S. (2016). Using the IAT: How do individuals respond to their results? International Journal of Social Research Methodology20(1), 77-92. https://doi.org/10.1080/13645579.2015.1117799

Importance Of Effective Banking Regulation And Supervision Essay Sample For College

Banking systems that don’t work well stymie economic development, aggravate poverty, and disrupt economies. In particular, a large body of research shows that well-functioning banks boost economic growth, which reduces poverty. Apart from that more recently there has been evidence of the financial crisis of a disruptive nature (Klomp, J., and De Haan, J. (2015).

Magnitude among recent crises, along with evidence of banking systems’ positive impacts on economic growth, has prompted demands for bank regulation and supervisory changes. There is a significant belief that bank “safety and soundness” would improve if policymakers in nations throughout the world implemented specific regulatory and supervisory methods, hence fostering growth and stability.

The central bank’s main responsibilities include supervising and regulating the operations of financial institutions. The financial sector can only play a full role in macroeconomic regulation and control, and monetary policy aims can be met easily if the power of supervision and regulation is effectively pursued and exercised. As a result, all central banks throughout the globe have placed a high priority on supervision and regulation, creating dedicated departments and staffing levels to support them.

The distinction between these two conceptions is critical. If regulation establishes the rules of the road, supervision assures adherence to those rules, as well as to standards that exist outside of them. The carefully orchestrated process of fostering public participation in the establishment of regulations is known as regulation. The practice of managing public and private responsibility for the hazards that the financial system creates is known as supervision.

While banking and financial institutions play a vital role in helping economic progress by gathering and allocating resources to those who require them, they may also cause financial instability in the economy. Because this is a sensitive and delicate business, banking supervision is essential to monitor the banking system to identify and measure risks to safeguard not only financial institutions but also clients from a contagious risk that would occur if there was no warning. Furthermore, banking oversight is created to shield depositors from needless losses, therefore adding to financial system credibility.

While making supervisions on banks and entities that are similar to banks the supervising entities tend to ensure that during the supervisory period banks maintain financial sound practices. Among the things that can make a supervisory body compel banks to modify or get sold or collapse is when they discover that the bank is operating on very dangerous loans or that their bank net worth is way too low and may be negative.

The purpose of bank regulation is mostly to ensure that banks can stay in business by not engaging in behaviors that are way too risky. Some of the examples of regulation include the limiting of the investments that a bank can place itself in, requirements of capital nature, and requirements of reserve nature. To ensure a bank stays afloat its net worth should be positive when it is not it is regarded as insolvent or bankrupt which implies that it may not be able to cover its expenditures or commitments using its asserts (World Bank 2019). This can also be termed as bank capital which is defined as the space or gap in between the bank’s credits and liabilities and the value of the assets belonging to the bank.

It is important to understand that bank supervision can be used as an important tool towards measuring the growth of a bank which also enables it to be utilized as an anticipatory factor towards a long term economic growth of a country and also used in the assessing of society savings towards a private firm. Even in countries that may have accounting and legal policies that are not proper, supervisory policies may be used as a tool by the public sector to monitor the levels of bank development. Strong government supervision, on the other hand, has a negative influence on bank development, according to (Shleifer and Vishny’s, 1998) results.

The financial stability of an economy is relied on to ensure a smooth-running economy. The bank failure is very expensive to a real economy one good example of this is the 2007-2008 financial crisis that affected the global financial markets. To concentrate on the stability of a financial system, it is necessary to ensure the soundness and safety of particular individual institutions (Bermpei et al 2018). One view is micro, focusing on a particular institution, while the other is macro, looking at the entire system. In any case, the basic objectives of bank regulation are to protect the safety and soundness of individual institutions as well as the stability of the system as a whole.

There exist reasons why there is emphasis by certain theoretical models to ensure the benefits of giving some considerable authority to supervisors. The reasons include; first, it is quite very difficult and expensive to manage. Therefore sometimes banks may become less monitored which leads to poor performance and engagement of risky behaviors. This can very well be salvaged ensuring mitigation and regulation by a government authority. Secondly supervision and regulation may serve the purpose of ensuring that banks do not get vulnerable to inequities of information. Thirdly it is evident that some nations globally have opted to engage in deposit insurance plans which is very dangerous because firstly it acts as an encouragement to the banks to take excessive loans and secondly may ensure that depositors are no longer able to supervise the banks in such circumstance bank supervision is essential to ensuring that banks are barred from engaging in quite risk-taking activities which would ultimately ensure bank development, stability, and good performance. (Carretta, et al 2015).

There are five main theoretical grounds for restricting bank activities and banking commerce linkages. First, conflicts of interest can arise when banks engage in operations such as securities underwriting, insurance underwriting, and real estate investment. For example, to assist firms with outstanding loans, such banks may try to “dump” shares on uneducated investors (John et al., 1994, and Saunders, 1985). Second, because moral hazard encourages risky behavior, enabling banks to engage in a wider range of activities gives them more chances to increase risk (Boyd et al., 1998). Third, keeping track of sophisticated banks is difficult. Fourth, such banks may become politically and economically strong enough to be “too big to regulate.” Finally, massive financial conglomerates can suffocate efficiency and competition. According to these viewpoints, governments may improve banking by restricting bank activities.

There are, however, theoretical arguments for allowing banks to engage in a variety of activities. For instance, fewer regulatory constraints allow for the utilization of size and scope economies (Claessens and Klingebiel, 2000). Second, fewer regulatory restrictions may improve a bank’s brand value, offering extra incentives for good activity. Finally, diversifying revenue streams may assist banks to become more stable by increasing their operations.


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Importance Of Promoting Community Participation For People With Intellectual Disabilities Essay Example For College

1.1 Social / community inclusion to people with an intellectual disability

The phrase “intellectual disability” belongs to a number of illnesses caused by genetic abnormalities and viruses. Intellectual disability is most commonly detected in childhood but has a long-term effect on a person’s development (What is Intellectual Disability?, 2022). It is characterized as a considerable reduction in one’s capacity to comprehend new or difficult data, develop new abilities, and manage independently, as well as social effectiveness. There are many different forms of intellectual disabilities, as there are with other impairment categories, with varied levels of intensity.

1.1.1 Social inclusion means that people:

  • Feel like they are part of something big.
  • Feel welcomed (for who they are).
  • Have important positions in the community and are actively involved in it.
  • Participate in activities that suit their unique tastes.
  • Have social interactions with people they choose and who share similar interests with them.
  • Have acquaintances.

1.1.2 Social barriers individuals with intellectual disabilities face and how to overcome them

Social impediments, also described as social determinants of wellness. They are elements that affect how humans are born, flourish, live, learn, earn, and age. This can result to lower productivity in persons with disabilities. Here are a few examples of social impediments:

  • Impaired folks have a lower chance of being employed. In 2016, 20.5 percent of persons with disabilities from 18 to 65 years were employed, compared to 80.5 percent of people without impairments, over twice as many as people with disabilities (World Health Organization).
  • Kids with disabilities have a high percentage of experiencing violence than normal children.
  • People with disability have low-income jobs compared to people without disabilities.
  • Most people living with disability have high chances of not attending schools compared to their normal peers.
  • Communication Barriers- Sometimes people with intellectual disabilities face hard times in their hearing, speaking, reading, writing, or comprehending face communication. They communicate in other different ways than people who do not have these limitations. Examples of communication barriers include written texts that a person with intellectual can not understand(Oliver, Munk and Stanton-Nichols, 2021).

1.2 The impact and effects of disability on the personal, community, and family level

1.2.1 Impact on family

Disability throws additional requirements or family model issues, majority of which continue a long time. The large number of these challenges are common, independent of the type of disability, the impaired person’s age, or the family dynamics in which the victim lives (Dreyfus and Dowse, 2018). There’s the expenses of drugs, education, and personal care, which all require purchases or hiring tools, creating house modifications, transport, medications, and special meals. The person (with the disability in this scenario) is there but family members are unsure if the person is indeed a member of the family or not. The daily pressure of giving care and support causes tiredness and stress, straining household members’ physical and moral stamina. Concern, shame, tension, rage, and confusion regarding the cause of the handicap, and so on are just a few of the factors that generate emotional burden. Grief hits at the beginning, and also at the various period during the person’s life cycle.

1.2.2 Impact on community

The phrase ‘community’ encapsulates the value of every person, including disabled persons. The presence of a community may facilitate greater transformation among folks of different kinds, cultures, backgrounds, and religions.

People with intellectual disabilities require great support from the community. The disabled person requires a high level of attention in society because of the available dangers. This gives community members a lot of pressure and stress (Paterson, 1993). People with intellectual disabilities may also be subjected to higher rates of abuse in society than the general population, necessitating additional support and a strong network.

1.2.3 Impact on a personal level

Living with a disability is difficult. The needs of disabled people can alter over time, and they may confront cognitive, social, and financial issues. Sometimes seemingly simple tasks like eating or reading books can become difficult or unachievable due to a person’s intellectual or physical limitations. People with intellectual disabilities are likely to have negative socio-economic results, like lack of proper education, poor healthcare, few job income, and high poverty levels.

2.1 Worldwide Care interventions methods available

The Health Service Executive offers varieties of programs for people diagnosed with intellectual, physiological, and sensing impairments, including autism. There are available basic medical care programs accessible, as well as diagnostics, treatment, revenue management, social care, and home care. The HSE provides some services directly to the patients. The HSE funds many of the training services provided voluntarily by organizations. The quality of service varies greatly across the country. Service Disability Managers have been chosen by HSE administrative areas to oversee the provision of utilities to individuals with disabilities.

2.1.1 Community service model of care intervention

Living in a community allows you to interact with a wider range of people, improve your quality of life, and expand your learning possibilities and it is the same case for people living with intellectual disabilities (ID). Persons with ID now have access to educational and community services (including post-secondary programs), work prospects, and additional independent lifestyle options (Halpern, 1992). This model of community service is available in Ireland.

2.2 Importance of promoting social inclusion and positive attitudes to people with disabilities.

Social inclusion for people with an intellectual disability is a critical defining factor of health. Without it, the affected are more prone to suffer from poor health (such as mental illness), loneliness, seclusion, and low self-esteem. For example, children who have a favorable attitude toward disabled peers are more likely to engage with them than children who have a negative attitude. As a result, increased exposure to people with impairments may result in a greater understanding and acceptance of disability. As a result, attitudes influence behavior, which in turn influences a person’s knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes (O’Brien and Rose, 2010). The most effective strategy for influencing children ‘s perspectives toward people with disabilities is to improve children’s understanding of disabilities and provide exposure to persons with impairments. Early intervention against the establishment of negative attitudes toward disability, according to developmental psychologists, is the optimum time to act before these attitudes and mindset patterns become well entrenched and impossible to modify.

3.1 Organization that provide service to people with Intellectual disability.

3.1.1 The Arc

The Arc is one of the US-based non-profit organizations helping people with disabilities. It is one of the largest community-based groups dedicated to advocating for the rights of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). The Arc advocates and protects persons with disability and developmental impairments’, and actively encourages their entire participation and engagement in society all their lives. It has also established schools for the people affected by the impairment bringing them together. It also talks to the community and teaches people how to live with their special needs hence giving them a positive attitude.

3.2 Advocacy and its role and importance in the lives of people with intellectual disability.

Advocacy is a way of standing up for a person, their interests, and their privileges. It may entail advocating in favor of the individual with a disability or assisting them in speaking up for themselves. Self-advocacy and representational advocacy are the two major components of advocacy. Representative advocacy entails an advocate standing up in favor of an organization or a person, whereas self-advocacy happens when an organization or an individual is competent in standing up for themselves.

Disability advocates are needed to give persons with sophisticated and specialized difficulties a voice and a forum from which to fight for their interests. Advocacy gives guidance and support to assure that:

  • Rights are respected.
  • Freedom and control are preserved, and individuals with disabilities have a say.
  • All needs and perspectives are communicated to the authorities, service providers, and the general public.
  • Right to make their policies and procedures to ensure that they receive equitable treatment and social justice.
  • This helps in making a big difference and improving the quality of their life.

4.1 Reflection on the positive and negative aspects of intellectual disability

Given the fact that advocacy is a fairly new notion in Ireland, it presents many obstacles. Despite this, several people stated that advocacy had improved the quality of life for some individuals with intellectual difficulties. Some people, on the other hand, continue to be the most disadvantaged group in the intellectual disability sector.

The following are the main issues raised:

  • The distinction between the medical and social models of disability.
  • Inadequate support from coworkers, relatives, and others.
  • Issues with attitude
  • Communication
  • There aren’t any impartial advocate services available.

4.2 Reflection on attitudes towards people with disabilities

My attitude towards people with intellectual disabilities has changed. I have learned that disabled people should be treated just like normal people and be treated with special care. They should have equal access to all necessary needs required in day to life. I have also learned how to promote positive mentalities and raise disability awareness by:

  • Using positive language.
  • Believing that the disabled person will succeed eventually.
  • Keeping thoughts focused on goals.
  • Accept helpful criticism with open arms.
  • In each situation assist people in need.

4.3 Recommendations

This section will summarise the dissertation’s results and make some significant suggestions for much more research in the domain of advocacy for individuals with intellectual disabilities in Ireland.

The following are some significant recommendations for future studies:

  • The test subjects were mostly drawn from basic data sources. To provide a more thorough understanding of the notion of advocacy in Ireland, a future recommendation would be to include additional people from other intellectual disability organizations.
  • Self-advocacy is frequently used as a type of advocacy. Examining the consequences of self-advocacy for individuals with physical, behavioral, and intellectual impairments in Ireland is one possibility.
  • People with disabilities should participate in research since it is a great instrument for giving relevant data as well as empowering individuals.
  • The community should set up more organizations for helping intellectual people since the organization work as a non-profit and require more funds to operate.
  • The government should provide further assistance to disabled job seekers. Experienced experts can assist disabled people in finding work, arranging training and getting higher education programs, and providing guidance on interview methods and CV making.
  • Members of society should build awareness programs to ensure that both parents and impaired individuals have the skills and tools they need to succeed (Silton, n.d.).

4.3.1 Areas of improving care for intellectually disabled people

Quality and care of people living with disability in Ireland would be improved by:

  • Giving more medical funds to the disabled.
  • Government training more health workers to treat the patients.
  • The caregivers use their language carefully to avoid hurting the disabled.
  • Giving them the best nutrition plans.

4.4 Conclusion

This paper’s general conclusion is that individuals with intellectual disabilities should be offered the chance to stand up about their fundamental rights and privileges (Flatt-Fultz and Phillips, 2012). Even though there have been many advancements in advocacy to date, there is indeed a great way to go until everyone learns. This study also explains how the development of disability disrupts and ruins social ties, requiring the impaired person and those close to him undertake a massive reconstruction project. As a result, disability introduces a completely new set of issues to most people. Because of the challenges caused by impairment, which must be rectified through rehabilitation, principles and objectives must be adjusted, and practices must be learned.

Upcoming research should concentrate on developing and supporting strategies that can improve the amount and value of social participation in our societies for individuals with intellectual and behavioral impairments.


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