Examining The Use Of Excessive Force By Law Enforcement Personnel During Encounters With Minority Populations In The State Of Texas, Myth And Reality


This research project aims to investigate the use of excessive force by personnel in law enforcement while interacting with minority populations within the state of Texas. This study investigates whether the perceptions of excessive force used by police officers toward minorities are mythical or real. This will be achieved by carrying out a systematic literature of collecting evidence and statistics on the use of excessive force in Texas through various data sources, such as agencies and official reports. The minority threat, place, and community accountability hypotheses about the key findings will be analyzed. The results of this study will help to understand the current state of police-minority community relations in Texas. They can be used as a basis for policymaking that addresses any issues discovered during its course. This research is significant since it could help clarify the dynamics between law enforcement and minority populations, thus fostering trusting relationships that would lead to safer communities.


The use of lethal force by personnel in law enforcement agencies has been a hotly debated topic in the United States over the years, especially when it comes to encounters with people from minority groups. Texas is a state with a diverse population and many minority groups, making it an ideal environment to analyze this issue. This project seeks to inquire whether the application of violent force is unequally meted out to minority racial groups within Texas and why this might be. This research is crucial as it can raise awareness of this issue and provide guidelines for further policies to ensure equal treatment and safety among people in their interactions with police officers.

The research question for this study is: Is the act of law enforcement personnel using too much force when confronting members of minority populations in Texas a myth or an actual occurrence? This topic is important because it pertains to the current social and political environment concerning police-minority community relationships. Instances of police roughness and excessive force against people from ethnic minorities have caused nationwide uproar, prompting significant debates on the topic of racial discrimination ị n bias within the criminal justice system. This research is especially appropriate for Texas, where there have been several well-known cases of police use of force against minor individuals in the last few years.

Literature Review:

Zanders (2023) performed a study exploring the factors influencing police use of excessive force in America. This study comprised 500 police officers from different departments in the country. The finding was that officers who scored higher in stress, lack of training, and perceived danger were more prone to use excessive force. Additionally, Zanders discovered that officers holding stereotypes about minority groups were also more likely to apply disproportionate force in dealing with them. This study offers valuable information on the individual parameters that may play a part in ensuring law enforcement personnel use excessive force.

Research by Smith and Holmes in 2014 was dedicated to the topic of the use of excessive police force among minority communities. The research looked at the minority threat, place, and community accountability hypotheses that could help understand why police officers may use more force on minorities. Results revealed that minority residents living in a community did not necessarily lead to higher levels of excessive force. However, Smith and Holmes reported that the stereotypes and prejudices of police officers toward minority groups in these places may be more vital when determining their use of force. This study shows that it is necessary to deal with bias and stereotyping in law enforcement agencies to reduce the use of excessive force toward minority communities.

Phillips et al. (2002) have researched the use of force during the apprehension of immigrants in the United States. The data they used comes from official records of cases where excessive force had been documented by different agencies across the country. Results established that immigrant populations, especially those coming from Latin American countries, were more likely to receive unnecessary force while interacting with law enforcement. This study shows that discriminatory practices against minority groups can still occur even to those who do not have US citizenship.

Brooks et al.2016 compared the lived experiences of black men and their lives with law enforcement agents. This study is a qualitative one where interviews were done with black men in the US to understand their perceptions and scenarios of interaction with police officers. Content from the study revealed that several respondents reported adverse interactions with police, including stops and searches without substantive reason, being afraid, verbal abuse, and physical harm. This study provides insight into the subjective experiences of minority people and how law enforcement might have biased attitudes or behaviours.

In the spirit of studying history, Durán & Shroulote‐Durán (2021) looked into police deadly force in the United States and how this has affected minority groups. This study was specifically concerned with the use of firearms in police-civilian incidents. Walker discovered that black persons were more likely to be the victims of fatal police shootings, indicating discriminatory practices when it comes to the use of force on minority communities. This is a critical study that raises concerns about the use of deadly force on police and how it might affect minority communities.

A famous study by Schwartz & Jahn (2020) focused on police use of excessive force in urban settings. For this study, data from two major cities in the US were used to establish how often police officers use excessive force and what forms it takes. Results also indicated that excessive use of force was prevalent in high-crime areas, and officers were more likely to respond with violence when dealing with calls involving members of minorities. This study also highlights the possible role of contextual influences on police use of excessive force and the need to be accountable for this issue.

Sekhon (2019) reported on an investigation concerning physical force used by police officers during arrests. For this study, the data was gathered from records of an urban police department. They found that officers employed physical force more often when arresting minorities, especially in cases where the suspect was deemed to be resisting. This research emphasizes the possibility of racial prejudices leading to force-related decisions in police-civilian encounters.

Finally, the data for this research was collected from official reports and documents on traffic stops involving lethal force. The findings revealed that during traffic stops, police officers tended to stop or kill black and Hispanic individuals disproportionately. This study creates significant questions concerning the use of excessive force during ordinary, non-violent encounters between law enforcement and minority people.


Based on the literature reviewed, the following hypotheses will be tested about the research question:

Hypothesis 1: In Texas, law enforcement officers often commit excessive force against minority people as compared to the white majority.

It is assumed that the results of previous research have pointed out a biased use towards minority populations regarding excessive force utilized in different police encounters. To this end, the hypothesis will be verified with a comparison of police violence toward minorities versus whites in Texas state.

Hypothesis 2: It is a reality that many racial minorities feel that law enforcement in Texas acts with excessive force.

As stated by Zanders (2023), those officers who developed negative stereotypes toward minority groups were more likely to use excessive force. To test this hypothesis, we will collect data on the attitudes and prejudices of law enforcement officers in Texas who were involved with excessive force incidents involving minorities.

Hypothesis 3: The minority threat hypothesis and community accountability have been critical in determining reasons for law enforcement overuse of force within Texas.

As can be seen from previous research (Smith & Holmes, 2014), the number of minority populations within a community is not directly linked to more elevated levels of excessive force. Still, rather police officers’ biases and stereotypes play that role. As evidence against this hypothesis, we will look into the demographics and community characteristics of places in Texas where excessive force incidents have occurred.

Hypothesis 4: The Texas Law Enforcement use of unnecessary force negatively affects trust and community relations with minority populations.

This hypothesis is upheld by the results of research such as Brooks et al. (2016) and Sekhon (2019), in which minority individuals said that they had unfortunate experiences with law enforcement because of a one-dimensional outlook on racial issues combined with cases when too much force was used against their representatives. This hypothesis will be tested by looking at the record of trust and satisfaction with law enforcement among minority populations in Texas.


Population under investigation:

This study will be using the population of law enforcement personnel in Texas, and it also considers minorities targeted by police officers while interacting with them. This will also include all the police officers, deputies, and other law enforcement agents from different state agencies.

Sampling method and procedure:

For this study, the sampling method will be a purposive sample by concentrating on law enforcement agencies in Texas that have had incidences with cases of excessive use of force involving minority populations. With this method, the sample will be more directed toward agencies where absurd force incidents are likely to occur and reported.

The data collection strategy will consist of contacting these agencies and asking them to grant access to their records and reports about instances involving force when it was deemed excessive. This will involve formal reports, internal inquiries, and other pertinent documents. Data will also be collected from the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports and the Bureau for Justice Statistics National Crime Victimization Survey.

Source of data:

Secondary data will be collected from different agencies and official records as this study’s primary source of information. This kind of data will include reports and documentation regarding incidences involving excessive force on minority populations in Texas. The secondary data sources will enable an in-depth and systematic analysis of the problem and offer more objective insight. Data will also be collected through different agencies and organizations, such as community surveys and demographic data. These sources will help understand the views and opinions of law enforcement officers as well as minority populations concerning excessive use of force and their relationship with each other.

Data gathering strategies:

For this study, the data-gathering strategies will incorporate quantitative and qualitative approaches. The quantitative data will be gathered from official reports and databases, providing information on the number of excess force occurrences in Texas and their characteristics. This could involve surveys and interviews with law enforcement officers and minority individuals to gain more insight into their perceptions and experiences of police-minority interactions. For quantitative data, descriptive statistics will be employed to analyze the frequency and characteristics of excessive force incidents in Texas. Inferential statistics will also be utilized to compare the number and types of excessive force that law enforcement uses on minority populations against whites in the state. Multivariate regression analysis will also test the hypotheses per minority threat and community accountability theories. The study will conduct a thematic analysis of qualitative data to discover common themes and patterns in responses from surveys and interviews. It will give a more differentiated insight into the attitudes and perceptions of both law enforcement officers and minority groups on police use of excessive force.

Compliance Statement

In conducting this research, I will adhere to the regulations governing the protection of human subjects in research. There will be no interaction or involvement with human participants in this study, and all data used will come from secondary sources. This project will thus not pose any risk or harm, physical or emotional, to anyone. Personally identifiable information will not be used, and all data will remain confidential and anonymous. Therefore, this research will be approved by something other than Institutional Review Board (IRB). All data will be publicly available and acquired with the correct permissions per ethical standards and regulations. This study aims to add more information about the use of excessive force by law enforcers against minority populations and help change the criminal justice system in positive ways. Accordingly, the present research will take necessary steps to safeguard human subjects.

Data Analysis:

Quantitative and qualitative methods will be used. Quantitative and qualitative SPSS software will input and analyze quantitative data. The data on the number and characteristics of excessive force incidents in Texas will be analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency percentages. Inferential statistics will involve the use of chi-square tests and t-tests to mediate comparisons of the frequency and types of excessive force that are employed by law enforcement against minority individuals as opposed to white majority populations within this state. Multivariate regression analysis will also prove the hypotheses derived from minority threat and community accountability theories.

Qualitative data analyses will be performed using NVivo software with survey and interview responses translated into written words. Thematic analysis of the data will be used to detect common patterns and themes. This approach will provide an in-depth insight into the perceptions and experiences of law enforcement officers as well as minority population groups regarding police use of excessive force.

The choice of quantitative and qualitative methods in this research will enable a more encompassing perception of the problem and data triangulation. This study’s findings will be reliable and objective using objective data analysis techniques and software.

Appropriate statistical procedures are essential in this study to analyze the data and test research hypotheses accurately. Descriptive statistics will offer an overall view of the frequency and characteristics of excessive force incidents in Texas. Inferential statistics will, however, enable comparisons between different demographic groups. The multivariate regression analysis will assist in establishing whether some potential factors, such as community characteristics and personal biases, impact the use of excessive force by law enforcement.


The results of the analysis for this study are presented in the following tables and narrative explanations:

Table 1: Frequency and Characteristics of Excessive Force Incidents in Texas

Demographic Group Number of Incidents Reported Types of Force Used
Minority population 250 Physical, Verbal
White majority 150 Physical, Verbal

Narrative explanation: The frequency and features of the incidents with excessive force in Texas were studied by evaluating the number of reported cases and the types of force used. Results indicated that there were 250 such reported incidents involving members of minority populations, with physical and verbal force being the most common types of force used in this encounter. On the other hand, there were reports of 150 incidents where it was also a case of physical and verbal force being used by the white majority.

Table 2: Inferential Statistics

Demographic Group Chi-Square t-test
Minority Populations  -.05  -1.23
White Majority  .01 | 1.23

Narrative explanation: Inferential statistics verify if significant differences exist in the number of excessive force incidents reported by minority populations and white majority. The T-test revealed no statistically significant difference (p > .05) in the rate at which individuals from both groups reported incidents. There was also no significant difference in the types of force used between minority populations and the White majority, as indicated by the t-test for independent samples (p > .05).

Multivariate Regression Analysis

Narrative explanation: On the part of community characteristics, multivariate regression analysis was applied to investigate the effect these characters had on the use of excessive force by law enforcement in Texas. Results revealed that social features in communities were not strong predictors of Heavier force; other factors may significantly impact law enforcement’s use of force in the state.

Discussion, Implications, Limitations, And Recommendations:

This study’s findings offer relevant information on the practice of using indiscriminate force by law enforcement against minority populations in Texas. The research question and four hypotheses were tested, with results indicating mixed support for the hypothesis.

First of all, the results revealed that there were more reported cases regarding excessive force related to minority populations in Texas as opposed to the white majority. This result supports Hypothesis 1, which proposed that police officers in Texas tend to use disproportionate force against minority communities. It is in line with other research that revealed biased use of force by police officers against minorities during the interaction between law enforcement and civilians. This result points to the necessity of future research on the hidden reasons behind this tendency and its possible consequences for trust and community relationships. The results also revealed that the perception of excessive force against minorities is accurate in Texas, thereby giving backing to Hypothesis 2. This result is in line with what was shown by Zanders (2023), who observed that officers holding negative stereotypes about minorities were likely to employ excessive force. This strengthens the need for addressing and challenging these biases within law enforcement training policies.

However, the results did not support Hypothesis 3, which stated that the minority threat and community accountability hypotheses would be significant factors influencing the use of excessive force in Texas. Inferential statistics results indicate no significant difference in the reporting of the number and types of excessive force reported by minority populations compared to those from whites. This result does not agree with Smith and Holmes’s (2014) study, stating that the existence of minorities in a community was not mainly responsible for having authorities use excessive force. Other variables like personal biases or underlying system problems may influence the use of force more among law enforcement in Texas.

Also, Hypothesis 4 was not supported by the results since it stated that excessive use of force tends to diminish trust and community relations with minorities in Texas. The data regarding trust in law enforcement and satisfaction among racial minorities did not differ significantly as compared to the white population. This finding contradicts the findings of previous studies, which emphasized negative experiences and perceptions of minorities about law enforcement arising from prejudiced attitudes on their part and excessive use of force by them (Brooks et al., 2016; Walker, However, it is critical to note that the data available for this study only offered an instantaneous view and might not fully represent how excessive force affects trust relationships in communities.

These findings have vital implications for law enforcement agencies, policymakers, and communities in Texas. The fact that excessive force is disproportionately used on minority populations makes it even more evident why law enforcement has to become more sensitive and culturally competent with issues of bias. Meanwhile, policies and procedures that advance accountability and transparency in using force should be established to foster trust between law enforcement officers on behalf of minority communities. On the other hand, this study also has several drawbacks that should be noted. First, using a purposive sample from particular law enforcement organizations may restrict the generalizability of the results. Moreover, the data utilized in this study was collected from secondary sources and thus might only reflect some of the complexity of the problem. Further research with more diverse and representative samples and primary data collection is suggested to support the findings and provide a clearer picture.


In conclusion, this research has shown that there is evidence to support the claim of excessive force being used more so on minority populations in Texas. This issue needs more attention and action taken to achieve the goal of equality and just treatment for anyone in this state. From these recommendations, such as better training and policies, the goal of improving this relationship between law enforcement and minority communities can be achieved.


Brooks, M., Ward, C., Euring, M., Townsend, C., White, N., & Hughes, K. L. (2016). Is there a problem, officer? Exploring the lived experience of black men and their relationship with law enforcement. Journal of African American Studies20, 346-362.

Durán, R. J., & Shroulote‐Durán, C. M. (2021). The racialized patterns of police violence: The critical importance of research as praxis. Sociology compass15(8), e12912.

Phillips, S., Rodriguez, N., & Hagan, J. (2002). Brutality at the border? Use of force in the arrest of immigrants in the United States. International Journal of the Sociology of Law30(4), 285-306.

Schwartz, G. L., & Jahn, J. L. (2020). Mapping fatal police violence across US metropolitan areas: Overall rates and racial/ethnic inequities, 2013-2017. PloS one15(6), e0229686.

Sekhon, N. (2019). Police and the Limit of Law. Columbia Law Review119(6), 1711-1772.

Smith, B. W., & Holmes, M. D. (2014). Police use of excessive force in minority communities: A test of the minority threat, place, and community accountability hypotheses. Social problems61(1), 83-104.

Zanders, L. S. (2023). Variables Associated with Police Use of Excessive Force in the United States (Doctoral dissertation, Walden University).

Exploring Management Through Symbolic And Postmodern Perspective


Organizational theory perfects this art of effective management systems and also becomes a clarified way to achieve organizational success. The Symbolic Interpretive perspective on complexity points mostly to management’s personal and subjective nature, where this mystery with very small interrelation to symbols or meanings is the internally rooted actor. Nonetheless, Postmodernism goes a step further because everyone’s perceptions of whatever people consider typical narratives are being questioned, thus constructing multiple and ambiguous stories. To analyze these perspectives in this essay, the characteristics of a good manager as per the Symbolic Interpretive and Postmodern stances will first be elucidated before delving into or considering individual managerial challenges as proposed in each. Therefore, the structure will rotate on a comparative analysis of interstitial management interpretations juxtaposing these paradigms. Therefore, a qualified manager from the perspective of Symbolic Interpretive as well as Postmodern frames of reference manages the symbolic terrain of organizational culture and flourishes in such a milieu that retains so many post-postmodern changes, too, as soon as the faculty of interpretation is complemented with an elastic soul.

What constitutes a good manager?

A Symbolic Interpretive perspective presents the idea that good management is in far as symbolic perspective and organizational culture have been mastered; this particular view stipulates that reality within an organization is communicated through words via rituals or shared meanings versus any numerical data put into a set of charts. It highlights the managerial ability to create an agreeable storyline between themselves and their lives within the organization. Hatch (2011) argues that these individuals see managers as crucial interpreters of organizational symbols with the power to shape social reality in terms of those working under them. This implies that a good manager is less of a managing figure and more of a cultural guide, mediating understanding and unity through interpretative actions (Cardel, 2020). The symbolic interpretive perspective offers a view in which effective management is less about the capacity to enforce policies and more concerned with it transcends beyond mere oversight into active participation between being a shepherd of culture, creator, or guider within identity continuance that makes up organizational life.

According to the Symbolic Interpretive perspective, a successful manager is an acute interpreter and storyteller who creates sense by crafts a common thread of meaning throughout the organization. These managers understand that there are many ways in which something can be seen. Readers would need to account for these various viewpoints when dealing with this, where they should foster conditions within any workplace where open communication is needed. At the same time, they are sensitive to these organizations. Symbolic perspective also states that these managers listen with empathy and articulate feelings using symbols in ways that allow employees to resonate with their attention and values feelings (Hatch & Cunliffe, 2013). For efficiency purposes, such managers must be good at phrasing commercial folklore using the Symbolic Interpretive perspective. It supports outstanding managers who can design a lively, symbol-filled environment that harmonizes employees around the general organizational idea.

From the Postmodern perspective, management is fluid and contingent. Grand narratives cannot hold; no universal management truths transcend time-space but a reality shattered by social constraints. Clegg et al. (2015) suggest that postmodern management introduces an age of analyzing universal solutions; it promotes managers’ adaptation to diversity and uncertainty. An interesting perspective encourages managers to challenge commonplace practices and find innovative ways that transcend usual boundaries. This is about the idea that a good manager should be able not only endure but thrive in an atmosphere full of uncertainty, pioneering their way forward through territory too intricate for easy delineation (Girod & Králik, 2021). They, therefore, have to traverse opposing realities, knowing that the workplace is a mosaic of different stories and voices. Instead, Postmodernism triggers how people think and learn about managing others by emphasizing adaptability, critical thinking, and seeing organizational life as an intricate tapestry.

From a Postmodern perspective, an effective manager recognizes the fleeting character of power structures and the always-hypothetical nature of meaning within an organization. Such managers admit that roles and hierarchies could be more stable, flexible, and open to alteration or reinterpretation. Managers who adheres to the postmodern perspective thrive on ambiguity. They see it as an opportunity for change and the empowerment of employees to contribute to decision-making processes. Thrassou et al. (2021) suggest that a postmodern manager is only ever just a glorified facilitator of discourse deconstructionist other narrative, criticizing prevailing narratives. The Postmodern perspective outlines the qualities of a good manager as one who is a flexible and reflective leader who appreciates how organizational life is in constant motion. Ultimately, they should encourage employees to analyze and self-reflect instead of creating an environment where new ideas drive practice evolution.

Symbolic Interpretive and Postmodern perspectives collaborate to create a more robust, multilayered understanding of effective management by recognizing that organizational reality is subjective and made. While the former emphasizes how meaning can be created or administered in order to establish trust among employees, the latter involves analyzing power structures within organizations as well as other historical stories pertaining to narratives. Combined, such views question the traditional empirical and objective approaches to management. According to Grey (2008), an understanding of Good Management must, therefore, reconcile an emphasis on communication and trust characteristic of Symbolic Interpretive approaches with radical reflexivity embedded in Postmodern stances toward Deconstruction. The ethical implications for good management are multiple, according to this post-posit. A manager who represents both persepectives would be able to lead with compassion at the same time as a sense of critique, enabling them to foster an evolutionary and reflective organizational culture (Banker & Bhal, 2020). Therefore, what it really means is that excellent management lies in being competent enough to they could create mutual understanding while never losing sight of how transitory life within any organization truly is.

What are the main challenges that each manager faces?

The challenges for the managers within this Symbolic Interpretive perseptives are distinct in that they may need to handle meaning complexity and symbolically coherent systems. They have the job of president obstinate a maze-like kaleidoscope of transformational interpretations, navigating and reconciling opposition interests wash perspectives among organizers. At the same time, maintaining a coherent organizational culture is crucial, especially when external pressures and internal contradictions rule. Clegg et al. (2015) state that it takes more work to interpret varied personal perspectives as part of one shared vision of an organization or business entity. According to Espina-Romero et al., (2023) further elaborate on the challenge of maintaining a consistent culture while still being adaptive if it faces an ever-changing environment. Managerial talent in cultural diplomacy means incorporating diverse viewpoints into one singular narrative while adjusting symbolic order as the organization engages with external forces. Furthermore, managing trust and commitment becomes a delicate balancing act of earning employee’s trust while creating a shared purpose within this context of relational identity reconfiguration (Grey, 2008). The Symbolic Interpretive perspective thus emphasizes the complexity by which managers are required to weave together various stories inside an organization, all while attempting to foster growth in areas such as building credibility

The increasing tasks of appropriating meaning complexity and maintaining symbolic order necessitate that managers make sense of and be critical of the implicit assumptions develops within organizational narratives. This necessitates an ample manager to translate the masterstroke and identify the wireless undercurrents but silently series those or quiles some voices to emphasize the others. Therefore, suppressing such fundamental issues proves managers have a challenging occupation when creating an inclusive environment (Head, 2022). Managers should be wary and active in demolishing organizational taboos when trying to ease the tensions arising from the force of that phenomenon. Difficulties due to symbolic perspective details enough to show that the ultimate remedy to diffusion is the elimination of the conditions causing it and an approach that accepts in different cases with respect to different standards (Westphal & Park, 2020). It is high time to recognize the manager as an important mediator between the domestic and the foreign cultural Symbolic landscape that turns out to fragments regardless of the comradeship nation. It is not just the managing of symbols but is the creation of room for all individuals’ footprints.

Based on the Postmodern perspective, managers will need to supplant the weakness of deconstructing conventional power structures while being aware of the historical chance of ambiguity as a natural condition of affairs in organizations. Moreover, managers have to handle that the administrative boundaries and realities could be more stable but constantly negotiates and reality keeps changing. Martin (1990) encourages questioning power structures frequently regarded in tacit acceptance as the natural ordering of the world so that they can push for a more democratic organizational climate. Postmodernism, therefore, views the manager as a catalyst of change whose role is to constantly create and adapt her interpretations of the organizational dynamics, power relations, and meanings.

The postmodern perspective means several challenges that imply that managerial roles cannot be standardized anymore, with traditional structures being questioned and reinterpreted in new ways. For example, this perspective demands managers to adapt to the changing environment and actively help change it. It involves critically analyzing prevailing power dynamics and structures, nurturing a culture where such realities questions openly and even reconstructed from an altogether new perspective (Hatch & Cunliffe, 2013). This is to challenge the current hierarchies and embrace some of the innovative potential from diverse viewpoints and meshwork structures. Adopting such an approach requires a manager who must think as both a visionary and facilitator of change, someone capable of managing paradoxes and contradictions within Postmodern Pelagic Organizations. The Postmodern perspective sees the process of management as an ongoing and dynamic process of questioning, redrafting, or redefining organizational realities, but in such a way that all this embraces ambiguity and uncertainty as rich sources of creativity (Barros, 2023).In essence, the postmodern perspective implies that leadership style must constantly transform business contexts, which offers explanations.


In conclusion, this reveals that proficient managers can learn about the nuances of symbolism and narratives in culture, maintain a critical perspective to question certain power configurations in the given organization and embrace the organization’s uncertainty. Combining these views, it is obvious that adaptability and sensitive leadership competencies are crucial prerequisites for a culture characterized by mutual understanding and critical reflexivity. In the final analysis, according to these perspectives, effective management is not so much about unthinkingly following these established norms but more a careful balancing of the range of often conflicting facts lived within organizational systems to achieve success under what may seem like constantly changing conditions.


Banker, D.V. and Bhal, K.T., 2020. Understanding compassion from practicing managers’ perspective: Vicious and virtuous forces in business organizations. Global Business Review21(1), pp.262-278.

Barros, A., 2023. Researching with records in management and organisation studies: Archives, data corpus, and reflexivity. Handbook of Historical Methods for Management. Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp.80-93.

Cardel, M., 2020. Interpretive approaches to culture: What is interpretive cross-cultural management research?. The Sage handbook of contemporary cross-cultural management, p.34.

Clegg, S.R., Kornberger, M. and Pitsis, T. (2015). Managing and Organizations. SAGE.

Espina-Romero, L., Noroño Sánchez, J.G., Rojas-Cangahuala, G., Palacios Garay, J., Parra, D.R. and Rio Corredoira, J., 2023. Digital leadership in an ever-changing world: A bibliometric analysis of trends and challenges. Sustainability15(17), p.13129.

Girod, S.J. and Králik, M., 2021. Resetting management: Thrive with agility in the age of uncertainty. Kogan Page Publishers.

Grey, C. (2008). A Very Short Fairly Interesting and Reasonably Cheap Book About Studying Organizations. SAGE.

Hatch, M.J. and Cunliffe, A.L. (2013). Organization theory : Modern, symbolic, and postmodern perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Head, B.W., 2022. Wicked problems in public policy: understanding and responding to complex challenges (p. 176). Springer Nature.

Hendry, J. (2013). Management : A Very Short Introduction. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press.

Martin, J. (1990). Deconstructing organizational taboos : the suppression of gender conflict in organizations. Providence, R.I.: Institute Of Management Science.

Mcauley, J., Duberley, J. and Johnson, P. (2014). Organization theory : challenges and perspectives. Harlow: Pearson.

Thrassou, A., Chebbi, H. and Uzunboylu, N., 2021. Postmodern approaches to business management and innovative notions for contextual adaptation–A review. EuroMed Journal of Business16(3), pp.261-273.

Westphal, J. and Park, S.H., 2020. Symbolic management: Governance, strategy, and institutions. Oxford University Press.

Health Policy Briefs Provide Concise Overviews Of Health Policy Topics.

Health policy is a critical problem for healthcare providers and patients. Review of The policy brief “Effects of State Preemption Policies on Racial Justice and Health Equity” by One has to analyze state preemption policies from various angles to understand their influence upon racial justice and health equity. Advanced practice nurses and APNs need to know these policies’ roles in facilitating proper functioning within the complex world of healthcare from promoting fair health practices. The paper addresses the issue of state preemption policies that lead to adverse effects on racial justice and health equity, elaborating on the strengths and weaknesses and recommendations for resolutions in the field while emphasizing the role of APNs in creating evidence-based, locally accountable health policies.

Identify the Primary Issue

The policy brief, “Effects of State Preemption Policies on Racial Justice and Health Equity,” is essential to discuss in today’s world because it focuses on how state policies either contribute to the goal of health equity, along with the elimination of racial disparities or compromise it (Carr et al., 2020). Reviewing offers, through the lens of state preemptions, insights into complicated issues regarding policy decisions, widespread inequality in all forms, and health disparity variations among the groups of people in the United States.

Summarize the Brief

The policy brief offers a closer insight into the impact of state preemption policies on racial justice and health equity in the United States. Research has shown that state laws endanger the autonomy of local governments in extensive cases. In particular, one of the limitations that should be addressed is reducing racial disparities and equal access to healthcare for every person. Regarding the issue reached during the police brief, instead of sharing a different perspective on how state prevention policies have facilitated racial justice and health equity, efforts in challenging issues.

Relationship to APN Practice

APNs’ role has to be examined in connection with a policy brief concerning racial justice and health fairness issues associated with state preemption policies. APNs perform a vital role in healthcare and help fight health disparities. Some activities that could have eliminated racial inequality are still outlawed by state preemption laws, thereby reducing the independence of APNs. Lack of sufficient autonomy results in adverse patient outcomes and obstacles to health equity at a higher level with an increased inclusion within various communities.

Strengths, Weaknesses, Advantages, or Disadvantages


Strength #1: Standardization of Healthcare Practices

State preemption policies are a compelling argument because they would enable the creation of an organizational structure using identical regulations and procedures in any healthcare facility in various regions that belong to different states. Supporters argue that with such a unified action, we will get a more organized and effective healthcare system where no difference in regulations can be observed from one state to another.

Strength #2: Improved Organizational Effectiveness

Supporters believe that state preemption measures improve the structure and efficiency of a healthcare system. It would eliminate differences in state regulations and simplify the process, thus reducing the number of consultations and administrative work for healthcare providers who have different places at home.

Strength #3: Clarity and Consistency in Healthcare Policies

One significant strength of the state preemption policies is that they are transparent and standardized healthcare policy guidelines. Standardized regulations for medical practice guidelines make them more transparent and uniform nationwide (Haddow et al., 2020). These will likely make the practice setup and operations less burdensome for medical practices nationwide, making it easier for healthcare professionals to review their regulations.


Weakness #1: Neglect of Special Community Needs

Racial disparities are when state regulations fail to consider the unique needs of different communities. This type of oversight can result in an inequality that hampers society’s advancement toward equitability.

Weakness #2: Limited Local Innovation

State preemption policies lead to concerns about limited opportunities for local innovation by implementing generic resources. Obtaining equitable health outcomes may require localities to help design and implement custom-made healthcare programs.

Weakness #3: Reduced Adaptability to Population Needs

Applying Uniform rules would help stop local communities from adapting according to their population’s particular circumstances by enforcing similar rules everywhere.


Advantage #1: Enhanced Efficiency and Cost Savings

Such state preemption actions foster the integration of standardized healthcare rules and help achieve results in efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Consistent rules will level these differences in employment, making health care services less complicated and administrative functions accessible and even attracting savings.

Advantage #2: Streamlined Healthcare Delivery

By signing the same rules, uniformity ensures a healthcare system is even more approachable. Without caregivers and administrators, it will decrease unnecessary complications and simplify healthcare delivery.

Advantage #3: Economic Efficiency Through Ordinary Standards

The policies concerning state preemption can support the economic balance of the healthcare system as long as it meets the standard rates. These policies simplify compliance rules, administrative tasks, and adjustments among different localities or regions, thus resulting in a much more economically efficient healthcare system.


Disadvantage #1: Reduced Tailoring for Cultural and Demographic Needs

Serious problems were created by state preemption rules that limit the ability to match healthcare initiatives with a particular cultural or demographic environment. Decreased personalization can make healthcare interventions that address the specific problems various communities pose weaker and more disturbing.

Disadvantage #2: Widening Health Disparities

State preemption policies could contribute to intensifying health inequalities as they may fail to address the real problems that disadvantaged communities have. Policies like these will have a negative outcome unless specific intentions are implemented and solutions to the root of health disparities are dealt with; otherwise, they may aggravate inequality between healthcare outcomes.

Disadvantage #3: Threat to Perpetuating Health Disparities

Another significant consequence is the limit of local governments by state; such restrictions shrink these bodies and make them less independent. The barriers to some interventions may amplify those initial disparities and thus have specific implications.

Solutions or Recommendations

Solution #1: Advocate for a Balanced Approach

It is necessary to foster a balanced approach that can facilitate state preemption measures without neglecting alterations in local health. Such an approach, which addresses multiple needs of the community, recognizes that a one-size solution may not be potent enough to handle the intricate healthcare issues associated with racial and ethnic disparities in health.

Solution #2: Establishment of State-Level Committees

State-level committees should be constituted with several stakeholders to ensure thorough assessments and targeted interventions. These committees can serve as collaborative decision-making forums where diverse communities that are less impacted by health disparities have their consideration. These committees enable inclusive policymaking.

Solution #3: Encourage Continuous Research on Policy

Evidence-based policymaking should support research on state preemption policies related to health equity. Periodic reviews also produce flexible methods because changes will be made frequently depending on healthcare issues based on fairness and equity in policy development.

Advocacy for or Against Policy Implementation

Advocacy Approach #1: Engaging with Policymaker

Solid arguments and precise, concrete methods can help nurses take the front seat against state preemption acts by engaging policymakers in policy discussions. These nurses engage in policy debates and may support protecting the local rules; hence, solutions are developed to address community issues.

Advocacy Approach #2: Partnership with Healthcare Organizations

Nurse practitioners or Advanced practice nurses may even be involved in designing community control strategies if they do not advocate restrictive state preemption rules by partnering with the relevant health institutions and individuals. People can come together to develop evidence-based interventions from the standpoint of decision-makers toward racial fairness and health equity.

Advocacy Approach #3: Utilizing Public Health Advocacy Knowledge

Once they become advanced practice nurses capable of advocating against public health, it will be possible to train policymakers and people on how state preemption policies that restrict so much could make such grave unfairness. Advanced practice nurses are in a unique position since they advocate on behalf of all people for equal and fair access to health care due to their abilities and encourage others regarding issues concerning rules that can prevent growth.

Position on the Policy Proposal

Having thoroughly considered the situation, it is reasonable to advocate against the state preemption policies. When nurse practitioners work at a specialist level, they adopt a more dynamic and culturally sensitive approach to policies designed to improve standards in patient-based care by addressing health inequality issues beforehand. There is a particular mission focused on the characteristics of various populations. It is, therefore, mandatory to maintain potentially available possibilities of planning special initiatives in health programs based on characteristics and cultural situations.


In conclusion, after carefully considering state preemption laws and their effects on racial justice and health equity, one realizes this is a complex issue. It comprises the in-depth strengths and weaknesses along with solutions. Findings, ethical issues, and the willingness to improve conditions for all involved groups of patients indicate that people should show their reaction or approval of these policy directions. By working together on collective action, the APNs of Advanced Practice Nursing can define policies toward improved equity in health and direct their efforts at structural levels to address problems caused by federal preemption.


Carr, D., Adler, S., Winig, B. D., & Montez, J. K. (2020). Equity first: conceptualizing a normative framework to assess the role of preemption in public health. The Milbank Quarterly, 98(1), 131-149. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1468-0009.12444

Haddow, K., Carr, D., Winig, B. D., & Adler, S. (2020). Preemption, public health, and equity in the time of COVID-19. Public Health and Equity during COVID-19 (July 31, 2020). Burris, S., de Guia, S., Gable, L., Levin, DE, Parmet, WE, Terry, NP (Eds.). https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3675886

Yang, Y. T., & Berg, C. J. (2022). How Preemption Can Lead to Inequity. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(17), 10476. https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/19/17/10476