Explore The Use Of Frp In Masonry Bridge Construction And Different Application. Free Essay

Geo Polymer Concrete

The innovative material known as geo polymer concrete is a kind of concrete that does not need the addition of cement. In modern times, it is used in the construction of certain buildings and structures, such as environmentally friendly railway sleepers, modular retaining walls, and sustainable buildings that employ sustainable CFRP-reinforced recycled concrete for cleaner eco-friendly construction using new and alternative materials (Paruthi et al., 2022). Researchers are currently providing an enormous amount of attention to the concept of the sustainable building by encouraging the use of GPC and FRP in the formation of beams. The alkalinity of the concrete acts as a barrier against the corrosion that might occur in the steel reinforcement (Paruthi et al., 2022). Some buildings have been able to withstand severe weather conditions as well as exposure to salts and a mix of moisture, temperature, and chlorides that lower the alkalinity of the concrete and lead to the corrosion of steel reinforcement. These factors all contribute to the degradation of the structure.

The problem of steel corrosion and the electromagnetic interaction may be solved by using bars made of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP), which does not attract or retain magnetic fields and never corrode. In addition, since FRP bars can withstand an extremely high amount of tensile stress, they are suitable for use as structural reinforcement. It is now common practice to use fibreglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) bars rather than steel bars as the primary internal reinforcement for concrete structures (Paruthi et al., 2022). This is done in order to increase the durability and life expectancy of the structures, which is also referred to as their serviceability (). Additionally, the use of geo-polymer concrete rather than cement-based concrete has started gaining momentum, and it is now used in particular for the fabrication of concrete structures that are environmentally friendly and sustainable. Combining FRP and GPC would offer a promising technology not only in building new structures with higher durability and higher sustainability along with adequate strength and structural integrity but also in reducing the worldwide demand for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), thereby reducing its production and environmental impact (Paruthi et al., 2022). The advantageous characteristics of the FRP bars and the GPC, including their successful applications in the construction of various civil infrastructures, make the combination of these two materials a promising technology (Paruthi et al., 2022).


What Role Does Loading Frequency Play?

Comparison of the Effects of Tension-Compression Fatigue and Tension-Tension Fatigue

The results of the tests conducted on the groups of tension-tension and tension-compression specimens are shown in Figure 8. These tests were conducted with 5 Hz and 1 Hz loading frequencies, respectively. It is clear from looking at the figure that the existence of a compression component as part of the loading program results in a reduction in the fatigue life of the specimens. This is consistent with what () found after doing their investigation. In addition, it would seem that this impact is at its peak intensity when the max/ult ratio is between 0.5 and 0.6.

Behaviour Characterized by a Decay in Stiffness

The stiffness degradation behaviour of some of the tested coupons is displayed in Figs. 9a–c under a variety of stress ratios and frequencies. This behaviour is represented in terms of the ratio of Young’s modulus E at any number of cycles N to the initial Young’s modulus E0, and it is plotted against the ratio of a number of cycles N to the total number of cycles at failure N. The early removal of the extensometer prior to its failure is the cause of several of the charts displaying incomplete data points. It is clear from the figure that after an early period of loss of stiffness at a quick pace, the process proceeds at a rate that is far slower. This behaviour is comparable to that of 0°/90° laminates, in which the first fast stiffness deterioration is attributable to the cracking of the transverse plies, and the matrix supplies the majority of the stiffness (). This behaviour is similar to the behaviour of 0°/90° laminates. When the specimens were put through tension-compression fatigue, it was clear that the compression phase resulted in a more significant reduction in the material’s stiffness than the tension phase.

Overall, it is arguable that the reaction and failure of axially loaded masonry contained with FRP have many features comparable to those of concrete. This is because concrete and masonry are both porous materials. As a result, creating a confinement model could be able to use the previously accumulated knowledge and expertise with concrete. In the next paragraph, an effort will be made to use this model. Overall, it is arguable that the reaction and failure of axially loaded masonry confined with FRP have many features comparable to those of concrete. This is because concrete and masonry are both porous materials. As a result, creating a confinement model could be able to use the previously accumulated knowledge and expertise with concrete. In the next paragraph, an effort will be made to use this model. Similar to confined concrete, the transverse passive pressure that develops in the masonry as a reaction to the jacket forces is the foundation of the FRP contribution to the strength and deformability of confined masonry. This pressure develops as a result of the jacket forces. This pressure is not consistent, particularly in the areas around the corners of rectangular cross-sections, as a general rule, in the form of an average value for a band that is cross-sectioned and has dimensions.


Inferences from monotonic stress and tension coupons with various geometries that cut from GFRP filament-wound tubes with an additional fatigue curve were as follows. If a lifetime of at least one million cycles is a requirement, it is generally advised to keep the maximum-to-ultimate stress ratio of tubes of this kind to no more than roughly 0.25 (Keya et al., 2019). Although the modulus of all coupon kinds was comparable, the tensile strengths differed significantly across types. Standard longitudinal coupons fail early in filament-wound tubes with fibres oriented at an angle relative to the longitudinal axis. This is because fibres split before achieving the full tensile strength since there is a loss of continuity of certain fibres between grips. Because the coupon is becoming shorter, the bandwidth of continuous fibers between the grips is getting bigger, which means more fibers are rupturing instead of pulling out (Jariwala & Jain, 2019). For tubes with longitudinal fibres at a tiny angle, such as in this research, slightly skewed coupons, also known as parallel to fibres, showed to be highly dependable and had the same level of strength and mode of failure as CFFT bending tests (Keya et al., 2019). The fatigue life of GFRP filament-wound tubes rises in proportion to the frequency of the load that is applied. Although the existence of a compression load component in fatigue shortens the fatigue life of GFRP filament-wound tubes, this impact has a tendency to become less pronounced as the stress ratio becomes lower. When compared to coupons that break due to fibre pullout, those that fail due to fibre rupture have a lower fatigue life and a steeper curve. When subjected to tension-tension fatigue, filament-wound GFRP tubes may experience a loss of stiffness of up to 18 per cent at stress ratios of up to 0.5 and frequencies ranging from 1 to 8 hertz (Keya et al., 2019). This loss might reach as high as 30% and 45.23% in tension and compression, respectively, when it comes to tension and compression exhaustion. This loss is represented rather well by the model in a variety of different scenarios. The empirical approach that was established for fatigue life has a good match with the test results of coupons cut from GFRP filament-wound tubes. Additionally, it was used well to forecast the fatigue life of full-scale CFFTs under bending conditions (Keya et al., 2019). The method can fairly accurately predict the fatigue life of specimens that are subjected to the same frequency but a different minimum-to-maximum stress ratio R from that which was used to obtain the curve fitting parameters (Jariwala & Jain, 2019). On the other hand, the method is not as accurate when predicting the fatigue life of specimens that are subjected to the same R but a different f from that which was used to obtain the curve fitting parameters.


Keya, K. N., Kona, N. A., Koly, F. A., Maraz, K. M., Islam, M. N., & Khan, R. A. (2019). Natural fibre reinforced polymer composites: history, types, advantages and applications. Materials Engineering Research1(2), 69-85.

Jariwala, H., & Jain, P. (2019). A review of the mechanical behaviour of natural fibre-reinforced polymer composites and its applications. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites38(10), 441-453.

Financial Ratio Analysis Of Affirm Inc And Its Competitor PayPal Essay Example


Well-known financial technology firms PayPal and Affirm Inc. provide customers and merchants with digital payment choices. This study compares Affirm Inc. and PayPal’s financial data against those of the industry to determine how effective, liquid, and financially secure they are.

Market Analysis

We began by determining the typical ratios for the financial technology industry at the time. The four-digit SIC code with the most useful for this industry is 7389, “Business Services, Not Elsewhere Classified.”

The current industry average charges are listed below:

Leverage ratio: 0.37; gross profit margin: 75.12%; current ratio: 1.59.

Interest earned divided by the 27.63 turnovers of accounts receivable equals 18.45.

Stock rotation: N/A

16.84% revenue from sales.

Turnover of Assets: 0.52 8.74% Earnings on Assets Financial Leverage: 1.51 The return on the stock is 22.53 percent.

Gross Profit Margin

Compared to Affirm Inc.’s 63.45%, the industry’s average gross profit margin in 2022 was 75.12%. Affirm Inc.’s production costs are higher than the sector average. PayPal’s gross profit margin in 2022 was 59.82%, lower than the sector average.

Return on Sales

Affirm Inc.’s return on sales in 2022 was 10.65%, lower than the sector average of 16.84%. Affirm Inc. needs to do better at converting sales into revenue. PayPal’s return on sales in 2022 was 16.05 percent, around the average for the sector.

Recover your money

Affirm Inc. earned a 3.22 percent return on assets in 2022. This was under the 8.74 percent industry average return on investment for financial technology. This demonstrates that Affirm Inc. can do better in increasing capital returns (Hassan et al., 2015). The return on assets for PayPal in 2022 was 8.15 percent, or about average for the corporate world.

Return on Assets

Affirm Inc.’s return on equity in 2022 was 11.45% compared to the industry average of 22.53%. This demonstrates that Affirm Inc.’s shareholder return is lower than its rivals. PayPal’s return on equity in 2022 was 22.63%, closer to the industry average.

Return on Equity

Affirm Inc.’s asset turnover ratio is 2022 was 0.65, higher than the industry average of 0.52. This demonstrates how Affirm Inc. efficiently utilizes its resources to maximize profit. PayPal handed over its assets at a rate of 0.57 in 2022, lower than Affirm Inc(Yahoo Finance, 2022). The accounts receivable turnover figure reveals how successfully a business can collect a consumer debt. The figure demonstrates how promptly a company pays its bills when they are due. Affirm Inc.’s turnover ratio in 2022 was 6.71, higher than the industry average of 18.71. This demonstrates that Affirm Inc. collects debts more quickly than PayPal.

Inventory Turnover

This number cannot be used to contrast the two businesses because neither one turns over its stock.

Income from sales

The return on sales ratio (ROS) displays a company’s net Income as a percentage of sales. It shows the revenue generated by a company. It is defining Affirm Inc.

Net Income is the difference between Total Revenue and Return on Sales.

Return on Sales = -$15,2,000,000 / ($509.5,000,000)

Return on Sales is represented by -0.0298 or -2.98 percent.

PayPal’s Return on Sales is calculated as Net Income / Total Sales.

To determine the return on sales, divide $4.2 billion by $23.7 billion.

Return on sales is equal to 0.177, or 17.7%.

According to these figures, PayPal appears to have a substantially higher return on sales than Affirm Inc. Accordingly, PayPal outperforms Affirm Inc. in terms of profit per dollar earned.

It is critical to remember that return on sales should be considered with other financial indicators such as growth potential, market share, and competitors’ landscape. However, based only on this metric, PayPal appears more profitable than Affirm Inc.

Asset Turnover: The asset turnover figure reveals how well a company uses its assets to generate revenue. It may be calculated by dividing total Income by the value of all assets.

The asset change ratio for Affirm Inc. in 2022 can be calculated as follows:

Net Income / Total Assets = $2,116,206 / $1,490,223 = 1.42 is the asset turnover rate.

Accordingly, Affirm Inc. generated $1.42 in profit for every $1 in assets in 2022.

Return on Equity:

The profit generated by each dollar of assets is quantified by the return on assets (ROA) figure. To get the percentage, divide the net revenue by the total assets.

How to calculate Affirm Inc.’s return on assets in 2022 is as follows: ROA is calculated as Net Income/Total Assets, which equals $48.126/$1,490,0023 = 0.032, or 3.2%.

Affirm Inc. profited 3.2% on each dollar of assets it owned in 2022.

The financial leverage ratio calculates the debt a company needs to operate. Divide the total assets by the entire ownership to calculate it.

The ratio of total assets to total equity for Affirm Inc. in 2022 is $1,490,023 divided by $812,249, or 1.83. Affirm Inc. has more debt than stock when operating its business. Rate of Return: The return on equity (ROE) ratio calculates the revenue generated by each dollar of shareholder stock. Divide net Income by the total amount of equity shareholders own to calculate return on equity.

The ROE for Affirm Inc. in 2022 is $48,126 / $812,249, or 0.059, or 5.9%. ROE is defined as Net Income / Total Shareholder Equity. As can be seen, Affirm Inc. returned 5.9% of every dollar invested to shareholders in 2022.

Analyzing the competition

A prominent competitor in the payments industry is PayPal. Let us compare some financial data for 2022 for PayPal and Affirm Inc.

Compared to Affirm Inc., PayPal has a better gross margin, net Margin, and return on equity. On the other hand, Affirm Inc. has a better asset change ratio and return on assets. Both Affirm Inc. and PayPal utilize debt to fund their operations. However, Affirm Inc. uses more debt than PayPal does equity (Yahoo Finance, 2022).

Gross Margin = Gross Profit / Total Sales. For PayPal, Gross Margin = $6.46 billion / $14.54 billion = 44.5%.

Net Margin = Net Income / Total Revenue. PayPal’s Net Margin is $885 million / $14.54 billion = 6.1%.

Asset Turnover = Total Income / Average Total Assets. For PayPal, Asset Turnover = $14.54 billion / ($149.94 billion + $129.8 billion) / 2 = 0.45

Return on Assets (ROA) = Net Income / Average Total Assets. PayPal’s ROA is $885 million / ($149.94 billion + $129.8 billion) / 2 = 2.7%.

Financial Leverage = Average Total Assets / Average Total Equity. PayPal’s Financial Leverage = (($149.94 billion + $129.8 billion) / 2) / (($51.56 billion + $44.32 billion) / 2) = 1.9

Return on Equity (ROE) = Net Income / Average Total Equity. PayPal’s ROE is $885 million / ($51.56 billion + $44.32 billion) / 2 = 18.1%.


Affirm Inc. has demonstrated solid financial performance regarding its profitability and efficiency ratios and its Return on Equity (ROE) and Asset Turnover ratios based on examining financial measures and comparisons with its rivals.

Affirm Inc. also has a cautious funding structure, indicated by its low financial leverage ratio. In terms of risk management, this is advantageous.

It is crucial to remember that the company’s current ratio is low, which indicates that it can struggle to obtain funds quickly. Future difficulties for the business may arise from this, significantly if it expands further.

Affirm Inc. faces stiff competition from well-established companies like PayPal, which enjoys a more secure position in the market and offers a more excellent selection of goods and services. However, Affirm Inc.’s focus on providing multiple payment options and a user-friendly interface can provide a competitive edge in the swiftly expanding e-commerce business.

The overall financial performance and market position of Affirm Inc. are strong. However, in a corporate environment that is constantly evolving, there are risks and obstacles to consider, just like with any organization.


Affirm. (2021). Q3 FY 2021 Earnings Presentation. https://investors.affirm.com/static-files/4a4e4c0e-83cc-4ed8-8d6e-5efc9a6a9c60

Affirm. (2022). Annual Report 2022. https://investors.affirm.com/static-files/c1b3c9b8-764e-44f5-a5dd-cb5c203d7331

PayPal Holdings, Inc. (2022). Annual Report 2022. https://investor.paypal-corp.com/static-files/92505d04-f295-4a28-970c-15ae4e4e8d48

S&P Global Market Intelligence. (2022). Financial data for Affirm Inc. and PayPal Holdings Inc.

Yahoo Finance. (2022). Stock price data for Affirm Inc. and PayPal Holdings Inc.

Hassan, R., Marimuthu, M., & Kaur Johl, S. (2015). Diversity, corporate governance and implication on firm financial performance. Diversity, Corporate Governance and Implication on Firm Financial Performance, 7(2), 28-35.

Fire Prevention And Code Enforcement Report Sample Essay

  1. Introduction

I’ve learned from studies done in class that the primary goal of fire prevention is to lessen the risk of fires occurring and their impact when they do. Assessments, code enforcement, community outreach, plan evaluations, fire inspections, and engineering are just a few methods that can be used to prevent fires.

1.1 Benefits of Inspection and Code Enforcement Policies as Methods of fire protection

Inspection and code enforcement policies are critical in promoting fire prevention and protecting public safety. Inspection policies involve regular building evaluations to identify potential hazards or code violations(Šakėnaitė,2010). In contrast, code enforcement rules offer a legal framework that controls construction techniques, building, and upkeep. Code enforcement officers follow these rules and ensure that any essential modifications or alterations are finished as soon as necessary. These rules provide that inhabitants may safely escape when a fire breaks out, improve safety measures, and lower the likelihood of property loss and fatalities.

The chance of fire explosions and their detrimental effects during an emergency can be decreased with these regulations, which can be used to build and maintain structures. Communities can reduce the likelihood of fire-related tragedies and safeguard the safety and welfare of their citizens by putting specific policies into place. Guidelines for inspection and code enforcement guarantee that structures are built to withstand fire and that residents may safely evacuate in an emergency. They direct the use of fire-resistant materials, the setting up of smoke detectors and sprinkler systems, and the design of safe exits.

1.2 Interrelationship of Regulatory Practices in Fire Prevention

Inspection and code enforcement activities are crucial to a comprehensive fire prevention strategy. These policies serve as a proactive measure for identifying fire hazards and deficiencies in buildings, helping to minimize the risk of fire outbreaks and reduce their impact in an emergency. By identifying these issues early on, inspection and code enforcement activities can help prevent tragic fire-related incidents, promoting community resilience.

Public education campaigns are essential for fostering resilience and promoting fire safety. Communities may aid in preventing fires from starting by raising public awareness of the value of fire safety and the appropriate usage of fire suppression devices. Inspection and code enforcement activities can identify areas where public education efforts are needed, helping to target these efforts more effectively. Additionally, fire investigations can provide valuable information on the causes of fires and how they can be prevented in the future. This information can be used to develop more effective public education programs and strengthen code enforcement policies, further promoting community resilience.

1.3 Importance of General Fire Safety Provisions

General fire safety requirements are essential for the occupants of buildings to be safe. Sprinklers, fire alarms, smoke detectors, and other fire suppression systems are crucial for spotting and putting out flames before they spread. In a fire, buildings without such systems are more likely to suffer significant damage and fatalities. For building occupants to exit structures during crises safely, safe exit is just as important as fire suppression measures. A serious risk to the area is posed by buildings with inadequate escapes, insufficient ventilation, or explosive substances requiring immediate attention.

The loss of life and property due to a fire must be avoided by adhering to general fire safety regulations. To promote fire safety, encourage safe behaviors, and prevent accidents, routine inspections, code enforcement regulations, and training programs may be helpful. Fire safety may be prioritized in buildings to give residents a safe and secure environment and improve the safety and well-being of the neighborhood.

1.4 Short-term and Long-term Benefits to the Community through investments

Investing in fire countermeasures like employing fire-resistant materials can have immediate advantages by lessening the occurrence and extent of fires. Reduced injuries, deaths, and property damage can result from using fire-resistant materials, which also help to restrict the spread of fires.

Over time, investing in fire protection measures can increase community safety by lowering the risk of fires and their repercussions. As a result, there may be fewer emergency calls, lower firefighting expenses, and less potential loss of property, all of which can be long-term expenditures for property owners and the neighborhood. The insurance cost for reduce property owners can be reduced by investing in fire protection measures, which can also motivate owners to make their structures more fire-safe(Lind,2011).

1.5 Overview of the Fire Prevention Division and Activities

The fire prevention division is integral to any fire department responsible for implementing fire prevention programs to keep the Community safe. Inspecting, enforcing codes, reviewing plans, educating the public, conducting fire investigations, and engineering are just a few operations they carry out. By performing regular inspections and executing code enforcement procedures, it is their primary duty to guarantee that the buildings and structures in the Community adhere to safety rules.

The division also conducts public education programs to create awareness and promote fire safety in the Community. They equip code enforcement practitioners with the necessary skills and knowledge to enforce safety regulations effectively through training and professional development opportunities. Overall, the fire prevention division works to prevent fires and minimize their impact, contributing to a safer environment for everyone.

1.6 Background Demographics of the Community

Communities have various types of buildings, including residential, commercial, and industrial, that serve different purposes. Emergency services’ high call volume areas may include sites with high population density or specific features such as high-rise buildings. The most common types of calls are structure fires, vehicle fires, and false alarms. To ensure facilities meet safety standards and regulations, many communities have building codes in place, and a committee of experts oversees the development and modification of building codes.

The central business district is often a high-call volume area, and high-rise buildings require specialized equipment and procedures to evacuate occupants safely. False alarms can tie up resources and lead to unnecessary costs for the fire department. Building regulations are formulated to address the particular demands of the Community and are based on the most recent research and best practices. Building design, construction, and fire safety professionals may be on the committee in charge of the procedure.

1.7 Benefits of Inspection and Code Enforcement for the Community and the Organization versus the cost of performance

Public safety is greatly enhanced by inspection and code enforcement procedures, which also benefit the institutions in charge of carrying them out. These laws reduce the possibility of fires and limit their capacity to jeopardize public safety and cause property damage by requiring buildings and other structures to be safe and in compliance with safety standards. By reducing the likelihood of fatalities and accidents, they also improve the safety of first responders and firefighters, leading to safer working conditions for them and lower worker’s compensation claim expenses. Also, by limiting the expenses of employees and supplies, these regulations assist in lowering the cost of dealing with fires.

The advantages of inspection and code enforcement measures outweigh the expenses of setting up and executing them. These laws encourage fire safety and lessen the effects of fires, which contribute to the Community’s overall safety and well-being. Inspection and code enforcement practices do this to prevent death, reduce property damage, and lower the expense of emergency response. The benefits these laws offer society and the organizations in charge of upholding them make them valuable addition, even though putting them into place may be expensive.


Lind, K. J. (2011). Collateral matters: Housing code compliance in the mortgage

crisis. N. Ill. UL Rev., pp. 32, 445.

Šakėnaitė, J. (2010). A comparison of methods used for fire safety

evaluation. Mokslas–Lietuvos ateitis/Science–Future of Lithuania2(6), 36-42.