Exploring The Complex Character Of Doctor Faustus Essay Sample For College

Introduction

In his play, The Tragedy of Doctor Faustus, Playwright Christopher Marlowe portrays the narrative of a great scholar named Faustus who makes a pact with the devil in exchange for power and knowledge. For decades, readers have argued about what to make of Faustus, a character whose complex motivations and morality have sparked heated debate. Being betrayed by his ambition and pride, he is a tragic figure since he thinks he is in charge of his fate. He is an image of the destructive capability of unrestrained desire and a practical example of the dangers of hammering out a deal with Satan. This play of Marlowe fills in as advance notice of the risks of impropriety and over-the-top desire. Is Doctor Faustus a tragic hero? The motivation behind this paper is to contend that Specialist Faustus is not a tragic hero since he needs to catch up on the characteristics and shortcomings that make a tragic hero.

A tragic hero is a heroic figure in a sad tale who must ultimately meet with tragedy, and tragedy must meet with the tragic hero. “Tragic hero” refers to a protagonist whose good fortune is undone by some tragic defect or error on their part. These characteristics can be found in Doctor Faustus; he is a magnificent, virtuous figure who also suffers a change in luck. There are several other requirements that he still needs to meet. Example: Specialist Faustus misses the mark on a sad issue that prompts horrible results. It was not a natural defect in his personality that prompted his breakdown; instead, it was his choice to offer his spirit to Satan (Marlowe, page 32). Neither torment nor rout is at any point felt by Specialist Faustus. While he doesn’t have a similar miserable end as a standard shocking legend, he is moved to damnation by Satan at the play’s decision.

The tragic hero traits essential to a tragedy are also lacking in Doctor Faustus. The tragic hero of a story should be someone of high social status and heroic qualities whose collapse results from a fatal fault in their personality. None of these traits can be found in Doctor Faustus; instead, he is timid and indecisive. Rather than being the aftereffect of some natural imperfection in his personality, he brings it upon himself by seeking information and power too anxiously (Marlowe, page 43). Likewise, he doesn’t attempt to offer to set things straight or gain astuteness from his encounters, the two of which are noticeable subjects in heartbreaking stories. Since Doctor Faustus misses the mark on a cliché tragic hero, the book can’t be delegated a misfortune. Doctor Faustus is as yet a fascinating figure because of his message about the hazards of being imprudent with one’s life.

Conclusion

When compared to other examples of tragic heroes, Doctor Faustus falls short. A tragic hero is a protagonist whose downfall is brought on by some intrinsic defect in their personality or grave error. No single terrible defect or error results in Doctor Faustus’s downfall. He also lacks the noble and dignified traits that characterize a tragic hero. Thus, most would agree that Doctor Faustus is undoubtedly not a tragic hero in the conventional sense. A wake-up call about the dangers of unrestrained desire and gluttony, he serves more as a moral story than a hero. His breakdown isn’t because of any characteristic deformity in his temperament yet instead of his own unrestrained choice to hit a settlement with Satan. His life is a practical example of the disastrous consequences of uncontrolled desire.

Reference

Marlowe, Christopher. “The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus from the Quarto of 1604.” The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus, by Christopher Marlowe, 1 Apr. 2023, https://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/779/pg779-images.html#id_2H_4_0003.

Transformational Leadership In The Educational Sector Sample Assignment

Introduction

The success of each organization relies heavily on the quality of its leadership. Leaders that excel in their jobs create supportive environments, inspire their teams to greater achievement, make their missions and goals crystal clear, and drive their companies toward greater success (Anderson, 2017). A wealth of recent research demonstrates the significance of leadership and scarcity in various public organizations. The term “transformational leadership” refers to a leadership theory in which a leader helps teams or followers think beyond their immediate needs to identify the necessary transformation and then creates a vision to guide that change through inspiration, influence, and the joint execution of dedicated members of an organization (Anderson, 2017). Both the public and commercial sectors place a premium on the ability to identify and retain capable leaders. Leadership is widely recognized and celebrated in for-profit enterprises. Public officials often use platitudes from the business world, such as “Lead, follow or get out of the way!” by Lee Iacocca (Ingraham and Getha-Taylor, 2004). However, leading firms in the public sector differ from leading businesses in the private sector. One of the most notable is the split between appointed and elected officials and senior executives from the career bureaucracy that has emerged at the top of several public institutions. While this trend is most pronounced at the federal level, it also appears at the state and municipal levels to a significant degree (Anderson, 2017). Public sector executives operate in a highly constricted context due to divided democratic accountability, leadership, oversight mechanisms established by legislatures and courts, and constant media scrutiny. In this essay, I argue that transformational leadership is the most important leadership model in the public sector. To effectively support this argument, I consider the case of the education sector. The essay is structured as follows: First, I will analyze the key strategic priorities in the education sector and the critical issues schools face. In the following parts, I will critically analyze why transformational leadership is most appropriate in education.

The Key Strategic Priorities in The Education Sector

`Educational institutions worldwide have set specific missions, visions, values, and goals to spearhead the learning process and improve the learners’ general performance. The various key strategic priorities in the educational systems are analyzed below.

Quality of Education 

Quality of education refers to the overall skill development and learning levels of the learners in the institution (Choi et al., 2022). It incorporates a wide range of elements, including instructional strategy, teacher caliber, pedagogical approach, assessment procedures, and educational materials, that all play a role in fostering successful education. For the learning process in an institution to be classified as quality, it must have key elements such as effective curriculum design. A well-thought-out curriculum specifies what is to be learned by learners and shows them how to get there. A high-quality curriculum has a solid theoretical foundation, will align with international and national benchmarks, and will undergo frequent reviews to ensure it is current and effective (Choi et al., 2022). Teachers get extensive preparation in using a wide range of active learning strategies. Traditional techniques like lectures and class discussions are supplemented with more modern approaches like group work, project-based learning, and problem-solving. For instance, the learning process in our school is based on a well thought curriculum that guarantees high quality of the learning process. We have professors, instructors, and moderators who are highly trained to ensure learners understand the concepts.

Equity in Education 

We achieve educational equity when all students have access to the materials they need to learn to read, write, and do basic math. Instead of focusing on the money spent on education, this metric looks at the results. When it comes to education, equity ensures that every kid has access to the resources they need to succeed. Because of the current economic and public health crises, it is considerably more difficult to achieve educational parity. Many communities decided to cancel school. This exacerbated racial gaps since many low-income families lack the means to participate in distance education due to a lack of access to WiFi or computers. According to research conducted by McKinsey, this causes kids of color to fall three to five months behind their white counterparts in mathematics. Economic development is impeded by education inequality just as much as by recessions. They cannot achieve their best if they do not have the tools they need to learn. Educating all children on equal ground means prioritizing the needs of the most vulnerable students. The long-term health of communities and economies may be boosted by investing in early childhood education and care (ECEC) and supportive family settings for low-income children. However, states must make tough decisions about how much money to dedicate to delivering various education components and other critical public services. Educational inequality creates an accomplishment gap between different racial groups in the United States. According to the research group Brookings, Latin, and Black students scored far worse on average on standardized examinations than White pupils.

Accessibility

“Access to education” refers to an opportunity to enroll in and complete a formal education program at a college or university (Home, 2022). There are still many people in the globe who do not have easy access to a quality education because of factors like poverty, location (especially in rural regions), or membership in a minority group. Financial restrictions are a significant obstacle to obtaining an education. Low-income households need help to afford the costs of sending their children to school. Governments and educational institutions should make financial aid through grants, scholarships, or loans available to enable people who cannot afford college. Geographical barriers are also a factor in students’ inability to attend college. Students in outlying or rural locations may need easy access to legal education options. Online courses, Distance learning programs, and mobile learning platforms are all ways educational institutions adapt to meet the needs of students who need help participating in conventional classroom settings. Those learners who do not speak the language of teaching need help to grasp the concepts being taught. Language services and access to resources in learners’ first languages are responsibilities of all educational systems.

The Critical Issues Faced By Schools

On a global scale, educational facilities face huge issues that must be tackled to enhance equity among all learners, education equality, and accessibility among learners in marginalized regions. The most critical issues in the education sector include government funding and budgeting, teacher recruitment and retention, and narrowing the attainment gap.

Funding and Budgeting 

Those in positions of authority are well aware of the constraints placed on schools by limited resources (Kulkarni and Chima, 2021). State schools are projected to be under further strain due to budget deficits and growing expenditures. Others note that it is not only the institutions of education that need help economically. The cost-of-living issue will have widespread repercussions, affecting individuals, businesses, and governments. It is also important to remember that we posed the issue before the recent increase in energy costs and before the government promised pay increases for teaching staff required to be obtained from current school budgets. Under the current government plans for school financing, 91% of schools would be negatively affected. Since 2015, budgets have been reduced by £2.8bn, and school leaders often lament the difficulty of maintaining quality teaching while adhering to tight budgets (Kulkarni and Chima, 2021). Reduced funding means fewer teachers, fewer extracurriculars, and higher class sizes. With fewer resources available, academic institutions must prioritize efficiency.

Teacher Recruitment and Retention

Managing staffing issues such as scarcity, high turnover, and the inability to fill vacancies was a common subject. Some further expressed concern that if another wave of COVID-19 hits schools this winter, it might lead to staff shortages (Duraku and Hoxha, 2021). In contrast, others voiced concern about the possible effect of industrial action if teachers’ unions choose to strike. It is especially difficult for schools outside large cities to attract and retain qualified educators. At least 30% of first-time educators quit the field during the first five years, rising to 40% after 10 (Duraku and Hoxha, 2021). Finding qualified educators in STEM fields is extremely challenging for schools in remote areas. Teaching is difficult even for those who are dedicated to the profession. The typical workweek lasts between fifty-five and sixty hours, and much paperwork is involved, especially in the public sector. Consequently, many educators need more vitality in their classroom teaching because they are exhausted by stress and pressure.

Narrowing the Attainment Gap

Due to the lack of equity and equality in the education sector, there is an increased narrowing of the attainment gap (Duraku and Hoxha, 2021). Although the achievement gap between students from privileged and underprivileged homes has shrunk marginally by approximately 4% over the previous decade, it is still rather large (Willis, 2022). Those from low-income homes are less likely to attend college than those from affluent. Pupil Premium is a government effort to solve this issue, with a budget of £2.4 billion. There is much pressure on schools to ensure that the additional £935 spent on “Free School Meals” each year translates into improved academic performance. English and mathematics are the disciplines most prized by employers and universities. Therefore students who pass these courses are more competitive. Based on a recent BBC research, despite the best efforts of schools, just 24% of students from the most impoverished neighborhoods received strong grades in English or Mathematics last year, in contrast to 50% of students from the wealthiest backgrounds.

Learning about these issues as a transformational leader is key to my personal development. The issues faced by the education sector will help me to have a bigger picture of the issues impacting the public sector and requires leadership solutions. Based on this knowledge, I will develop the necessary skills to develop effective policies and regulations, steer organizational change management, and develop collaborative strategies and implementation goals to solve those issues.

Why Transformational Leadership Is The Most Appropriate In Education Sector?

Different from transactional leadership, which emphasizes the need for extrinsic incentives to complete particular job duties, transformational leadership encourages workers to go above and beyond what is expected of them to achieve a common goal. Leaders may maximize their effectiveness by learning to balance these approaches. Transformational leadership is the best option for enhancing the development of the education sector.

Leadership at educational institutions encourages people they lead to explore ideas creatively and critically in order to broaden their perspectives and improve their ability to solve problems (Leithwood, 1993). The trademarks of transformational leadership in educational settings include always pushing those they lead to accomplishing more and allowing them to attempt new things. This explains how organizations may avoid becoming stale. The cornerstone of transformational leadership in education is a shared vision and mission between the leader and the group being led. Transformative school leadership is among the most effective approaches to school administration (Leithwood, 1993). It includes many traits of good leadership in teaching, which have a multiplicative influence on the success of both people and organizations. School cultures of loyalty, and leading by example, mutual respect may be fostered through transformational leadership at all levels of education, not only at the secondary and postsecondary levels. A transformational leader must have the following qualities to be effective and achieve the preset goals.

  • Excellent communication skills
  • Charismatic and visionary
  • Promotes teamwork
  • Continuous and curious innovative skills
  • Inspiring team to work with passion
  • Allows collaboration and feedback
  • Out of box thinking skills
  • Problem-solving skills.

Transformational leadership greatly promotes cultural diversity and inclusivity in the educational system (Lunenburg, 2003). Let us take an example of our schools; many students come from different backgrounds in terms of culture, religion, ethnicity, race, and gender and have varying beliefs and values. All these learners expect equal opportunities in terms of quality and equity of education. Effective inclusive education is facilitated by transformative leadership. People of varying aptitudes and cultural backgrounds are represented in the model. When pupils have varying skill levels, relying on strategies like the autocratic style might be risky. The use of force in the classroom might backfire. People who learn slowly may give up in a competitive workplace that expects top performance from everyone (Lunenburg, 2003). Students are better able to play to their strengths under transformational leadership.

The leaders want the pupils to concentrate more on their strengths than their peers. Not all students will appreciate an authoritarian leadership style, especially those from more democratic backgrounds. There are commonalities among successful leaders. Examples include using words to persuade others to follow them and spreading messages of optimism and confidence (Prestiadi, Gunawan, and Sumarsono, 2020). All of these characteristics are met by transformational leadership. It helps educators connect with their pupils on a deeper level. This paves the way for leaders to craft effective methods of inspiration. Teachers can show appreciation for their students’ diverse backgrounds by adapting lessons to pupils of different faiths and cultural backgrounds. Ultimately, the leader’s communication ability motivates the kids to value variety. The approach makes education more accessible and encourages students of all backgrounds to participate.

With the extensive transformation in the education sector regarding the new technological change, transformational leadership is key in promoting change in the education sector. Teachers in inclusive classrooms find ways to keep their kids’ spirits up in the face of constant shifts. The method depends on the transformational leader’s charisma to win followers over. Leaders employ qualities like charisma to rally their people behind a common cause and keep them working toward it even when external conditions change (Prestiadi, Gunawan, and Sumarsono, 2020). Other methods will not work in today’s ever-evolving classrooms. They may show teachers exerting less authority over pupils’ actions and attitudes. As a result, this strategy may contribute to the long-term viability of inclusive classrooms. Despite the difficulties brought on by change, this strategy will enable inclusive institutions to sustain consistent performance.

Transformational leadership helps in boosting the performance of teachers and the school in general (Kirby, Paradise, and King, 1992). Maintaining a high level of employee performance generally gets increasingly difficult as market standards evolve and rise. Researchers have focused a lot on the link between employee performance and organizational results (Kirby, Paradise, and King, 1992). Organizational success in the current market environment depends on workers doing their jobs effectively. Because staff performance is crucial to an organization’s success, Armstrong (2010) argues that fostering it is a leader’s top priority. In light of teachers’ pivotal role in shaping the next generation’s minds and preparing them to contribute to the nation and society, employee performance is especially vital in the educational sector. As a result, the education system’s effectiveness relies heavily on its instructors’ work. My mindset as a transformational leadership model is to motivate my team members to perform at greater levels to achieve our shared objectives and make a good impact (Prestiadi, Gunawan, and Sumarsono, 2020). Principals that use a transformational leadership style are revered by their staff because they instill confidence in their employees and serve as role models.

The public sector is experiencing acute globalization, and the education sector is not excluded (Schoch et al.2021)—transformational leadership helped transform the school’s culture to accommodate the vast number of students. In order to accommodate the needs of various constituencies, school administrators have to alter the prevailing culture at their institutions. In the eyes of proponents of transformational leadership theory, a leader’s primary role is to motivate their team to improve their performance and create positive change by pushing them to new heights. According to the research, employees who believe in their leaders are likelier to put in the extra effort. Similarly, transformational leadership inspires teachers to expand their horizons through professional development opportunities, leading to outstanding results in the classroom.

There are four key tenets of transformational leadership. The first is personalized consideration, meaning leaders pay attention to their subordinates’ specific problems and goals and serve as a coach, mentor, or guide to help them overcome obstacles (Barnett, McCormick. and Conners, 2001). In the same vein, intellectual stimulation outlines actions that force leaders to question long-held beliefs, try new things, and ask for input from subordinates. Leaders encourage followers to test out novel approaches and go outside the box while dealing with organizational issues. Moreover, these leaders are characterized by inspiring motivation, the degree to which they communicate an exciting vision to inspire and encourage followers while providing them the trust they need to succeed beyond expectations (Barnett, McCormick. and Conners, 2001).

Regarding the idealized impact, these leaders’ moral and ethical standards serve as examples for their followers. Transform leaders have exceptional oratory abilities and win respect and loyalty of their followers. As a result, there is a robust correlation between transformative leadership and workforce performance. Principals prioritizing creating a culture of shared vision’ for their schools’ progress will benefit greatly from their transformational leadership qualities. Principals must cultivate transformational leadership abilities since this management style fosters an atmosphere conducive to creative problem-solving and creates a “shared vision” among workers.

Conclusion

The aim of the paper was to critically analyze that transformational leadership is the most appropriate in the education sector. The analysis shows that the key strategic priorities in the educational sector include enhancing the quality of education, enhancing accessibility of education for every learner irrespective of their social and economic backgrounds, and enhancing equity of education for all learners. However, the sector faces huge challenges that require transformative leadership to be solved. Based on our focus on the U.K. education sector, key challenges include funding and budgeting, teacher recruitment and retention, and narrowing the attainment gap. Transformational leadership refers to a leadership theory in which a leader helps teams or followers think beyond their immediate needs to identify the necessary transformation and then creates a vision to guide that change through inspiration, influence and the joint execution of dedicated members of an organization. Transformational leadership possesses key visionary, inspiring, problem-solving, and continuous and innovative skills. These qualities of transformational leaders are key in promoting cultural diversity and inclusivity in schools. Transformational leaders help the educational sector to adapt to the ever-changing technology and education environment to conform to the changes. Transformational leadership also helps in improving the performance of teachers and the school in general. These leaders are characterized by inspiring motivation, the degree to which they communicate an exciting vision to inspire and encourage followers while providing them the trust they need to succeed beyond expectations. From this analysis, I can develop the key strategic values and qualities of successful transformative leadership to help me be a successful leader in the future.

Reference List

Anderson, M., 2017. Transformational leadership in education: A review of existing literature. International Social Science Review93(1), pp.1-13.

Barnett, K., McCormick, J. and Conners, R., 2001. Transformational leadership in schools–panacea, placebo, or problem? Journal of educational administration.

Choi, T.S.T., et al. (2022) “Priority setting in higher education research using a mixed methods approach,” Higher Education Research and Development, pp. 1–15. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2022.2082389.

Duraku, Z.H. and Hoxha, L. (2021) “Impact of Transformational and Transactional Attributes of School Principal Leadership on Teachers’ Motivation for Work,” Frontiers in Education, 6. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2021.659919.

Home (2022). Available at: https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/sites/6bed6af4-en/index.html?itemId=/content/component/6bed6af4-en#:~:text=PrioritiesoftheMinistryofEducationandScience&text=1.,alleducationallevelsandmodalities.

Ingraham, P.W. and Getha-Taylor, H. (2004) “Leadership in the Public Sector,” Review of Public Personnel Administration, 24(2), pp. 95–112. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/0734371×04263323.

Kirby, P.C., Paradise, L.V. and King, M. (1992) “Extraordinary Leaders in Education: Understanding Transformational Leadership,” Journal of Educational Research, 85(5), pp. 303–311. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.1992.9941130.

Kulkarni, S. and Chima, P. (2021) “Challenges Faced by U.K. University Students Due to the Coronavirus Crisis in the Higher Education,” Peer Reviewed [Preprint]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202102.0192.v1.

Leithwood, K., 1993. Contributions of Transformational Leadership to School Restructuring.

Lunenburg, F.C., 2003. Emerging Perspectives: The Usefulness of the Construct of Transformational Leadership in Educational Organizations.

Prestiadi, D., Gunawan, I. and Sumarsono, R.B. (2020) “Role of Transformational Leadership in Education 4.0,” Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Education and Technology (ICET 2020) [Preprint]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.201204.020.

Schoch, S. et al. (2021) “Dual-Focused Transformational Leadership, Teachers’ Satisfaction of the Need for Relatedness, and the Mediating Role of Social Support,” Frontiers in Education, 6. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2021.643196.

The Biggest Challenges Facing the Education Sector (no date a). Available at: https://www.aimalittlehigher.com/blog/the-biggest-challenges-facing-the-education-sector.

Willis, C. (2022) Challenges in education facing the new Prime Minister – UK in a changing Europe. Available at: https://ukandeu.ac.uk/challenges-in-education-facing-the-new-prime-minister/.

Walmart Hyperledger Fabric Technology Sample Essay

Executive Summary

Food product labels always have mandatory government requirements, but they give little information about consumer concerns. Either, the consumer cannot verify the product details, such as their origin or days of shipment. Nonetheless, consumer groups are increasing awareness and pressure on their members to monitor food productivity channels for safety, sustainability, and unethical practices, such as child labor (Walmart, 2016). Fair trade labels should show product providence, complaints to statuary demands, and the value chain. Consumers are made to rely on this information just by looking at the Fair-Trade sticker.

Consequently, non-governmental organizations often use “antiquated techniques” (Kshetri, 2018) to validate fair trade information. The available online platforms or annual compliant audits can determine compliance. There is evidently a gap in fair trade verification claims made in food networks and chains. Walmart has made a milestone in piloting its Hyperledger Fabric with a lot of success, but with more milestones to cover regarding the blockchain effectiveness in implementation and cost.

Based on the Walmart Hyperledger Fabric pilot, blockchain technology presents companies with many business opportunities. The technology boasts modular architecture, offering plug-in components, such as custom identity management (Androulaki et al., 2018). Hyperledger Fabric promotes the building of a permissioned blockchain by restricting anonymous or pseudonymous accounts. The technology is highly scalable and offers fast performance since it does not rely on the POW algorithm or for crypto mining (Lee & Pilkington, 2017). Hyperledger Fabric offers partitioning channels to maximize higher data protection. Other advantages of blockchain technology include rich querying and hardware-based protection (Androulaki et al., 2018). Like Bitcoin, Hyperledger Fabric is a robust supply chain management tool.

Despite the opportunities presented by the technology, it still needs to improve as a management tool. Fabric is permissioned; therefore, it is not a public blockchain. This limits transparency in the chain (Androulaki et al., 2018). It is argued that the Fabric consensus is less secure than POW (Lacity & Van Hoek, 2021). On the other hand, Fabric apparently relies on crypto tokens as the incentive nodes to keep the network secure. Finally, there is only real immutability with POW in Fabric. Worth noting, Fabric will only be implemented in multi-billion multinational corporations because of the high cost involved in the infrastructural setup (Lee & Pilkington, 2017). Small businesses will find it difficult to enjoy the benefit of the technology. Walmart’s collaboration with IT giants, such as IBM through the IBM Food Trust, should address the current debates surrounding the effective implementation of the technology and make it an easy-to-adopt public chain management tool.

Introduction

Blockchain is a buzzword in the finance, technology, and academic sector; however, its integration into business processes still perplexes many people. Technology highly impact the business world, whether it is the Internet of a Thing (IoT), Artificial Intelligence, or Deep Learning (Lee & Pilkington, 2017). Blockchain nascent emerged in 2018, and it has revolutionized commercial activities. Blockchain popularity resulted from the success of Bitcoin, which became famous for its efficiency in transactions and high-security levels. As a result, blockchain has become a smart technology with many uses (Lee & Pilkington, 2017). Its Distributed Ledger Technology is considered a good fair trade tool with a high traceability and transparency of transactions. Walmart’s Hyperledger Fabric’s pilot studies have heightened the benefits and challenges of blockchain technology in the supply chain.

A supply chain is an entire process of delivering finished goods to the consumer. It is a highly complex system that involves various parties and is supported by strong communication and logistics. Because of the system’s complexity, often, the retailer needs help locating the products to the individual producer or in case of contamination to the specific product or container (Lee & Pilkington, 2017). The opaque operations are associated with many supply chain risks, including a lack of trust and problems with the traceability of the products. It also limits fair trade, linked to a sustainable, transparent, and trusted trading environment. Fair trade is becoming an essential business requirement in the 21st century as consumer awareness is heightening.

Blockchain is a Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) that became famous with Bitcoin. The history of technology can be traced back to 1000 years of European commerce. As distributed technology, the ledgers are shared and decentralized; as a result, it reduces trust issues in commerce since one ledger is open to all parties in an immutable data trail. Blockchain technology’s prominence is associated with the high business demand for fair trade and transparency ethics (Kamath, 2018). However, with the globalization of businesses, consumers lack the means to verify the source and credibility of their products. Sometimes the product labels are altered several times before they reach the consumers. The consumer, therefore, is at the mercy of the traders (Androulaki et al., 2018). The Distributed Ledger Technology in the supply chain is an open ledger that promotes an immutable data trail. Consumers can therefore verify the product traits. On the other hand, manufacturers and retailers can monitor best production practices and eliminate production malpractices. The Distributed Ledger Technology under permissioned blockchain can bring end-to-end traceability and transparency to products and allow consumers to verify product traits and provenance (Miraz & Ali, 2018). The ledger can promote supply chain sustainability by minimizing shutdowns observed during the Corona Virus outbreak. Cases of food contamination often result in an entire supply chain shutdown, even for weeks; however, with improved traceability, the source of contamination can be quickly established (WHO, 2017). This research documents the contribution of Distributed Ledger Technology in Walmart’s supply chain, constraints, opportunities, and possible threats. Despite blockchain technology implementation’s complexity and high cost, Walmart enjoys a sustainable and efficient supply chain.

Finding and Discussion

The critical nature of an effective supply chain became evident during Covid-19. During the pandemic, the lockdowns created an unexpected bottleneck in supply chains, with only a few companies surviving the pandemic. Based on such experiences, companies like Walmart opted to implement blockchain technology in their supply chain. In collaboration with IBM, Walmart has successfully piloted its Distributed Ledger Technology, Hyperledger Fabric (Walmart, 2016). Through technology, Walmart hopes to create a sustainable, transparent, and fair-trade environment.

Food Supply Chain Scandals

Many supply chain failures have promoted the need for a robust and traceable supply chain, Covid-19 being the most recent and worldwide scenario. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that over 48 million people contract foodborne diseases annually, while the World Health Organization estimates that one in ten people suffer food poisoning annually (WHO, 2017). In 2006, E.coli attacked the North American food chain affecting the entire distribution system and the clients. As a result, Restaurants and stores stopped stocking spinach while consumers could not buy the product. The supply chain was broken for two weeks as health officials tracked the supply of contaminated spinach (Yiannas, 2017). A fast-tracking mechanism to the one supply resulted in significant losses to farmers and retailers. Consumer trust was also lost for a significant period.

In 2011, China experienced a massive mislabeling debacle. During the incident, donkey meat products included fox meat. The products also contained trench oil, melamine, clenbuterol, Sudan red, Sanlu toxic milk powder, which is against the Chinese Government’s legal provisions (Hatton, 2015). The Office of Economic Cooperation and Development tracked the menace of misinformation along the food chain, waste in restaurants, decentralized storage of food, and coordination challenges in the health system. Other food supply chain crises worldwide include replacing beef and lamb horsemeat in the EU. This affected over 1000 tons of food and over 4.5 million people (Ruitenberg, 2013). In the year 2017, CDC linked 173 Salmonellosis to papayas contamination, resulting in 21 fatalities and 58 people being hospitalized (Yiannas, 2017). The entire papaya supply chain was affected for weeks.

The delays and inability to root out the source of food contamination in time are caused by the opaque nature of stock management. The one-up, one-down (OUOD) model is becoming obsolete. Based on this structure, a retailer only knows their immediate supplier and customer. Because of the supply chain’s opaqueness, there are investigation delays in case of food contamination (Walmart, 2016). Also, multi-ingredient food products might be difficult to trace because of the diverse parties involved. Blockchain technology offers high-level transparency and fast-tracking of ingredients, saving the entire supply chain by traceability in minutes (Hodge, 2017). Users have a shared truth, control of information, and ownership, adding to the credibility of the data. Blockchain data include audits, identification numbers, agricultural treatments, manufacturers, device updates, granted permissions, identified security issues, and safety protocols (McDermott, 2017). The information is collected in real-time and permanently stored in e-certificates.

Farm-to-Fork Pilot Study

Farm to fork pork pilot study was motivated by the Chinese Government’s outcry for modernization of the supply chain. The process starts at the pens where pigs are smart-tagged with bar codes (Walmart. (2016). The pig is then tracked across the activity line until it is packed. The technology employs radio frequencies and cameras across the entire production process. During transportation, the trucks are fixed with temperature and humidity sensors to monitor and report any deviation (Gale, 2017). Once generated, corrective mechanisms are initiated in a timely manner.

Blockchain allows fast, efficient and effective tracking of stores and distribution centers. The technology allows procurement managers to track stock by collecting data from humidity, and temperature, to expiry dates (Gale, 2017). According to Murphy (2016), store managers can employ QR codes to collect such data as farm origination, processing data, batch numbers, soil quality and fertilizers, shipping details, and storage information on the e-certificate. Walmart employs Global Trade Identification Number with batch numbers at high speed and level of accuracy (National Mango Board, 2017). Traceability improves confidence among buyers by ensuring food safety and reducing challenges associated with delays in tracing contaminations. The approach also cuts costs linked to recalls, involves all stakeholders, minimizes inefficient chain processes, and acts as a trigger in case of deviations (National Mango Board, 2017).

Mango Chain Pilot Study

In collaboration with IBM, Walmart conducted a Hyperledger-based blockchain technology to track sliced mangoes from Central and South America to North America. The tracking was prompted by the high susceptibility of mangoes and mango products to Salmonella and Listeria contamination (McDermott, (2017). Traceability would minimize recalls and time wastages while locating the source of contamination. At the pre-seeding, mangoes can be exposed so surface injuries, internal injuries, ripening disorders, and heat and cold injuries (National Mango Board, 2017). At the production level, farmers can pay slave wages, involve child labor, and undertake improper farm practices while applying fertilizers and pesticides. Blockchain technology can collect such data in real-time and precautionary measures can be taken against such producers.

According to Ontario AgriFood Technologies (2016), Walmart monitors every step in the supply chain. It checks fruit quality, at harvest, in the sheds, and at the wholesale and retail outlets. Through such observation, Walmart sort out mangoes that have injuries and which can be exposed to germs. Similar monitoring is conducted in the shed stage before shipments, during shipment, in trucks and in supermarkets (Simon, 2016). The approaches not only promote food quality but also ensure fast tracking to the farm in case of infection. The data is also shared with the households through stickers to promote safety and boost consumer trust.

Opportunities in SCM

Blockchain has hastened shipping processes and increased the level of accuracy by automating and digitizing the documentation processes. Many data can be captured within a significantly short time. It offers real-time traceability of products and provides the most accurate and reliable data. As a result, it reduces time wastage in case of contamination and disease tracking. Traditionally, it would take weeks to trace the source of contamination; however, with blockchain technology, the same can be done in minutes. Walmart, for example, can trace mangoes to a specific farm in up to 2.2 seconds (Kshetri, 2018). Economically, these reduce delays while tracking the source of contamination. It also boosts customers’ trust through proof of origin and compliance. The consumer can also verify the source and credibility of their products. In the opaque supply chain, the product labels could be altered several times before reaching the consumer market (Lacity & Van Hoek, 2021). The end user, therefore, was at the mercy of the traders. Therefore, blockchain contributes to the traceability of products and enhances supply chain sustainability. Most importantly, the technology promotes fair trade, an essential sustainable goal for most market players.

Analysis of the structural makeup of blockchain technology demonstrates many advantages to the stakeholders. It is a modular architecture with plug-in components, which makes it easier to build and manage than those used in Bitcoin (Miraz & Ali, 2018). The distributed technology is highly scalable and offers fast performance; as a result, it can accommodate any scale of the supply chain. Consequently, Hyperledger Fabric is partitioned to minimize the higher data protection market (Lacity & Van Hoek, 2021). Finally, the query system used in other technologies, such as bitcoin, is more secure and offers high data protection during sharing.

POCs have been linked to faster information sharing, a high level of security, and cutting middlemen, which lead to business optimization and lower costs. In collaboration with Maersk, Walmart has demonstrated the benefits of permissioned blockchain technology (Walmart, 2016). Cases of mislabeling or fraudulent activities are highlighted in the advanced stages of the supply chain with cryptography. Since the ledgers are decentralized, an immutable data trail promotes trust along the supply chain (Miraz & Ali, 2018). On the other hand, manufacturers can monitor all the activities on the farm, identify the best suppliers, and even promotes best practices. Manufacturers and retailers will enjoy the end-of-end traceability and transparency of products to promote provenance.

Threats and Challenges

The technical aspect of blockchain technology seems easy to implement and operate; however, it demands full cooperation and dedication from every stakeholder. According to Lee and Pilkington (2017), it is a challenge for everyone to cooperate in implementing technological demands. The cost of IoT and RFID is high, and only big companies can manage them; hence, the technology limits some people from operating in the market (Lacity & Van Hoek, 2021). Again, 24hrs functioning and security of the devices are critical. Petersen et al. (2017) consider The Distributed Ledger Technology to be in its earlier stages; hence its full impact is unknown, and a lot of research is needed to establish the real impact of the technology. More so, there is no evidence to quantify the use of technology. Like any other new technology, the lack of regulations paints an unclear picture of the future of its use. The technology is prone to harm; such as when the fright is attacked or exposed to bad weather. In such cases, they cannot continue to operate in normalcy. Walmart Fabric is permission; hence it locks down only members in the blockchain (Petersen et al., 2017). The transparency, therefore, is not made to the public. Worth noting is that Fabric will rely on crypto tokens as the incentive nodes to keep the network secure; this exposes it to the volatility of the crypto market.

Conclusion

Walmart pilot studies have shown that blockchain is more veracious, scalable, trusted, and transparent in the food industry. Traceability has been considered an important modern trend; it reduces delays associated with food chain examination to establish the source of contamination. The Fabric is solving Walmart’s supply chain and being piloted for global use to spur economic and social growth by limiting supply chain bottlenecks. The Fabric is a business-driven technology-enabled with a focus on smooth supply chain management, long-term goodwill, cost-reduction, and revenue generation. For its success, it should ensure value for the entire stakeholders: the farmers, manufacturers, and consumers with its robust traceability, transparency, and trust. Fabric is expected to contribute towards fair trade and sustainable supply chain management. However, it still suffers from cost and implementation challenges. The technology is also relatively new, and its success cannot be guaranteed.

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