Iraq, a conflict-ridden, sectarian, and corrupt country, has been in crisis for the longest time, attributable to Islamic extremists’ control and concurrent civil war. The US involvement in the conflict was a costly affair. The big question remains, was the war worth the cost? The movie Losing Iraq attempts to explain what went south and how the chaos unfolded, pulling the US back into the war. The documentary draws on military leaders and policymakers’ interviews tracing US involvement since the 2003 raid to present violence and what has remained of Iraq. The film depicts the tragic accrual of several miscalculations and mistakes, and the crisis witnessed now is due to fateful choices. In the film, critical political stories are exposed which are behind some of the defining moments in Iraq’s warfare, from the toppling of Saddam Hussein’s statue to Abu Ghraib and Fallujah, also highlighting the US part in forming Nouri’s Al-Maliki government who, was then a prime minister and the attempt to restrain this regime. The film also touches on the violent escalation of ISIS – a radical jihadist group and the leaders of Sunni tribes. US involvement in the war was considered iconic but eventually turned out to be ironic.
In the movie’s first scene, commotion in Firdo’s Square lays out Chandrasekaran’s opinion that the Iraq war would last for many days despite US forces’ victorious trudge into Baghdad and a series of mistakes and fiction. The story accumulated here – built on many years of frontline reporting – is filled with flawed assumptions, abject ineptitude, mistakes, and arrogance. In observation, such faults may seem obvious since many speakers range from military leaders like Daniel Petraeus and Jack Keane to journalists like Dexter Filkins and Chandrasekaran to government officials like Ryan Crocker and Paul Bremer made this case.
The film comprehensively details key happening that resulted in Iraq’s invasion in 2003 and the subsequent efforts to restore the country that eventually failed. This film seems to be a valuable educational tool for history students as it strives to simplify the intricacies of American overseas policies and the implications of military involvement. Some scenes in the film highlight crucial themes and moments that have historical relevance.
The film starts with an opening that prepares how events will unfold. This prologue brings to light the repercussions of the 1991 Gulf War and the sanctions imposed on Iraq after that, causing a devastating effect on Iraq’s infrastructure and economy. Still in the opening, key players responsible for influencing America’s plan towards Iraq are introduced, including George Bush- the President, his deputy Dick Cheney, and Donald Rumsfeld, the defense secretary.
The film probes into the occurrences that resulted in Iraq’s invasion in 2003, highlighting the Bush regime’s claim that Iraq has links with Al-Qaeda and possessed mass destruction weapons (WMDs) which justified the attack (Kirk 5:00). The film continues to demonstrate how these claims were later recognized as false and how the intelligence instigating these assertions was flawed.
Seventeen minutes in the film seems particularly relevant as it digs into the Bush regime decision-making progression that resulted in the invasion (Kirk 17:00). Neoconservative ideologies’ roles in influencing American foreign policies are highlighted, and how the desire for Iraq’s regime revolution influenced Bush administration move to be involved in the conflict. Also, the film depicts how nonconformist articulation within the regime was silenced and marginalized, resulting in a groupthink approach that eventually occasioned the attack.
The movie transitions to highlight the challenges Iraq faced in rebuilding after the invasion phase. Besides, the failure and incapability of the Coalition Provision Authority (CPA) to offer Iraqi citizens basic services is shown (Kirk 28:00). Also, CPA’s move to disperse the Iraqi military and Ba’ath party purge members from the administration agencies led to Iraq way into chaos as per the film.
Thirty-eight minutes in, the film explores the upsurge of Iraq sectarianism and how this facilitated the state’s instability (Kirk 38:00). The movie shows how the minority- Sunni tribe, which had subjugated Iraq during Saddam Hussein regime felt excluded and sidelined from the establishing political order which resulted to the growth of insurgency groups from Sunni including Al-Qaeda responsible for waging a violent campaign against the government led by Shiite.
The files explore Iran’s role in influencing Iraq’s post-invasion period. The movie depicts how Iran leveraged its power to back Shiite militias and the political party’s facilitation of Iraq’s sectarian divide. It is also shown how the failure of the US to engage Iran with its resolve on an isolation policy led to Iraq’s continued instability.
The intensification of violence that unfolded in Iraq between 2006 and 2007 seems a relevant historical event. The US decision to adopt a new counterinsurgency strategy and to surge troop levels headed by General Petraeus saw a drop in violence (Kirk 55:00). Besides, the film exemplifies military force limitation in attaining lasting stability and just how the basic social and political problem in Iraq persisted unsettled. The US extraction from Iraq and its legacy are explored at the movie’s end.
This movie is a great educational tool because it helps unravel the occurrences that resulted in Saddam Hussein’s downfall and the succeeding rise of ISIS. As an edification film, a comprehensive scrutiny of complex social and political dynamics that have molded modern Iraq has been explored. The motives behind the Iraq attack have been highlighted in the movie, including the Bush regime’s unsure conclusion that Saddam had mass destruction weapons, which endangered the US. The invasions aftermath was also represented in the film, including the upsurge of sectarian conflict and the challenge the US military encountered when trying to stabilize Iraq.
What stands outs about this film is that it utilized primary sources such as military personnel and key policymakers’ interview from those involved in the war. Besides, these sources offer firsthand explanations of the processes that resulted in Iraq’s invasion, including decision-making. The sources help understand the following Iraq’s occupation and assist in contextualizing events that unfolded during and after the war. Also, a nuanced exploration of social and political dynamics resulted in all this. The film examines how different religious and ethnic groups had a complex relationship and the tension between Iraq citizens and the US military.
Regarding aesthetics, the movie utilized various news clips, key events, dramatic responses, interviews, and archival footage. The sound design and visuals used in the film convey tension and urgency feeling, while the editing approach is disorienting and fast-paced, showing the nature of the chaotic conflict. From the context, it offers a good experience and, more so, acts as a warning tale regarding the likely implication of military engagement in politically and intricate fraught situations.
Kirk,Jim, Michael. “Losing Iraq.” PBS, 29 July 2014.Accessed from www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/documentary/losing-iraq/.
Managing Health Care Information Systems Sample Assignment
Prevalence of Technology in Care Settings
Technology in care settings is one of the concepts found in chapter one of the textbook. Healthcare technologies include EHRs, artificial intelligence, IT systems, medical devices, blockchain, algorithms and the cloud. These technologies are designed to support the effective operations of healthcare organizations. In healthcare settings, technology is used to minimize errors, protect patients’ privacy, prevent adverse drug reactions and improve overall care.
Technologies such as EHRs have been adopted by about 99% of hospitals in the United States and physicians represent the only department running below the expected figure. The hospital and physician office settings are behind in the adoption of EHRs. Many technologies are always found at the point of care or bedside and these comprise computer terminals, literature databases and access point records that monitor biometric measures like blood pressure and pulse. The other technology applied in healthcare for patient safety includes smart technology and medication dispensing cabinets. It is noted that smart technology comprises infusion pumps that enhance the administration of medication by linking with the pharmacy, provider order entry and systems of medication administration. These technologies used in healthcare also include implantable devices like defibrillators, insulin pumps, pacemakers and several telehealth technologies like telestroke consultations. The telestroke consultations enhance communication between stroke patients, caregivers and attending families with the neurologist from another site.
Technology in healthcare is analysed and evaluated based on several measures such as cost-benefits, failure analysis and technology benchmarking. Based on failure analysis, good technology is supposed to have no or limited failures during applications. Failure analysis asses the technology for several failures. The errors of technology should be captured during analysis to prevent users’ inconveniences and frustrations. Bench-making involves comparing available technologies with expected healthcare outcomes. This will include measures that determine the best practice mastery, performance, and best models of practice. Healthcare technologies should meet the benchmark‘s expectations. Based on cost-benefit analysis, technologies are implemented in healthcare for benefits such as improving efficiency.
Orem’s theory of self-care
This theory is one of the concepts from chapter two of the textbook. The theory provides a framework for studying patients with chronic diseases. Orem’s theory considers self-care as the activities people should participate in to restore, maintain and improve their health, life and well-being. It emphasizes the abilities of individuals to perform self-care.
Orem’s theory of self-care is used in healthcare to help nurses determine the aspects of patient care and what they should concentrate on when dealing with a patient. The theory is noted to stress the importance of patients maintaining autonomy over their processes of self-care. The theory guides nurses on how they should intervene to help patients in maintaining autonomy. Orem’s theory enables nurses to determine if the patient is experiencing a self-care deficit by gathering information about the patient such as needs, goals, health and capacity. The theory helps nurses implement strategies that help patients deal with their self-care deficit and also work with patients to help them meet their self-care needs. For instance, nurses can provide reminders and motivation for self-care as a way of helping patients maintain their hygiene.
The theory is analysed and evaluated based on the principle of self-care which is achieved after enhancing well-being and health among people. These people or patients should perform these activities independently with the help of nurses to achieve self-care. The theory is evaluated based on the personal responsibilities of patients that enables them to achieve good health. In addition, this theory should also be analysed and evaluated based on the efforts of nurses in preventing patient injuries, diseases and training for the betterment of health.
Data sharing is another concept selected from chapter three of the textbook. Data sharing is defined as the process of availing the same data resources for several users, applications and organizations. This process includes practices, technologies, cultural elements and legal frameworks which facilitate secure access to data for several entities without data integrity compromising. Healthcare information is shared or exchanged with various systems to improve care quality, minimize redundant tests and improve public confidence in healthcare settings.
An excellent example of data sharing is when doctors share information about recent patients ‘visits with hospital consultants or physiotherapists. Healthcare providers are noted to gather data about the health of patients and use it in understanding their medical history. This information is shared between systems to enable the different service providers to see and understand the patient’s medical records. Data sharing improves workflows and collaboration of providers in healthcare. It also improves the accuracy and security of data used in the coordination of care while availing the right data at the right time to the right people. Data sharing also helps healthcare providers and scientists to research new drugs, treatments, and devices and also enables health professionals to gain more understanding of the diseases affecting patients.
The data sharing concept in healthcare is analysed and evaluated based on the impacts it causes on healthcare, trustworthiness and timeliness. The data sharing process should positively better the health of patients since it involves exchanging the medical records of patients. This process should result in the invention of new medicine and treatment practices. The data-sharing process should also be trusted by all parties involved in the exchange of data. The shared data should be valid, reasonable and understandable without any biases. Lastly, the process of exchanging data or health information should be timely, meaning that the information should be transmitted electronically and delivered on time to enable healthcare providers and professionals to take immediate action.
Hebda, T. L., Czar, P., & Hunter, K. (2018). Handbook of Informatics for Nurses & Healthcare Professionals (6th ed.). Pearson Education (US).
Managing Infections In The Emergency Room Free Essay
Patients present to the emergency room with various medical ailments, including infectious infections, in a hectic and stressful atmosphere (Houghton et al., 2020). A crucial part of patient care in the emergency room is properly managing infections since prompt treatment can stop the spread of infection and possibly save lives (Houghton et al., 2020). However, the Emergency Room also presents particular difficulties concerning infection management, such as crowding, a lack of resources, and regular patient incidences. Some measures such as hand hygiene, screening, general hygiene and sanitation, and primary and supplementary precautions could be instrumental in combating Hospital Associated Infections (HAIs). Gathering information and understanding the obstacles to effective infection control and prevention is critical to instituting measures to prevent HAIs.
The rationale for the capstone topic
Infection control issues have been elevated to the top priority list. The emergency unit is an essential area that needs the most attention. Due to their weakened health and numerous entrance points for a range of pathogenic organisms, the clients in this situation are highly susceptible to infections (Houghton et al., 2020). The efficacy of the sub-sequential management processes can be harmed by improper patient handling regarding non-adherence to infection prevention. According to CDC (2021), 1 in every 31 hospitalized patients is treated for HAIs daily. One in every ten affected patients dies from the infection (WHO, 2022). This is a vast number, necessitating measures to eradicate HAIs. Thus, instituting and adhering to infection control and prevention protocols ensure a reduction in the number of HAI cases and promote the efficacy of sub-sequential management processes.
Background and significance of the proposed topic
The emergency room is just as crucial as other departments, like the inpatient unit. Poorly implemented infection control measures have been theorized to result in most HAIs in emergency rooms (Habboush et al., 2022). To facilitate infection management, the necessary precautions and resources for infection prevention control must be availed (Houben et al., 2021). Sadly, the effects of contamination in the emergency room may not be immediately noticeable. Still, they may do so later, especially after the patients have been transported to an inpatient facility for additional care (Bearman et al., 2019). Therefore, measures are needed to satisfy infection prevention and control criteria.
In hospitalized patients, do appropriate infection control and prevention measures compared to prophylactic antibiotics affect HAI prevalence rates?
Studies have shown that appropriate Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) measures in emergency rooms are essential to eradicating most HAIs. Many authors have stressed the importance of asepsis, particularly while carrying out a wide variety of procedures, especially invasive ones (Alhumaid et al., 2021). The latter is highly transferable to the hospital setting. Hence, it is essential to investigate any obstacles hindering infection prevention in the ER. Hand hygiene, screening, general hygiene and sanitation, and primary and supplementary precautions are all examples of clinical best practices (CBPs) that have been shown to reduce the spread of infection in healthcare settings (Tchouaket et al., 2020). For example, the COVID-19 pandemic showed how vital the four CBPs are in stopping the spread of disease (Tchouaket et al., 2020).
Recent research reveals that everyone in the emergency room (from medical staff to patients to visitors) shares some of the blame for the spread of disease (Manchanda, Suman & Singh, 2018). Hence, a focus on education, surveillance of infection rates with periodic replies, and analysis of compliance with infection regulation measures are necessary to lower the frequency of infections in various emergency departments. Furthermore, the report argues that two central ideas define the essential procedures that must be taken to limit the spread of Hospital Associated Infections (HAIs) in healthcare settings (Manchanda, Suman & Singh, 2018). Before taking any preventive steps, the source of the virus must be isolated. Examples include isolating sick individuals with an infectious disease and using other aseptic precautions to prevent the spread of disease or contamination to healthy tissue (Manchanda, Suman & Singh, 2018). High-risk areas, such as operating theaters and hospitals, are much safer after being cleaned, disinfected, and sterilized (Manchanda, Suman & Singh, 2018).
Studies need to be carried out to identify the gaps in implementing these measures that have been proven effective. This will facilitate the drafting of recommendations to enhance IPC.
Proposal Plan Description
This study will incorporate doctors, nurses, cleaners, and the hospital management team. These are crucial resources for understanding the challenges of infection prevention on the ward (McCauley et al., 2021). Recognizing the significance of their involvement in the patient’s care and maintenance will allow them to take the necessary precautions to avoid spreading infection (McCauley et al., 2021). The nurse manager will give insights into the infection prevention policy of the ward and state the gaps they have identified in implementing the policy. The rest of the nurses will be required to provide information on the challenges they face in controlling infection in the ward, including information on waste segregation and disposal. The cleaners are responsible for the general hygiene of the ward. They will give information on the exact places they clean and the frequency at which they do. Moreover, the hospital management team will offer essential information on providing resources for implementing infection control measures in the emergency rooms. The data collected will be used to develop a strategy for making the necessary changes.
The curriculum needs to accommodate their needs as well. For instance, one study found that healthcare providers mentioned various reasons that affect their ability and desire to adhere to particular infection control regulations when treating contagious respiratory diseases (Houghton et al., 2020). Considerations like management’s buy-in, an encouraging work environment, thorough training, an appropriate physical space, and adequate safety gear all played a role (Houghton et al., 2020).
This project aims to identify obstacles to appropriate infection control in hospital emergency rooms to recommend adjustments to reduce the cases of HAIs. The project will be implemented in five hospitals in Texas. It is a one-year project that will take place from May 2023 to May 2024. The data collection and analysis will be done in one month, and change training will commence. By the end of the project, emergency rooms in our five target hospitals will observe proper IPC measures and reduce the number of HAIs by 85%.
Using the Texas Department of State Health Services data, I can determine the five hospitals with the highest rates of HAIs. I will then propose my project to the specific hospital management boards. With their permission, I will select my target population, which will include five doctors, ten nurses, two cleaners, and three members of the hospital management team in each hospital. The selection criteria will be based on how long these people have been in contact with the emergency room. The participants must have been in contact with the emergency room for at least six months. I will obtain informed consent from all participants before rolling out the study.
The data collection methods will comprise questionnaires, in-person interviews, and observation. I will administer questionnaires to all participants to acquire information on their knowledge of different infection prevention measures. The in-person interviews will collect information on the department’s challenges in implementing IPC measures. I will do an observational study to establish how IPC measures are implemented in various situations in the emergency rooms.
I will group information regarding the professionals associated with the specific shortcomings to analyze the data collected. I will also tailor the analysis to each hospital to develop facility-specific recommendations. Based on the data collection, I will identify areas that need adjustments.
Once the analysis is done and areas of change are identified, I will draft my recommendations and present them to the hospital management. I will then request a go-ahead to conduct training to implement the changes. The training will be done through Continuous Medical Education (CME) sessions. Doctors, nurses, cleaners, and managers will be trained separately since they perform different roles in the hospital. The training will be done monthly in the five hospitals through a presentational format.
The research’s conclusions will help point out specific areas for improvement. As one would now understand how and why one should adhere to the prescribed infection protocols, there shall be a need to raise awareness to inspire the change process (Alhumaid et al., 2021). According to a study, understanding Healthcare Workers (HCWs) is essential for successful infection control. Lack of familiarity with Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) regulations, forgetfulness of preventive indications during routine patient care, and unknown risks of transferring diseases all work against IPC compliance (Alhumaid et al., 2021). Ignorance of the appropriateness, effectiveness, and use of IPC measures leads to low compliance. Hence, instruction and training are foundational for building IPC practices to overcome these challenges. As HCWs, we must never underestimate the value of education (Alhumaid et al., 2021). With this, their participation will facilitate a smooth transition.
The effectiveness of the project will be assessed by measuring the number of HAI cases reported at the end of the one year of implementation. This data will be assessed against the number of cases at the beginning of the project in May 2023. The percentage of the difference in the data between the two will be computed. An 85% decrease in cases will mean I will have achieved the project’s objective. A slight decrease in the cases will denote that the measures are effective but must be vigorously implemented.
The decline in hospital readmissions could indicate the overall effect of the patients’ stays in the units to which they are moved from the trauma department. As a result, the latter will complement the inpatient departments’ initiatives, resulting in faster recovery times and lower rates of hospital-acquired illnesses (Azak et al., 2023). However, the inability to monitor patients’ progress after being transferred to the facility where they are managed further may make it difficult to assess the effects (Manchanda et al., 2018). Having an entry book where the people are listed, the wards they are transferred to, and their progress can help lessen the latter.
I will publish my project, including every step of the study. I will provide a detailed analysis of the collected data and recommendations. I will include the methods used in the study and document information on the evaluation of the study. I will distribute this report to hospitals in Texas through the Department of health services. I will also make a copy of this report available online for public viewing.
Moreover, I will be keen to attend health education workshops and present this report in such forums. I will request the department of state health services to facilitate continuous education programs where I will be able to make a presentation of my recommendations across hospitals in Texas. This will ensure enormous coverage and translate into positive health outcomes.
Excellent health outcomes controlled under the factors that have been identified and mitigated, leading to positive health outcomes for patients, will indicate the efficacy of infection prevention control measures in the emergency unit (Harun et al., 2022). Patients would benefit from the proposed approach since it emphasizes developing essential self-care skills and strict adherence to core principles of HAI management, such as sanitation and high hygiene (Harun et al., 2022). The hospital’s emergency department nurse manager can provide supervisory assistance until a culture of procedure adherence is established and sustained.
In preparing for this study, I interviewed an infection prevention and control expert. I was committed to knowing the current developments in this field. They stated categorically that there is an overwhelming challenge in the number of healthcare staff who are adequately trained in implementing IPC protocols. This brought out the need to train healthcare workers on appropriate IPC practices.
The proposal is crucial in establishing a foundation for the necessary changes. The management and worker are both aware if they share similar opinions about the obstacles to infection control in the emergency room. When everyone agrees about what to do at each intervention to limit the risk of infection, the employees’ and customers’ health and safety are better protected. The transition is more likely to go off without a hitch.
Alhumaid, S., Al Mutair, A., Al Alawi, Z., Alsuliman, M., Ahmed, G. Y., Rabaan, A. A., Al-Tawfiq, J. A., & Al-Omari, A. (2021). Knowledge of infection prevention and control among healthcare workers and factors influencing compliance: a systematic review. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13756-021-00957-0.
Azak, E., Sertcelik, A., Ersoz, G., Celebi, G., Eser, F., Batirel, A., … Kaya Kalem, A. (2023). Evaluation of the implementation of WHO infection prevention and control core components in Turkish health care facilities: results from a WHO infection prevention and control assessment framework (IPCAF)—based survey. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13756-023-01208-0.
Bearman, G., Doll, M., Cooper, K., & Stevens, M. P. (2019). Hospital Infection Prevention: How Much Can We Prevent and How Hard Should We Try? Current Infectious Disease Reports, 21(1). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11908-019-0660-2.
CDC. (2021, June 21). Health Topics – HAI – POLARIS. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/policy/polaris/healthtopics/hai/index.html#:~:text=Onanygivenday1
Habboush, Y., Yarrarapu, S. N. S., & Guzman, N. (2022). Infection Control. PubMed; StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519017/#:~:text=Poorinfectioncontrolprogramslead
Harun, M. G. D., Anwar, M. M. U., Sumon, S. A., Hassan, M. Z., Haque, T., Mah-E-Muneer, S., … Kaydos-Daniels, S. C. (2022). Infection prevention and control in tertiary care hospitals of Bangladesh: results from WHO infection prevention and control assessment framework (IPCAF). Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13756-022-01161-4.
Houben, F., van Hensbergen, M., Den Heijer, C. D. J., Dukers-Muijrers, N. H. T. M., & Hoebe, C. J. P. A. (2021). Barriers and facilitators to infection prevention and control in Dutch residential care facilities for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities: A theory-informed qualitative study. PLOS ONE, 16(10), e0258701. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0258701.
Houghton, C., Meskell, P., Delaney, H., Smalle, M., Glenton, C., Booth, A., Chan, X. H. S., Devane, D., & Biesty, L. M. (2020). Barriers and facilitators to healthcare workers’ adherence with infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines for respiratory infectious diseases: a rapid qualitative evidence synthesis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4(4). https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd013582.
Manchanda, V., Suman, U., & Singh, N. (2018). Implementing Infection Prevention and Control Programs When Resources Are Limited. Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases, 10(1), 28–39. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40506-018-0142-3.
McCauley, L., Kirwan, M., & Matthews, A. (2021). The factors contributing to missed care and non-compliance in infection prevention and control practices of nurses: A scoping review. International Journal of Nursing Studies Advances, p. 3, 100039. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnsa.2021.100039.
Tchouaket Nguemeleu, E., Beogo, I., Sia, D., Kilpatrick, K., Séguin, C., Baillot, … Boivin, S. (2020). Economic analysis of healthcare-associated infection prevention and control interventions in medical and surgical units: a systematic review using a discounting approach. Journal of Hospital Infection, 106(1), 134–154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2020.07.004.
WHO. (2022). WHO launches first ever global report on infection prevention and control. Www.who.int. https://www.who.int/news/item/06-05-2022-who-launches-first-ever-global-report-on-infection-prevention-and-control#:~:text=Todayoutofevery100