Exploring The Effects Of Organizational Culture And Dynamics On The Success Of Businesses Writing Sample

Chapter One

Introduction and Research Background

Background and Rationale of the Research

Over the past decades, there have been rapid changes in business management. The changes are constituted by the new hostile marketplace competition and the growing diverse workforce in numerous businesses (Besley & Persson, 2022). Convolutions in business surroundings have forced businesses to seek more effective strategies to manage activities. The pattern of progression of almost all profitable businesses outlines that they have evolved via periods of incremental changes as a result of shifts in the environment (Janićijević, 2020). In this interest, an emphasis on organizational culture and dynamics has become significant to all business sectors (Nguyen, 2015). Research provides enough evidence that their performances improve when workers are directed or guided by the same values and norms in their workplaces. Organizational culture is crucial for unifying numerous company cultures in a corporate group structure.

One of the key theories that address the issue of developing a competitive advantage in changing environments is the dynamic capabilities approach that identifies the aptitudes of an organization to adapt an organization’s resource base decisively. Thus, dynamic organizations are expected to incorporate a culture where innovativeness and creativity are stimulated and a culture focused on realizing set goals and objectives (Besley & Persson, 2022). Even though numerous authors and researchers outline organizational culture as significant in sustaining a business’s dynamic nature and illustrating cultural characteristics that would enhance business success, they hardly offer empirical support for such assertions. Business managers may utilize this research to advance their understanding of the role of organizational culture and dynamics in enhancing the success of a business (Handayani et al., 2018). Therefore, this research provides a thorough explanation of how organizational culture and dynamics influence business success.

Problem Statement

Organizational culture and dynamics play an essential role in the development of a business (Janićijević, 2020). In this interest, poor cultural integration negatively influences organizational performance. It is important to note that ample research has been conducted on the effects of organizational culture on significant organizational activity, such as employee commitment and job performance (Ellinas et al., 2022). However, very few research has been conducted in the context of restaurant businesses, particularly the Ledbury restaurant in the UK. Therefore, this research aims to explore the company’s culture and its effect on the business’s overall success and effectiveness.

Purpose of the Research

This research aims to determine the impacts of organizational culture and dynamics on the success of businesses, precisely, the Ledbury restaurant in the UK.

Significance of the Research

The study’s results may be helpful to business managers facing difficulties when trying to advance workers’ performances and productivity of businesses because it will contribute experiences and knowledge on the role and importance of organizational cultures. The study will also be crucial to employees because they will gain an understanding of a safe cultural environment. Also, the study will be essential for policymakers seeking a reference point in formulating policies on organizational culture. The study will serve as a reference for researchers and academia interested in researching the current topic. Further, findings from the research might shed light on the credibility and relevance of theories upon which the research is founded.

Research Question

What are the effects of organizational culture and dynamics on the success of Ledbury restaurant?

Main Objective

The main objective of the research is to determine the impact of organizational culture and dynamics on the success of the Ledbury restaurant business.

General Objectives

To examine the impacts and importance of culture on the performance and effectiveness of a business

To determine the role of culture in the organizational dynamics

To explore the characteristics of organizational culture

Chapter Two: Literature Review

This chapter will incorporate an empirical framework that will discuss various studies associated with organizational culture and dynamics as well as its influence on the success of a business. Besides, the chapter will include a theoretical framework incorporating theories significant to the study.

Theoretical Framework

The theory of organizational excellence developed by Robert Waterman and Thomas Peters in 2014 illustrates that cultures adopted by an organization are directly connected to its success. The authors suggest that successful firms are characterized by cultural practices emphasizing entrepreneurship, closeness to clients, simplicity, economic resource utilization, lean staff, value-based efforts, and productivity (Osborne, 2006). In this case, organizations are more likely to succeed if their cultural values offer stakeholders room and opportunity to perform. Therefore, the excellence of Ledbury restaurant can be traced back to its cultural attributes. On the other hand, the Dynamic Capability (DC) theory, founded by Teece, Pisano, and Shuen in 1997, states that organizations should reconfigure their strategies and resources to attain a competitive advantage and enhance superior performances in the rapidly changing environment. The authors suggest that to respond to a changing working environment efficiently; organizations should consider or address the role of organizational culture (Aghimien et al., 2021). Therefore, the two theories significantly outline the importance of organizational culture to the success of a business.

Empirical Framework

Concepts of Organization Culture and Dynamics

Organizational culture incorporates norms, beliefs, values, and behaviors that organization members experience and describe in their work settings (Xenikou & Furnham, 2013). The norms help shape how members interact with one another and how they behave and adapt to acquire positive results (Olson, 2003, Xenikou & Furnham, 2013). According to Olson (2003), culture is found in any organization and is used to set frameworks for stakeholder behaviors. On the other hand, organization dynamics is how businesses continuously strengthen resources to enhance employee performance and organizational development. Seeking new business opportunities requires a culture through which innovativeness and creativity are enthused. (Besley & Persson, 2022) In this case, understanding a firm’s culture is essential to the development and growth of organizations because it provides a robust competitive advantage.

Characteristics of Organization Culture

Culture provides a sense of identity to members of an organization (Janićijević, 2020). The more clearly and succinctly shared values and perceptions have been defined, the more sturdily individuals associate with an organization’s goals and feel they are essential. As indicated above, organizational culture is a set of shared values and norms held by an organization’s members (Teichman, 2022). The shared norms are a pattern of several crucial features. The characteristics incorporate risk-taking and innovation, attention to detail, outcome orientation, people orientation, team orientation, aggressiveness, and stability.

Importance and Functions of Organization Culture

Culture’s importance in an organization manifests in numerous ways (Teichman, 2022). Culture guides how workers in an organization interact and helps promote healthy competition and relationships in the workplace (SUMAJA, 2020). Besides, organizational culture represents specific predefined policies that give employees a sense of direction and help develop a positive brand image (Janićijević, 2020). Culture brings members of an organization on a common platform to enhance teamwork and unity (Ellinas et al., 2022). In this case, the author states that organizational culture is a social glue that brings people together to make them feel like part of an organizational experience (Nikpour, 2017). In their research, Felipe et al. (2017) examine that the social glue is significant in attracting new staff and retaining top-performing workers. Culture assists employees in comprehending events and enables them to communicate more efficiently to enhance cooperation (Felipe et al., 2017, Janićijević, 2020, Nikpour, 2017). In addition, a robust organizational culture supports organizational development by motivating workers toward a shared objective and goal (Ellinas et al., 2022).

Further, organizational culture promotes discipline and creativity to facilitate a continuous and balanced performance (Teichman, 2022). Teichman (2022) suggests that even though the authors indicated a strong association between culture to staff attrition, levels of commitment, and positive work attitudes, they did not indicate how culture directly leads to improved organizational performance and success. Therefore, a shared sense of direction, purpose, and strategy fosters identification and strengthens members’ actions toward achieving an organization’s visions and goals.

Effects of Organizational Culture on Employees

When building an influential culture, organizations must create clear principles that adhere to a firm’s overall goals (Nikpour, 2017). In this case, the process of transmitting culture within an organization function on both the top-down and bottom-up level, meaning that employees should put the goal at heart and work hard towards achieving it (SUMAJA, 2020, Nikpour, 2017). Besides, an effective organizational culture enables firms to attract new talents because people always choose firms whose culture interlocks well with their personalities (SUMAJA, 2020). SUMAJA (2020) outlines that organizational culture helps attract talent and enables firms to retain their employees, making it easy to reduce excessive turnover, time, and cost used in training other employees. In addition, organizational culture helps workers to truly feel as if they have been invested in their job, a situation that increases their passion and motivation to perform, thus increasing innovation and creativity (Teichman, 2022). Further, organizational culture gives workers a sense of identity, commitment, belonging, and unity.

Chapter 3: Methodology

This chapter will describe the methodological techniques employed in the current study to accomplish set aims and objectives. The study will incorporate research philosophy, approach and strategy, method, design, sampling strategy, data collection instrument and procedure, data analysis, ethical considerations, and limitations.

Research Philosophy

Three key research philosophies include epistemology, axiology, and ontology. Epistemology is the most used type of philosophy in all academic research. Interpretivism, positivism, pragmatism, and realism are perceptions of the epistemology philosophy (Zahle, 2021). The current research will utilize the interpretivist approach to help seek the meaning of various concepts associated with the research topic. The technique will be efficient for the study because it is qualitative, will help in stressing the exploration of intricacies of organizational practices and norms, and provide subjective data and participant’s perceptions to determine the effects of organizational culture and dynamics on the success of businesses (Zahle, 2021).

Research Approach and Strategy

The current research will utilize an inductive research approach, a method through which emergent and naturalistic research design is utilized to create better theoretical viewpoints that already exist in the literature. It will suit the research because it exploits the qualitative research method and stresses the importance of assessing critical literature (Okoli, 2021). Therefore, the method will help explore issues and seek stories regarding organizational culture. Numerous strategies are used in research, including grounded theory, case study, surveys, archival study, ethnography, action, and experimental research. The current research will make use of the case study strategy. The strategy will assist the researcher in completely comprehending the functional links in the study contexts (Fridlund, 1997). Besides, the strategy will help provide a holistic and in-depth research solution description.

Methodological Choice

The research will employ a qualitative research technique to determine the impacts of organizational culture on a business’s success. It is an inquiry process that enables researchers to comprehend human and social subjects and is carried in their natural phenomenon. It is an objective, systematic, and formal process that utilizes numerical data to obtain vital information on the study topic. (Bhandari, 2023) The technique will be the most effective for the current research because it will help determine patterns, make vital predictions, test casual relationships, and generalize results to a broader study population. In addition, it will help the researcher obtain in-depth knowledge of the study topic. The method will provide reliable and precise information and help the researcher analyze participants’ behaviors, feelings, and attitudes. Further, qualitative research will encourage participants to discuss the topic and fulfill set goals and objectives thoroughly.

Sampling and Sampling Technique

Two types of sampling techniques used in research include the probability and non-probability sampling methods. The non-probability technique, precisely the purposive sampling method will be utilized in this research. The method will help the researcher to select the most significant and suitable samples. The samples will be chosen based on knowledge and credibility, so only suitable participants will be engaged in the study (Patton, 2007). Participants selected according to the management level will be drawn from Ledbury restaurant in the UK. In this case, a sample size of twelve individuals will be used. The sample size will be efficient because it will provide a detailed description of the topic under study and make it easy to evaluate the representativeness of samples and generalize outcomes. Therefore, a high-quality sampling will provide valuable insights into the research question and objectives.

Data Collection

Interviews will be utilized to collect data from the study participants. They are a qualitative data collection method encompassing asking questions and communicating with respondents to obtain data on a specific subject. The technique will help in obtaining the participant’s opinions and accounts. Data obtained on the effects of organizational culture on the success of the business will be first-hand (Doody & Noonan, 2013). In addition, the technique will allow participants flexibility in their descriptions. Semi-structured interviews will be used because they allow for open-ended questions to obtain in-depth data. They will allow elasticity for respondents to provide pertinent information while, at the same time, upholding the scope of the study. Interviews will be conducted via online platforms and digitally recorded using audio and video recorder devices.

Data Analysis

A thematic technique will be utilized to analyze data. The method is qualitative and incorporates reading via a set of information, and in this situation, interview transcripts to distinguish patterns in data to create themes (Lochmiller, 2023). The method is essential because it offers a more accessible data analysis, includes fewer prescriptions and procedures, explores diverse research perspectives while highlighting similarities and differences, and generates projected insights. Besides, the method will help summarize primary data sets from a more extensive set of information and enable the researcher to develop a well-structured and clear final report.

Ethical Considerations

The researcher will adhere to numerous ethical issues while conducting the research. The researcher will seek ethical approval from the university’s research ethics committee to be permitted to study participants and will protect the dignity and privacy of the study participants (Suri, 2008). A careful evaluation of burdens, predictable risks, and benefits to the research participants will be conducted. Besides, the safety and health of the study participants will be strictly observed. Participants will be provided with an informed consent that includes crucial details associated with the study to make them aware of what is expected of them, associated risks, and benefits. They will be informed of their rights to participate or withdraw from the research at any time with no penalty (Suri, 2008). Also, participants will be recruited without coercion, and their rights to emotions, autonomy, and confidentiality will be respected. Data obtained will be retained for a suitable period to enable further analysis.

Limitations of the Research

Notably, a research process is not without errors. Deciding to collect data at a single point will prevent the researcher from capturing views and ideas that change over time. However, the researcher will create a good relationship with the participants to obtain accurate and in-depth data. In addition, the interviewees are quite few, and the number might result in cases of bias, making it challenging to obtain accurate study results. Generalizing the study results will be a limitation because the nature of the topic reduces the universality of findings. As such, study findings will not be used in another business sector rather than the restaurant industry. Most participants might be unavailable for the interviews due to their busy schedules. However, conducting interviews via online platforms will allow the participants to provide data at any time. Consequently, the basis for the current research will require support from additional sources.

Gantt Chart

TASK NAME START DATE DUE DATE
Submission of research proposal 15/1/2023 27/01/2023
Submission of Forms of ethics 15/04/2023 17/04/2023
Literature Review 25/04/2023 1/05/2023
Background Research 10/05/2023 25/05/2023
Designing Interview Transcripts 29/05/2023 12/06/2023
Interviews Distribution and Data Collection 26/06/2023 25/06/2023
Qualitative Analyses of Interview Results 1/07/2023 15/07/2023
Writing of Thesis 23/07/2023 20/08/2023
Submission of Thesis 02/09/2023 30/09/2023

Reference List

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Besley, T. and Persson, T. (2022) “Organizational Dynamics: Culture, Design, and performance,” The Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization [Preprint]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1093/jleo/ewac020.

Bhandari, P. (2023) What is qualitative research? Methods & examples, Scribbr. Available at: https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/qualitative-research/ (Accessed: April 13, 2023).

Doody, O. and Noonan, M. (2013) “Preparing and conducting interviews to collect data,” Nurse Researcher, 20(5), pp. 28–32. Available at: https://doi.org/10.7748/nr2013.05.20.5.28.e327.

Ellinas, C., Allan, N. and Johansson, A. (2022) Dynamics of organizational culture: Individual beliefs vs. social conformity, PLOS ONE. Public Library of Science. Available at: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371journal.pone.0180193 (Accessed: April 13, 2023).

Felipe, C., Roldán, J. and Leal-Rodríguez, A. (2017) “Impact of organizational culture values on organizational agility,” Sustainability, 9(12), p. 2354. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122354.

Fridlund, B. (1997) “The case study as a research strategy,” Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 11(1), pp. 3–4. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6712.1997.tb00423.x.

Handayani, M., Robiani, B. and Tjandrakirana, R. (2018) “The effects of organizational commitment, organizational culture, leadership style, functional position and motivation on auditor performance,” Proceedings of the 4th Sriwijaya Economics, Accounting, and Business Conference [Preprint]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.5220/0008438702180224.

Janićijević, N. (2020) “The impact of organizational culture on firm performance: Organizational Culture as a magic wand or silent killer?” Proceedings of the 54th International Academic Virtual Conference, Prague [Preprint]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.20472/iac.2020.054.013.

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Nikpour, A. (2017) “The impact of organizational culture on organizational performance: The mediating role of employee’s organizational commitment,” International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 6(1), pp. 65–72. Available at: https://doi.org/10.33844/ijol.2017.60432.

Okoli, C. (2021) “Inductive, abductive and deductive theorizing,” SSRN Electronic Journal [Preprint]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3774317.

Olson, R. (2003) “Organizational culture putting the organizational culture concept to work.,” The Behavior Analyst Today, 3(4), pp. 471–481. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1037/h0100001.

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Fam Business Report Essay Sample For College

Introduction

Super Eco Holdings is a leading maritime company that continues to thrive in the industry. The company engages in global maritime material transport, with its headquarters located in Piraeus. One of Super Eco Company’s goals is to ensure zero accidents and spillage in the sea through continuous improvement. Another goal is to enhance the efficient and timely movement of transit goods through the sea. Super Eco has five branch offices in London, Naples, Dubai, Singapore, and Geneva. The company has a strong fleet of twenty ships, and it is divided into Super Eco Tankers Management and Super Eco Bulkers Management( Super Eco Tankers Management, 2020). Family businesses face diverse challenges ranging from family conflicts, informal culture and structure, and favoritism. Such challenges might negatively impact the businesses, including loss of market share, profitability, and management issues. Therefore, every company needs effective strategies to deal with the challenges. Family businesses account for approximately 63% of the Greek maritime industry (Papathanasiou, Cole & Murray, 2020). This implies that family businesses account for the largest share of businesses globally. The primary purpose of this report is to explore the challenges facing Super Eco and their implications, the governance structure for each challenge, the skills of the family members, the advisory board, and SMART analysis.

Context and issues/challenges

Family members manage family businesses. Therefore, there is a likelihood that other family members feel superior to the rest regarding the business’s management leading to conflict (Qiu & Freel, 2020). One of the major challenges facing Super Eco is the conflict between family members on the board of directors. The family members cannot appropriately balance family and business interests. The primary implication of this challenge is that it leads to bad decisions that negatively impact the company’s viability and profitability (Chahal, & Sharma, 2020). Moreover, the conflict of interest propels disunity among the board of directors, detrimental to its success.

Another challenge facing the company is generational differences in leadership styles. Every successor comes with a new leadership style in the business. The founder of the company embraced dictatorial leadership. This leadership approach gives firm owners complete control over all operational decisions (Rosing, Boer & Buengeler, 2022). Nicos, his successor, likewise adopted the dictatorial management style. Nicos’s successors later adopted the democratic leadership approach, allowing everyone to participate in decision-making (Rosing, Boer & Buengeler, 2022). The primary implication of this challenge is that it leads to delays in the company’s adaptability during each face of succession (Leib & Zehrer, 2018). Moreover, a lot of time is taken to adapt to the new leadership changes.

The final challenge facing the company is favoritism. This involves giving unfair treatment to people or a person at the expense of another person (Vveinhardt & Bendaraviciene, 2022). This practice is common in family businesses, especially during the hiring process. Some business members lack the necessary skills to hold major positions in the company; however, they are given a chance at the expense of qualified individuals to serve on the board of directors. Favoritism is unethical since it denies some people the opportunity to explore their skills (Akuffo & Kivipold, 2019). In the case of Super Eco, all their heirs join the board of directors, promoting meritocracy. Here, family bonds and considerations are vital more than skills and commitment (Super Eco Tankers Management, 2020). The primary implication of this challenge is that it makes the company make decisions based on personal interests rather than the business’s interest, negatively impacting the business operations.

Family governance structure

The family council is one of the most effective governance areas for the conflict between family members on the board of directors. Family businesses can use the family council to carry out various tasks to fulfill their missions. The primary task of the family council is to develop assertions of the family’s ideals, mission, and vision that are captivating and clarifies the foundational pillars that guide the family’s direction and main goals (Suess-Reyes, 2017). The family council aids in developing and placing skilled family members into positions within the family business where they may successfully engage with key tasks and resources (Michel & Kammerlander, 2015). This governance structure can enable Super Eco to establish family discipline in support of principles, norms, commitments, and decision-making processes that result in the prosperity of the family and the business. Another governance structure to utilize in this case is the management team. Super Eco needs a management team to create a succession and business plan (Widz & Michel, 2018). Succession is the primary issue causing the conflict with the board of directors. Therefore, having a management team that outlines the succession process is crucial.

The family assembly is the most effective governance area for generational differences in leadership style/succession. The company needs an operational business assembly that guides the succession process. The family assembly serves as a forum for the family council of the Super Eco Company to address the entire family about the state of the business, its prospects, and any other issues it regards to be of great significance (Azila-Gbettor et al., 2018). It also provides a platform for communicating and reinforcing the family’s fundamental beliefs and traditions. Another governance area to utilize in this case is the family association. Succession is a major issue in Super Eco. Therefore, having an effective family association enables the company to select the most appropriate individuals within the family with impeccable character to take over the business operations (Sreih, Lussier & Sonfield, 2019). The family association needs to be made up of the family council members. This will enable Super Eco to have a smooth succession process.

The best governance area for favoritism is the owner’s council. The owner’s council work by ensuring that Super Eco has the right leadership consisting of family and non-family members with the right skills, knowledge, and expertise to manage the business. The owner’s council works with the board of directors to ensure that all the company’s managers meet the demands (Suess-Reyes, 2017). Another governance area essential in this category is the board of advisors. Incorporating the board advisors in the management of Super Eco reduces cases of favoritism since the board must advise the board of directors and other members of the company’s leadership about the skills and competency required of each individual. Consequently, the team must comprise impartial, multidisciplinary family advisors within and outside the company (Reay, Pearson & Dyer, 2013). The members give direction and assistance in strategic decision-making without concern for recrimination from other family members.

Skills of the family members

Director names

Skills of the family members

One of the primary skill gaps that exist in the family business is delegation expertise. Only two out of the five directors of the family business have effective delegation and time management skills. This makes it challenging for Super Eco Company to work within teams since the managers lack the skills required to delegate duties among the team members. The delegation skill enables the directors to delegate duties to the younger family members (Ugoani, 2020). Therefore, a lack of this skill implies that the younger family members are not exposed to the company’s management hence making the succession process cumbersome.

Another skill gap that exists among the family members is creative and critical thinking skills. Only two of the family business directors have effective creative and critical thinking skills. Creative and critical thinking skill is essential since it promotes innovation (Wechsler et al., 2018). It enables the family members to identify the challenges in the succession process and deduce new ideas to change the situation. The final skill gap that exists among the family members is problem-solving and conflict management skills. Only one member of the family business has proper problem-solving and conflict-resolution skills. This poses a threat to the company as a result of the increased favoritism and family conflicts.

The advisory board

Evaluation of the challenges/advisory role.

One of the challenges facing the family business is the conflict between family members on the board of directors. Counseling and mediation could be effective advisory roles to tackle the issue. This involves using reconciliation techniques such as deep mutual healing to enable the conflicting individuals to heal and work as a team (Michel & Kammerlander, 2015). The advisory role for favoritism in Super Eco Company could be mentoring and coaching. It is essential to mentor the young family members using the group mentoring technique to prepare them for management roles than preferring unqualified individuals. Coaching is a technique for instructing, guiding, or training an individual or a group on how to acquire abilities that improve productivity (Gray, 2018). The advisory role that could be effective for curbing the succession problem is facilitating and consulting. Facilitation and consulting entail working as a team to make decisions about the best succession approach.

Evaluation of the advisor/type of advisor

A specific organizational structure such as the board of directors can help Super Eco Business resolve its succession problem. the board of directors can involve the CEOs of other companies to advise the firm on the advantages of training the company’s successors proactively for their positions to streamline the succession process, (Umans et al., 2020). The primary role of the advisory board is to formulate policies allowing the successors to actively participate in the company’s management and leadership.

The type of advisors required to solve the family conflict and favoritism in the firm are external team-building specialists, organizational consultants, and fiduciaries. Organizational consultants and team building specialists and fiduciaries formulate policies that govern the relationship among members of the family business (Gersick, 2015). This approach enables the family members to work towards achieving a common goal hence promoting cohesion. Moreover, they ensure that the family members have equal opportunities in the business, curbing favoritism.

Decide on the advisory role

Counseling and mediation is the most effective advisory role to tackle the family conflict in Super Eco Company. Counseling and mediation entail applying reconciliation techniques such as deep mutual healing to enable the conflicting individuals to heal and work as a team (Michel & Kammerlander, 2015). The conflicting family members can be counseled using therapeutic techniques to enable them to work together to achieve the company’s goal. Mentoring and coaching is the most effective advisory role for favoritism in Super Eco Company. It involves mentoring the young family members through the group mentoring technique to prepare them for management roles than preferring unqualified individuals. Coaching is a technique for instructing, guiding, or training an individual or a group on how to acquire abilities that improve productivity (Gray, 2018). Coaching entails training the family members about the benefits of working as a team and leadership and preferring the best candidates with the right skills to run the business (Mickel, McVeigh & Leger, 2018). Facilitating and consulting is the appropriate advisory role for curbing the succession problem. Facilitation and consulting entail working as a team to make decisions about the best succession approach. Expert facilitation technique is appropriate in this case as it involves external consultants in designing the succession plan.

Steps in the advisory process

The first step in the advisory process is conducting a damage report. This is done at the onset of the process. The damage report is used to foresee the potential dangers of the interventions used to solve the problems (Strike, 2013). It is done through analysis of data from other companies that used a specific intervention to solve a similar problem. The second step in the advisory process is controlling emotional response. This implies that the company needs to use facts such as data rather than feelings to implement the interventions to curb the company’s challenges. The third step is focusing on long-term goals. The company’s long-term goals must be considered during the advisory process. This is done by assessing whether incorporating the interventions in the organization will negatively impact its ability to achieve its long-term goals (Strike, Michel & Kammerlander, 2018). The fourth step in the advisory process is effectively communicating the challenges. The advisory process is challenging therefore, it is essential to communicate challenges through timely reports. This helps deduce effective strategies to overcome such challenges. The final step in the advisory process is to settle on attainable solutions. The company needs to choose solutions that fit the family business’ viability by checking on the solutions that yield prompt results.

Alternative intervention process

An alternative intervention process to overcome the company’s organizational challenges is to Leverage formal governance structures to mitigate conflict. One problem researchers have observed in several family businesses is a lack of a platform for family members to communicate problems in the company (Leib & Zehrer, 2018). Organizational Structures like family councils, boards, and forums can provide families with a secure, organized platform to discuss problems and resolve disputes. Therefore, super eco needs to make good use of the governance structures as an effective intervention to deal with the challenges. One challenge associated with this intervention is delayed decision-making. Involving all the organizational structures in dealing with the issues is time-consuming since all the members must participate in the process. This delays the process of finding a solution to the problems.

The primary protagonists in this process are the family council, family assembly, board of advisors, and management team. The role of the family council is to implement policies that promote the smooth running of the family business. The family assembly meets regularly to review the family’s process and deduce effective resolution approaches. The board of advisors advises the company’s board of directors about the intervention approaches to solve family problems. The management team implements the policies formulated by the family council, family assembly, and advisory board.

Design and Reporton your family business advisory solution to your family business board

The most effective way to deal with the challenges facing the company is to have governance areas such as the family council and assembly. These organizational structures need to work together by formulating policies that guide the company’s operations. For instance, one of the policies to implement in the company is that all the company’s successors must have at least ten years of experience working in the company. This will limit the number of young family members struggling to inherit the company. Another solution to the business succession challenge is involving the potential successors in the company’s management early. This prepares them for future roles in the company hence curbing succession issues. The company needs to have external business consultants to guide the board of directors about some decisions in the company (Widz & Michel, 2018). For instance, external business consultants can recommend less involvement of family members who embrace favoritism in key decisions about Super Eco Company.

SMART Analysis

The primary objective of the advisory process is to solve organizational challenges, including conflict between family members on the board of directors, generational differences in leadership style (succession), and favoritism, by having monthly reports about the progress. This will help to identify the primary issues to be addressed and develop a proper solution approach in one year. Organizations have begun using smart objectives to improve their goal-setting process(Ogbeiwi, 2017) The goal is specific since it aims at finding solutions to the challenges in Super Eco Company (Bjerke & Renger, 2017). The goal is measurable since it is possible to measure the progress using monthly reports. It is also attainable since it requires proper planning within the time frame. The goal is relevant since it defines the key issues in the company, including conflict between family members on the board of directors, generational differences in leadership style (succession), and favoritism. The goal is also time-based because it provides a one-year period for its attainment.

Recommendations/conclusion

Conclusively, Super Eco is one of the leading maritime transport companies in the world. However, the various challenges the firm has encountered and is currently experiencing, like conflict between family members on the board of directors, generational differences in leadership style (succession), and favoritism/pressure to hire family members, are typical problems in large family corporations(Super Eco Tankers Management, 2020). The advisory process should involve five major steps including, conducting a damage report, controlling emotional response, focusing on long-term goals, effectively communicating the challenges, and settling on attainable solutions. Governance areas including family council, family assembly, and board of advisors formulate policies that govern family relationships in the company. The most effective advisory recommendation to deal with the succession problem is to identify the right successors with the right knowledge and skills to run the business (Michel & Kammerlander 2015). Consequently, it is important to prepare potential successors for the role by training them about what the role entails. Family disputes can be solved effectively through open communication. This enables all the family members to express their ideas. Favoritism can be resolved by prioritizing only individuals with the right skills, knowledge, and experience. Moreover, it is essential to outline the duties and responsibilities of the family members.

References

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Fans’ Reaction To The Proposed European Super League: An Analysis Of Twitter Reaction By Manchester United Fans University Essay Example

Chapter 1: Introduction

Research Background

The European Super League (ESL) launch was a controversial decision by twelve of European’s big teams to form an international football league that would compete with and gradually replace the UEFA Champions League (MacInnes, 2023 ). The announcement, made in April 2021, was met with major criticisms from fans, politicians, managers, and players, given the nature of its operation. The league’s founding members included the ‘big six’ teams (Manchester United, Manchester City, Tottenham, Arsenal, Chelsea, and Liverpool) and three Italian Clubs (Juventus, Inter Milan, and AC Milan). These top clubs would be the league’s founding members and would play closed mid-week fixtures with each other with no promotion or relegation. All financial gains would be shared between founding members.

Fans saw the ESL as a closed and exclusive league prioritizing financial benefit over competition and sporting merit and were quick to express their outrage (Connelly, 2023). They called for boycotts of the founding clubs through protest marches and social media campaigns. Some players also threatened to leave their clubs upon the formation of the ESL (Meier et al., 2022). The UEFA, FIFA, and national football clubs also expressed their opposition by threatening to ban founding clubs from their competitions (Macedo et al., 2022). Generally, the proposed ESL was received with widespread criticism, eventually leading to its collapse with the withdrawal of all six English clubs, AC Milan, Inter Milan, and Atletico Madrid. Club withdrawals left three clubs: Juventus, Barcelona, and Real Madrid, which were still determined to make the ESL successful.

Research Rationale

In October (2021). ESL organizers announced plans to re-launch an improved version of the league. This time, they formed a consulting company, A22, to help create the league and stakeholder relations (Connelly, 2023). The new model would allow for open competition, comprise various divisions, and involve around 80 teams, each allowed to participate in 14 matches minimum. Instead of permanent members, the league is proposed to involve the promotion and relegation system with teams qualifying based on performance in their domestic leagues. Promises have also been made to improve fan engagement and promote women’s participation in the league to improve public acceptance. The league is still in development and often communicates progress made through A22.

According to a report by (MacInnes, 2023 ), the manager in charge of planning mentioned that re-launch data has not yet been set as there are still many factors to consider. However, the report confirmed that substantial progress had been made regarding the launch and estimates a maximum of two years to re-launch (Meier et al., 2022). The successful launch of the ESL would result in a more competitive and exciting league for football stakeholders, potentially overshadowing the UEFA and EPL in the long run. The ESL would also generate significant revenue for the participating clubs, leading to increased financial stability. ESL would significantly impact football (Macedo et al., 2022). However, like its first launch, the success of the re-launch is still at the mercy of football fans. Thus, this study seeks to determine the current reaction to the proposed re-launch after the modifications were made and thus to determine whether the ESL will be launched successfully. This study’s research questions are outlined below.

Research Questions

RQ1. What is the current level of public support or opposition by Manchester United fans towards the re-launch of the ESL?

H1. The current level of Manchester United fans’ support toward the re-launch of the ESL is primarily positive.

RQ2. How does the current reaction compare to the initial reaction compare with the initial launch?

H2. The public support for the re-launch is better than the initial launch due to the modifications done.

RQ3. What impact did the proposed European Super League have on the reputation of the Manchester United football club, and how did fans’ reactions contribute to this outcome?

H3. Manchester United’s initial membership of the ESL was a blow to the club’s reputation. However, its prompt withdrawal reduced public opposition.

Purpose of the Study

This study aims to analyze fans’ reactions to the proposed European Super League by evaluating Manchester United fans’ Twitter comments.

Significance of the Study

The ESL is expected to have a significant impact on international football. The first launch attracted widespread criticism from fans leading to its eventual failure. Thus, this failure proved that fans play an essential role in the successful launch of the league, and it would therefore be vital to keep fan engagement positive. With the ESL set to re-launch soon, there is a need to evaluate fans’ reactions toward this re-launch. Thus, this study is significant in that it will provide fans’ current attitudes toward ESL and thus the potential for its success.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

Concept: History and Development of Football Leagues

The history of the development of football leagues can be dated to the early 19th Century when the initial professional football leagues were formed in England. These included the Southern League and the Football League and were the foundation for a more structured and competitive environment for various football clubs (Brannagan et al., 2022). Leagues were adopted in other countries, including the Spanish Primera Division in 1930 and the Italian Football Championship in 1898 ( Milford, 2022). European leagues continued to grow and evolve throughout the 20th Century by expanding existing leagues and forming new ones. A particular turning point for Football leagues was realized with the formation of the European Cup in 1955, which later came to be known as the UEFA Champions League. This tournament involved the best teams from around Europe, resulting in an extremely high competition that elevated Europe’s football on a global scale (Prayag et al., 2020). The Champions League has since undergone various changes, including expanding to allow more teams to participate and forming group stages in the 1980s.

Economic factors have also been a huge factor influencing the development of football leagues. The increasing commercialization of football and the emerging need for television rights led to the emergence of dominant clubs in various leagues. These included Juventus in Serie A, Bayern Munich in Bundesliga, and Real Madrid in La Liga (Brannagan et al., 2022). However, though these leagues realized commendable financial success, their dominance was a challenge to smaller clubs that struggled to compete with the financial resources of larger teams. Thus, financial regulation was essential to promote financial stability and fair competition for all participating teams. An example of a financial measure is the Financial Fair Play Rules, which regulate clubs from spending more than they make in their pursuit of success. These rules minimize clubs’ risk of falling into financial problems that can threaten their long-term survival ( Milford, 2022). In addition to Financial Fair Play, all clubs must maintain the principles of fair competition and sporting merit under European Football (Mastromartino et al., 2020). Thus, the ESL’s failure during the initial launch may have been attributed to a lack of consideration of fair competition and sporting merit principles, leading to widespread opposition.

Conceptual Framework: Fan Identity Theory

The Fan Identity Theory helps us understand the relationship between sports fans and their favorite teams. The theory holds that fans view their favorite teams as an extension of their identity, and therefore the success or failure of their team significantly impacts their sense of self (Kose & Kartikasari, 2020). Prayag et al. (2020) discuss that fans’ sense of identity is primarily formed through three mechanisms: identification with a team’s culture, socialization, and emotional attachment. Fans may identify with a team’s culture when they share similar beliefs, values, and experiences with their teams. For example, a fan can form an attachment with a team known for its hardworking or cunning playing strategies as the fan values these particular aspects (Kosciolek, 2019). Thus, they may adopt the team as part of their identity and become attached. Fans can also identify with their favorite teams through socialization. In this mechanism, fans learn about a team through family, friends, or the media and form a sense of identity with the team. This mechanism is particularly effective when they are exposed to the values, traditions, and rituals associated with their teams, which become part of their own identity (Yun et al., 2021). These mechanisms have the potential to create a life-long relationship with their teams.

Another mechanism through which fans may form identity is through emotional attachment. A fan may form an emotional attachment with a particular team based on shared experiences with the team (Cho et al., 2019). Some shared experiences include attending a team’s game or any moment involving the team that was important to them (Mastromartino et al., 2020). Emotional attachment can be particularly strong, forming a strong self-identity with the team (Welsh, 2022). Thus, the fan identity theory is an important framework as it helps to understand how fans form attachments with their respective teams and the associated behavior. When a fan’s team wins or loses, it may significantly affect their sense of self (Wagner et al., 2021). A loss would lead to frustration or disappointment, whereas a win may result in accomplishment or pride (Kosciolek, 2019). The Fan Identity Theory also explains why fans still support their teams despite losses. Fans do so since their sense of self is tied to the team’s success, and loyalty is further reinforced by an emotional attachment and socialization (Kose & Kartikasari, 2020). In this study, the Fan Identity Theory helps to understand fans’ commitment to football teams and the collective football sport and why they would be concerned if football’s competitiveness and sporting nature were at risk. As such, fans would largely object to any such threat to football as witnesses in the first launch of the ESL.

Conceptual and Empirical Background for H1

The first research question aims to determine the current level of public support or opposition by Manchester United fans towards the re-launch of the ESL. This study hypothesizes that Manchester United fans strongly support ESL. This hypothesis draws on the Sports Detachment Model proposed by Yun et al. (2021). This model suggests that fans detach from their teams through an iterative breakdown process characterized by negative events. Over time, the fan performs a cost/benefit analysis. If the costs (tickets, negative experiences, active support, and constraints) outweigh the benefits (social and emotional connection, inspiration, and pride), then the fan may detach from their favorite team (Welsh, 2022). The failure of ESL’s first launch was majorly due to the closed nature of the league. The founding members wanted it to be a closed league where only members would compete in bi-weekly games, leaving out non-member clubs. However, the ESL revised this structure to ensure the league would be open to any club and involve 80 clubs worldwide. Further, A22 released a ten-point strategic plan for the launch of the ESL, including its support for women’s football, the financial stability of teams, and the inclusion of all clubs, irrespective of their financial performance (Cho et al., 2019). Thus, based on the Fan Detachment Model, as the negative aspects of the ESL have been addressed, the fans would be expected to show more support for the ESL and have a reduced intention to withdraw from their favorite teams. Consequently, they would show more support to the ESL and the participation of their favorite clubs in this league.

Conceptual and Empirical Background for H2

The second research question aims to determine how fans’ current reaction toward the revised ESL structure differs from the initial reaction. This study hypothesizes that the current reaction is better than the initial reaction. This hypothesis draws on the Fan Detachment Theory and the Fan Identity Theory. The Fan Identity Theory suggests that fans would perceive their team’s success as their own success. Consequently, they would perceive their team’s behavior as their own and identify with their team’s beliefs, values, and attitudes (Cho et al., 2019). Thus, when a team performs contrary to fans’ values and beliefs, it may attract negative reactions from fans (Houben et al., 2022). The initially proposed structure of the ESL was a great threat to fans’ values and beliefs as it threatened the traditional competitive nature of football. Further, this structure would benefit only the top clubs, while small ones would get no benefit (Welsh, 2022). However, with the revision of the structure to include all clubs and allow each to play a minimum of 14 games, fans’ support towards the re-launch would be expected to be higher, as the negative attitudes have already been addressed. Fans’ would be expected to have a reduced intention to withdraw from their respective clubs and have less negative reactions towards the re-launch of the ESL, as suggested by the Fan Detachment theory. Thus, these two theories would help understand and predict fans’ reactions and behavior regarding ESL.

Conceptual and Empirical Background for H3

The study’s third research question aims to explore the impact of ESL on the reputation of Manchester United Club and how fans’ reactions contributed to this outcome. The proposed hypothesis is that Manchester United fans were greatly disappointed in the club’s contribution to the initial ESL structure. The Fan Identity Theory and the Fan Detachment Theory have been utilized to arrive at this hypothesis. The launch of the ESL in April 2021 received an enormous rejection from fans, managers, players, and other stakeholders in football (Houben et al., 2022). Fans especially expressed disappointment in their favorite teams for being founding members of the league through demonstrations and social media campaigns (Wagner et al., 2021). Two days after the launch, nine of the twelve founding clubs withdrew from the ESL leaving Real Madrid, Barcelona, and Juventus (Welsh, 2022). The ESL later communicated that it was suspending its launch till further notice and has since communicated improvements on the initial structure. The demonstrations and social media campaigns toned down after this announcement and the withdrawal of most of the clubs. Thus, while the initial launch of the ESL was met with great criticism, the prompt withdrawal of Manchester United from the ESL resulted in approval from fans in line with their values and a reduction in disappointment.

Conclusion

The history and development of football leagues began in the early to mid 19th Century with the Formation of the Southern and Football leagues in England. These leagues pioneered the development of better and more competitive leagues, including the Italian Football Championship and Spanish Primera. These eventually led to international leagues such as the UEFA Champions League and FIFA. With the gradual commercialization of football over the years, commercial factors have played a significant role in its development. The UEFA Champions League and FIFA have been dominant in Europe. A third party to football clubs controls them. Thus, major football clubs proposed the ESL that would be owned and managed by clubs to give them an upper hand in controlling matters relating to football instead of being managed by a third party.

However, the first proposed launch of the ESL was met with great criticism from fans and other stakeholders as it contradicted the traditional competitiveness of football. This was because only the founding members would participate in these games and realize financial gains, while smaller clubs could not participate. The Fan Identity Theory and the Fan Detachment Theory have been used to understand the reason for the objection. These theories have suggested that fans perceive their favorite clubs as part of their identity. Thus, any club’s undesirable activities would greatly impact fans’ identity and would thus be objected to. With the withdrawal of the initial ESL structure and the development of a new one that caters to the initial flaws, the new ESL would be expected to succeed. Fans will still have the upper hand in the success or failure of the ESL. Thus, this study aims to determine fans’ reactions towards the ESL by analyzing Manchester United fans’ Twitter reactions.

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