Exploring The Multifaceted Artistry Of Beyoncé Free Sample

Beyonce Giselle Knowles is an African American singer, dancer, and record producer who is regarded as one of the best musicians of her generation due to her incredible music artistry and vocal abilities. Beyonce was born in 1981 in Houston, Texas and enrolled in dance classes at St. Mary’s Montessori School in her hometown, where her artistry and vocal abilities were discovered by her dance instructors. Her interest in music artistry and performing continued to develop after school when she joined Arne Frager’s Star Search TV Show in California, the largest talent show program in the region at the time. However, Beyonce’s group, the Girl’s Tyme, failed to win at the talent show program, and the group lost the contract with the TV show. However, the group was revived in 1996 by Grass Roots Entertainment and recorded their first album in the late 1990s. The group changed its name to Destiny’s Child and recorded several singles with Columbia Records, like “Killing Time” and “No, No, No.” The group was split, and Beyonce used her incredible music skills and talents to release her first album, Dangerously in Love, in 2003. From this time, her talents as an entertainer and songwriter, coupled with her incredible vocal abilities propelled her to stardom. Her musical lyrics focus on women’s empowerment, romantic relationships, sex, feminism, and independence from patriarchy. This essay illuminates Beyonce’s artistic works to discover the dominant themes in her lyrics, her music style, and the black feminist groundwork that is dominant in her musical brand.

The first example of Beyonce’s artistic work is her song “Who Runs the World (Girls),” which is one of her fiercest female anthems that documents women’s strength and power in business, motherhood, and familial relationships. In this song, Beyonce delivers a powerful message to women to encourage them to be proud of their accomplishments and believe in their power to change the world. In this song, Beyonce contradicts the dominant gender stereotypes that portray women as weak and vulnerable humans who are only suitable for domestic roles. The song claims that women are strong enough to excel in their professions and perform domestic or family duties like bearing children. Precisely, she emphasizes women’s power to play domestic and professional roles when she says that women are “strong enough to bear children then get back to business.” This feminist sentiment stems from the historical exclusion of women from the labor force and limited opportunities for career progression. In addition, the song encourages women in the education system and business sectors to keep up with their dedication to achieving their goals without contemplating how men perceive them or their actions. In this regard, Beyonce’s focus on sexual equality sets the stage for her sex-positive discourse, which emphasizes that men should not view women’s achievements as threatening. As a celebrity feminist activist, Beyonce is portrayed as both object and subject of modern feminism since she represents the construct and shapes it through her feminist sentiments and lyrical lines, as revealed in the song.

The second example of Beyonce’s work of culture is her album the Lemonade, which was released in 2016 in conjunction with HBO’s video, which provided a visual expression of the album’s themes. The Lemonade affirms Beyonce’s black femininity in diverse contexts such as marital politics and infidelity. The album illuminates the topic of adultery as it touches on Jay Z’s (Beyonce’s husband) cheating rumors. The theme of marital infidelity is consistent throughout the album’s songs like “Don’t Hurt Yourself,” “Denial,” and “Sorry,” where she sings, “he only wants me when I am not there, he better call Becky with the good hair.” Although the album covers her personal life and relationship with her husband, it speaks of broader themes, such as problematizing the narrow understanding of female sexuality and the historical and social injustices against Black women in America. The most explicit indication of Black feminism in the album is Beyonce’s song “Don’t Hurt Yourself,” where she directly references Malcolm X’s speech saying that “the most disrespected person in America is the Black woman.” In this account, Beyonce turns her personal struggles into an appeal to Black feminism and weaves an intricate connection between marital infidelity, male dominance, and sexual oppression. Notably, Beyonce enhanced her cultural relevance in the album by including integral issues about social injustice, such as police brutality and racial inequality. For example, in the visual illustration of Lemonade, she shows images of grieving mothers holding pictures of their sons who fall victim to gun violence or police brutality. Thus, through Lemonade, Beyonce covers critical social and cultural issues that affect contemporary American society.

The third example of Beyonce’s artistic work of culture is her album The Lion King, in which she uses artistry to show her audience that her African culture is strongly embedded in her genetic makeup. She uses the album to illuminate her spiritual journey and her black identity, empowering diverse audience groups to embrace their ancestry. Apart from the powerful song lyrics in the album, Beyonce made a full movie to provide a visual representation of the album’s themes. The album’s visual illustration highlights several elements of African cultures, such as the Black faith and music. For example, she features several African artists like Burna Boy, Tekno and Cameroonian singer Salatiel to weave her connection to African music and culture. To illustrate, one of the key songs in the album, “Spirit,” begins with a Swahili chant with a popular call-and-response characteristic which is common in many types of African music. In addition, she incorporates an uplifting key change and lush background vocals (the background choir) to create an authentic representation of African folk music, which is usually dominated by drums and vocals. Thus, Beyonce’s album, The Lion King, illuminates her connection with her African culture and presents diverse themes such as legacy, lineage, spirituality, and identity to encourage her audience to embrace their culture and ancestry.

In conclusion, Beyonce uses her incredible vocal abilities, performance skills, and artistic knowledge to champion femininity and contrast gender stereotypes that portray women as perfect domestic workers. She uses her music and visual representations to empower women to take dominant roles in society and climb up the social ladder. Notably, her feminist sentiments are directed toward Black feminism, which empowers Black women to take dominant roles and participate actively in societal issues. For example, in her song “Who Runs the World (Girls),” Beyonce points out that women are strong enough to bear children and participate in the labor force. Besides Black feminism, Beyonce’s artistic works related to African American experience by illuminating critical themes affecting African American communities, such as racism, marital infidelity, and gun violence. In the visual representation of her album Lemonade, she weaves an intricate connection between marital politics, racial inequality, and gun violence to contribute to major contemporary discourses in Black American communities. Finally, Beyonce’s last album, The Lion King, furthers her discourse about Black identity, ancestry, and culture to encourage her audience to embrace their historical backgrounds. In sum, Beyonce’s artworks illuminate the common themes and issues affecting women, African Americans, and other marginalized populations. She uses music and performance to further discourse about race, sex, feminism, police brutality, and new narratives of sexual liberation.

Works Cited

  1. “Beyonce (Beyoncé) Lyrics.” Retrieved from: https://www.azlyrics.com/k/knowles.html

Prins, Annelot. “Who Run the World? Feminism and Commodification in Beyoncé’s Star Text.” Disgressions. Amsterdam Journal of Critical Theory, Cultural Analysis, and Creative Writing 2 (2017): 29-44.

Trier-Bieniek, Adrienne, ed. The Beyoncé Effect: Essays on sexuality, race, and feminism. McFarland, 2016. Retrieved from: https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=en&lr=&id=PPTBDAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=beyonce+music&ots=3gitrEBRZe&sig=wE7O3sTO72vR5hd2uJqqi_7U66U&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=beyoncemusic&f=false

Buddhism Service Reflection Free Essay

Although most religions believe and worship either a supernatural being or are nontheistic, the ideas of worship differ with respect to the origin of religious denominations. For instance, there exist numerous differences between the religious systems practised under Western religion compared to the Eastern religion. This is highly prompted by the fact that the setting and the norms of these religions have been developed to champion a particular religious outcome. For this reason, even religious services have been designed to bring out aspired outcomes that are in line with the belief systems of the respective religion. In this reflection paper, the specifics that surround an Eastern religious system during a routine service will be analyzed. Precisely, a Buddhist service will be used as the basis upon which this reflection paper will be based on. That is, the paper will analyze the Buddhist service space, the service itself, and the specific ritual performed during the service. Nonetheless, personal reflection following an observation of a Buddhist service compared to the Western religion. Therefore, this paper will give an all-round analysis of a Buddhist service and how it portrays specific details surrounding the Eastern religion.

Buddhist use temples as their official places of worship as well as the central location where religious services take place. However, the outside and inside appearances vary with respect to the Buddhist temple and the immediate population. In this case, the temple has a square base, with the roof taking the shape of a square-based pyramid (Etherton, 2019). Additionally, the roofing is fitted with spires which appear as superstructures that form a tower above the sanctuary as well as the surrounding halls. This is the most noticeable feature that can be noticed from the outside of the Buddhist temple. Also, there is a dome architecture immediately over the square base and a pinnacle at the very top of the temple (Etherton, 2019). Nonetheless, the larger outer and central spaces are characteristically surrounded by an ambulatory that allows the worshippers to walk without difficulty around the temple areas. On the other hand, the inside of the temple has a gold-plated Buddha statue that has been placed in the anterior area of the temple. Also, the inside part has an altar that is lit using candles and decorated with various materials such as portable paintings and Chrysanthemum flowers (Bushra, 2014).

Furthermore, a Buddhist service has both the congregants and the monks. The service starts with the congregants seated on the floor barefooted. The front row is occupied by a monk who is then followed by other congregants, all facing the gold-plated Buddha statue. The service is opened by instruments such as bells that are accompanied by chants from the congregants. This is then followed by the entrance of the lead monk, who is tasked with leading the service (Bushra, 2014). His entrance is considered a remarkable undertaking during the service. This can be evidenced by the fact that, immediately after the entrance of the monk, the congregation rises and bows down in unison with the monk. These actions are guided by a wooden semantron which the monk hits with a wooden mallet. Also, there are congregants who are issued with booklets to follow along the entire service. The monk leads the entire service and performs all rituals, as well as leads the meditation and chanting (Bushra, 2014). Similarly, during various instances during the service, both the monks and the congregants assume a prostration position while still chanting.

In addition, from the start of the service, the monks led the congregation to repetitively chants different mantras as a form of meditation. While this goes on, the monks simultaneously hit the wooden semantron and initiate songs that go hand-in-hand with the chants (Bushra, 2014). Nonetheless, the monks lead the congregants through devotion, where they are all directed to observe the Buddha statue and reminisce about the inspiring qualities of the Buddha. During this time, both female and male congregants are not separated whatsoever, and they observe all rituals in unison. During these rituals, the congregation repeat various hymns while still chanting and prostrating. Also, apart from the monks who head the service, there are other assistants who help the congregants adhere to specific rituals throughout the service. At one point during the service, the monks and the congregants are alerted by the temple’s assistance to turn right and face the paintings in the temple (Bushra, 2014). Immediately after they turn, they all bow down before they continue to sing and chant in unison while the monk continues to hot the wooden semantron.

Generally, the Eastern religion, as portrayed through a Buddhist service, caught me by surprise. This is mainly because, as opposed to the Western system where the preachers or Imams lead the congregants by facing them and preaching using the bible or Quran, the monks and their congregants face the Buddha statue. Also, unlike Western religions, where songs are often accompanied by prayers, the Buddhist system accompanies songs with chants which help them meditate during the services. Similarly, the fact that there are no hairs and the congregants, together with the monk, sit on the floor was a new experience. All in all, I felt comfortable watching the Buddhist service from the beginning to the end, as there were no odd or offensive rituals that are performed by either the monks or the congregants. Nonetheless, I was intrigued that Buddhist assume a prostration position or bow down during prayers which are common operations that are done in Western religions such as Christianity and Islam. Therefore, apart from the meditation part of the Buddha service, most of the undertakings were similar and interesting.

To sum up, Buddhism portrays a perfect picture of what Eastern religion entails in terms of rituals and the general conduction of religious services. That is, it gives a precise portrayal of both the internal and external environment that surround the temples and how they have been designed to serve specific functions. Also, different rituals are used throughout services, all intended to gain a specific result that is essential for all Buddhists. However, the service is somewhat different compared to the Western religious services and church setups. This is mainly evidenced by the fact that while most Western religions are primarily embedded in praying, preaching and singing as essential rituals that are carried out during services, Buddhist focus on chanting, singing and meditation as the critical undertakings during services. Besides these factors, most of the undertakings within the Buddhist set-up are plausible as they are conducted in a manner that is almost similar to that of Western religions. Generally, the greater contradiction brought forth by Buddhism is that Buddhist beliefs are guided by nontheistic philosophies, while Western philosophies are guided by monotheistic undertakings.

References

Bushra, H. (2014). Buddhist Service [YouTube Video]. In YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xV9nG5uK0gU

Etherton, C. (2019, June 10). Twenty beautiful Buddhist temples around the world. Travel. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/article/pictures-of-beautfiul-buddhist- temples-around-the-world

Comparison Of The Marr (1982) Computer Model Of Object Recognition And Biederman’s (1987) Recognition-by-Components (RBC) Theories Sample College Essay

Object recognition helps us identify and organize objects. The Marr (1982) computer model of object recognition and Biederman’s (1987) recognition-by-components (RBC) theories have taught us a lot about how humans recognize objects. I will evaluate and compare these two models in this essay.

Marr’s (1982) computational object identification model is well-known and important in computer vision(Stevens,2012). The model suggests a hierarchical system of thinking with three key stages that work to identify things(Malik et al.,2016). The first stage, the primal sketch, involves early visual processing jobs like finding edges, pulling out features, and separating parts of an image. The first sketch creates a low-level picture of the image, which gives a general description of the scene.

The second step, the 2.5D sketch, builds on the primal sketch and uses depth cues like coloring, material gradients, and shadowing to make a 2.5D image. The 2.5D sketch shows how much information there is about the place and gives a full picture of the scene. In the last step, the 3D model representation, the object’s structure features are used to make a high-level description of the object. At this stage, items are recognized by comparing the traits taken to models of known things. The 3D model representation involves higher-level cognitive functions, including attention, memory, and object identification, making it the most crucial phase in object recognition(Tsotsos, 2021).

On the other hand, Biederman’s Recognition-by-Components (RBC) theory of object recognition is a crucial computer model that explains how individuals can rapidly and accurately recognize complex objects. The theory says that things called geons can be separated into their parts(Oria et al., 2011). These simple three-dimensional shapes, like cylinders, cones, and spheres, can be combined to make more complicated shapes. The theory says things can be recognized from any angle if the geons are named properly.

The RBC theory says you can determine an object by looking at its geons and their arrangement. Biederman says an item is made by putting 36 geons together in a certain way. For instance, a coffee cup may have a cylinder body, a half-sphere handle, and a cone base. The RBC theory says that if you look at the geons in a picture, you can figure out what it is.

Biederman’s RBC theory says that objects are recognized by matching the geon-based description of the object with images of the object that are kept in memory. The theory says people store restricted models of how things are defined based on geons and use these saved models when they recognize an object. These stored models are used to identify an item from a photograph.

Both theories indicate multi-step systems, but they vary. Marr’s (1982) object recognition computer model and Biederman’s (1987) recognition-by-components (RBC) theory vary in many respects. First, Marr’s approach proposes a multistage system that handles distinct aspects of object recognition. However, Biederman’s RBC theory simplifies shapes like cylinders, cones, and spheres. Marr’s model is more intricate and detailed, whereas Biederman’s is simpler and easier to grasp.

Second, the symbolic degrees of object identification vary amongst models. Marr’s approach emphasizes 3D modeling for object recognition, whereas Biederman’s RBC theory argues that complex things are built of basic 3D forms. Marr’s approach examines higher-level assembly, whereas Biederman’s examines lower-level assembly.

Finally, the models handle viewpoint invariance differently. The RBC theory by Biederman says that simple 3D forms can describe things from any angle as long as they have the same geometric traits. On the other hand, Marr’s model says that viewpoint invariance is a hard problem because things can look very different from different views. So, while Biederman’s model puts more emphasis on viewpoint invariance, Marr’s model puts more emphasis on the problems it causes. Both theories describe object recognition, but in distinct ways and with different foci.

Real-world data support both perspectives. Real-world observations support Marr’s (1982) computer model of object recognition and Biederman’s (1987) recognition-by-components (RBC) theory. First, computer programs and artificial intelligence studies prove Marr’s model(Nalbant & Uyanik,2021). For example, computer vision models that use Marr’s hierarchical processing have done very well at jobs like recognizing objects. This shows that Marr’s model is a good way to think about how the brain might use visual information to recognize things.

Additionally, behavioral and brain studies back up Biederman’s RBC theory with real-world evidence. Studies have shown, for example, that people are faster and better at recognizing items when shown in their “canonical” positions, highlighting the basic geometric shapes that make them up(Verdine,2016). This result backs up Biederman’s claim that complicated things are made of simple geometric shapes.

Furthermore, research supports Marr’s hierarchical model of visual processing. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that various brain regions better detect lines and object groupings(Ayzenberg & Behrmann, 2022). This supports Marr’s view that object recognition requires many steps of thought.

Finally, viewpoint invariance supports both models. Biederman’s RBC hypothesis is supported by studies showing that the brain can distinguish objects from diverse perspectives(O’Brien, 2018). Other studies have shown that how you look at something affects how you recognize it. This supports Marr’s contention that perspective invariance is complex.

Even though facts support both theories, they have also been criticized. Marr’s (1982) description of how computers recognize things has been criticized in many ways. One of the main complaints about the model is that it oversimplifies the complexity of visual processing by thinking that object recognition is a strictly ordered process(Marr, 2010). Marr says that there are both bottom-up and top-down ways to recognize objects. Marr’s model has also been criticized because it was made to explain object recognition in the setting of computer vision(Azim & Niranjan, 2014). Its ability to explain how humans understand what they see has been questioned. The model might need to consider the complexity and variety of how people see.

According to critics, the model also needs more detail regarding how the brain interprets visual information. The model must be more thorough in guiding scientific research. Also, Marr’s model must consider the environment’s role in recognizing objects. Critics say that circumstances can greatly affect object recognition and that the model needs to be changed to consider this.

Lastly, Marr’s model believes object recognition is natural and hardwired(Poggio & Ullman, 2013). It does not consider how learning and experience shape how we see things. Critics say that the model needs to be changed to consider how information and learning affect the ability to recognize objects. Overall, Marr’s model has impacted cognitive science, but it has some flaws and has been criticized.

People have also criticized Biederman’s recognition-by-components (RBC) idea(Hummel & Biederman, 2022). One of the main complaints is that it relies too much on shape to recognize objects. The authors argue that people analyze and recognize objects in numerous ways. Marr’s model implies a top-down approach, where higher-level processing determines the detection of lower-level traits; however, sensory input may also be processed data-driven.

Marr’s approach explains object recognition in computer vision, but its applicability to human sight is still being determined. Hummel and Biederman argue that the model may not capture the depth and diversity of how people see and may need to be altered to account for attention, context, and prior experience. The authors have also contended that the RBC theory needs to be more flexible in explaining how we identify items, as it assumes that we only recognize objects based on their physical qualities and ignores how context and other factors impact our perceptions. Like Marr’s model, the RBC theory needs to go into more depth about how the brain processes visual information(Kubilius & Op de Beeck, 2016). This makes it less useful for directing the actual study.

Lastly, the RBC theory believes that object recognition is natural and hardwired. The RBC (Recognition-by-Components) hypothesis of object recognition holds that the visual system breaks items down into geometric forms that may be identified and combined to produce complex object representations. This idea states that our brains are hardwired to recognize objects.

Some researchers say the RBC theory ignores education and experience’s effects on object recognition(Yee et al., 2012). Yee implies that past knowledge and training influence object recognition and categorization. Research has indicated that various cultures may have different perceptual biases or preferences that impact how individuals see items. Art and music professionals may also recognize items better than non-experts. Visual experience also influences newborn and kid item identification. For instance, youngsters exposed to more items and experiences may learn to recognize them better.

Thus, some researchers propose revising the RBC theory to include prior knowledge and experience in object recognition(Gauthier & Tarr, 2016). This new theory argues that while the brain has intrinsic visual processing processes, they may be modified and polished via experience and learning.

Despite critics, Marr’s computational model and Biederman’s RBC theory have contributed to object recognition and comprehension advancements. Perception researchers typically use the “hierarchical processing” idea proposed by Marr. It also suggested a way to learn about edge detection and depth cues’ role in object recognition. Several other models have been motivated by this, and researchers improved their understanding of how the brain perceives. The RBC theory developed by Biederman provides a framework for understanding how complex things could be described and identified based on their underlying geometric forms. In computer vision and robotics, the concept has inspired object identification methods.

In conclusion, the computer model of object recognition developed by Marr (1982) and the recognition-by-components theory developed by Biederman (1987) provide complementary but separate views of how people recognize things. Both models have evidence in their favor but have been critiqued for oversimplifying object recognition. Understanding object recognition and developing more comprehensive models that account for all its components requires additional study.

References

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processing of visual information. MIT Press.

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O’Brien, A. M. (2018). Using prosopagnosia to test and modify visual recognition

theory. Perceptual and Motor Skills125(1), 57–80.

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the brain? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences1305(1), 72-82.

Stevens, K. A. (2012). The vision of David Marr. Perception41(9), 1061-1072.

Tsotsos, J. K. (2021). A computational perspective on visual attention. MIT Press.

Verdine, B. N., Lucca, K. R., Golinkoff, R. M., Hirsh-Pasek, K., & Newcombe, N. S. (2016).

The shape of things: The origin of young children’s knowledge of the names and properties of geometric forms. Journal of Cognition and Development17(1), 142-161.

Yee, M., Jones, S. S., & Smith, L. B. (2012). Changes in visual object recognition precede the

shape bias in early noun learning. Frontiers in Psychology, pp. 3, 533.

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recognition. In Proceedings of the 19th ACM international conference on Multimedia (pp. 1493-1496).

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