Faculty Role In Curriculum Development: Tools For Nursing Sample College Essay

Introduction

The curriculum defines what constitutes the graduates of a learning institution. It represents the diversity that makes up a school, college, institute, or university. Clearly elucidating the myriad pedagogical philosophies within the classroom and hands-on teaching, the curriculum helps in defining the strength, quality, and success of any learning or training institution. In order to keep up to speed with the dynamic nature of knowledge passage and training, the learning institution vests the power of curriculum development, updating, and review to the different faculties within the institution. Every faculty harbors the basic responsibility of developing a new course, updating existing programs, and reviewing teaching styles. All these functions aim at ensuring the outcome of education within such institutions proves worthy and valuable to the employment and job creation sector. From this dimension, the nursing faculty has to participate in designing an inclusive curriculum, which touches on all aspects of the sector.

Frightening aspects of change in curriculum development

Since curriculum development presents an alteration to the culture and normal practices within a system, there exists a need to ensure continuity to eliminate cases of fear among the implementing agencies and students. As Keating (2014) denotes, curriculum represents a formal plan of study with philosophical underpinnings, goals, missions, and guidelines necessary for the delivery of a specific educational or instructional program. In the informal setting, it encompasses the faculty, students, administrators, and consumer experiences. Developing an interactive phenomenon within such a setting becomes hectic, as it requires the interests and preferences of different parties. These differences coupled with the changes to culture within a given system offer great barriers in curriculum development. In a culture that previously relied on learner and learning outcomes in the nursing sector, for example, introducing a new curriculum with aspects of quality and safety, evidence-based practice, integration of telecommunication in service delivery, and translational science and research presents an uphill task since it presents new systems, imposes changes, and introduces different training and research modules. Understanding all these changes and ensuring proper continuity and progress from one curriculum to another, therefore, requires an independent system that takes into account the plight of all the persons involved in a given institution (Billings & Halstead, 2012). For this reason, faculties remain in place to ensure progressive review and update of institution curricula.

Factors affecting change process in curriculum development in the nursing sector

Demographic changes and increase in diversity

Population shifts in different parts of the world continue to revolutionize the structures, modes, and modules of influencing knowledge in nursing schools. With augmenting demand for clinical care and public health, standard lifespan continues to rise. This implies that persons with severe and chronic disorders continue to pose difficulties to the nursing fraternity. Therefore, curricula without an in-depth understanding of public health and clinical care become irrelevant as more focus shifts from universal care systems (Tanner, 2010). Equally, the increase in population diversities requires constant improvement of the nursing curricula. The occurrence of ailments and illnesses demand modifications in the mode of training in the nursing sector to take into account the various tenets and cultures that continue to arise in society. Increasing rates of morbidity, discrepancies in mortality rates, and an increase in population with access to care necessitate societal ills such as augmented violence and drug abuse. All these factors require adequate consideration on the learning programs in the nursing sector to ensure nurses remain privy to the changing physical and psychological health characteristics of the world population (Stanley & Dougherty, 2010). With some students taking classes on a part-time basis, educational programs require greater flexibility in reviewing and updating curricula as Stanley and Dougherty (2010) denote.

Technological advancements

Increased advancements in information, communication, and technology influence both health care delivery structures and nursing school training systems. Given the improvements in dispensation speed and volume, the introduction of interactive user interfaces, sophisticated and reliable systems, and the rise in the number of affordable computers and communication gadgets, the health care sector continues to undergo a drastic transformation. For example, Tanner (2010) argues that there exists an increasing use of telemedicine systems in the diagnosis and prescription of illness, thus reducing the conventional physical contact between patients and nurses. Similarly, the availability of the internet across many parts of the world enables the patients to acquire information previously confined within the health care practitioners’ dockets. Markedly, this ease of access to clinical data helps improve personal care management. Nanotechnology in the health care sector intends to come up with new procedures of clinical diagnosis and treatment using relatively cheap biosensors with capacities to detect different ailments. All these technological advancements require nurses to acquire computer literacy skills as well as advance their technological know-how. With the dynamism in the technological advancements, curriculum improvement and development keep the nurses within the latest technological systems to be at per with the emerging trends (Tanner, 2010).

Telecommunication advancement also influences the mode of learning within the nursing sector. For example, distance-learning modalities continue to link students from diverse backgrounds without physical contact. This helps in expanding the potential for accessing professional education as well as increasing the understanding of different nursing strategies in different parts of the world with minimal movements. In order to actualize online and distance learning, faculties require adequate understanding of the underlying factors and constraints that come with such investments. Likewise, with improved technologies, nursing schools enjoy the privilege of developing advanced preclinical simulation laboratories that improve critical thinking and skill acquisition among the trainees. Such laboratories come with computerized systems that ensure easy access to data and improved observation and communication systems, leading to advanced nursing research. In order to introduce such systems within a conventional nursing school system with minimal technological advancements, development of advanced curricula cognizant with the new technological systems becomes necessary.

Barriers to curriculum development in the nursing industry

Dynamism in the policy and regulatory systems

As the world develops and more technologies continue to come into play, legal and regulatory frameworks governing the nursing sector continue to change. The effects of dynamic federal and state health policies compromise the abilities of the faculties to keep reviewing and updating the nursing curricula. The complexity of the nursing field taking into account the medicine and economics aspects further jeopardize proper stakeholder engagement in policy formulations and curriculum development in this sector (Giddens & Brady, 2007). With individual consumers in the nursing sector focused on the quality of the services while the corporate players and nursing practitioners tilted towards economic survival, the desire for improved but cheap nursing systems becomes relatively difficult to achieve.

Constant need for a multifaceted education curriculum

Proficient and effective management of the multifaceted patients’ needs require an extensive array of skills and understanding. This implies that the nursing services continue to change form single nurse care systems to interdisciplinary management systems composed of professionals such as nurses, physicians, dentists, social workers, community health workers, and pharmacists among others (Ching-Kuei, Chapman, & Elder, 2011). Developing a multifaceted curriculum clearly delineating the roles of every health practitioner in a setting becomes difficult due to the number of faculties required for consultation. In essence, such a multifaceted system widens the scope of the curriculum further compromising the level of specialization within the nursing sector (Giddens & Brady, 2007).

Financial constraints

Continuous improvement of curriculum and inclusion of technologically advanced systems within the nursing schools require huge financial investments. Telemedicine, for example, requires constant supply of internet connectivity to ensure effective care and communication structures. Introducing the changes within a training school require high initial capital, which is beyond reach for many institutions. Similarly, the use of sophisticated technological tools in the training of nursing requires proper training and refresher course for tutors, lecturers, and professors handling the tools (Stanley & Dougherty, 2010). Developing a structure for such training and retraining of work force require high capital investments. This implies that any nursing school reviewing and updating its nursing curriculum must acquire huge financial capital.

Advantages of curriculum development in nursing schools

Flexible curricula reflect existing societal and health care trends. These ensure students take into account issues, research findings, and innovative practices within the contexts of the societal setting both at the local and global levels. Improved and flexible curriculum enables students to pick elective units that take into account their interests within the nursing course (Keating, 2014). Likewise, enhanced and improved curriculum provides student with opportunities to register course in a sequence that ensures commitment to areas of needs taking into account the emerging health issues.

In schools where faculties design, review, and update curricula in respect to the emerging health issues, there exist great emphasis on students’ value progress, mingling skills, originality, and desire for permanent learning careers, and commitment to better nursing functions and responsibilities. This sets a basis for continuous improvement among the professionals in the nursing sector leading to improved service delivery. Similarly, improved curriculum ensures nursing students get adequate time for self-reflection, value clarification, and analysis of components of a nursing professional within the class time. Such reservations ensure students understand patients’ expectations. Moreover, self-reflection enables faculties to understand students based on the cultural orientation, learning capabilities, and priorities, thereby developing systems for proper understanding of the entire students’ population (Billings & Halstead, 2012).

Improved curriculum offers learning capabilities that organize students to take responsibilities that represent the basics of quality nursing practice. Such basics include the roles of care providers, patient advocates, teachers, community health workers, change agents, and health coordinators among others. In understanding these basics, students develop adequate understanding and confidence required in executing the roles of the above personalities. Equally, such systems help students develop adequate listening, speaking, communication, and teamwork skills necessary in the nursing sector (Kantor, 2010). This helps in improving students’ abilities to achieve clinical competence as opposed to informal training systems without a proper curriculum. Evidence-based clinical practices help students acquire skills to tackle health issues with a wide range of cultural and racial setting. Likewise, with advanced curriculum, nursing students enjoy the options of specialized trainings leading to increased competencies. For instance, in many schools, students enjoy the options of focusing on specific components of nursing such as nursing educators, advanced practitioners, nursing administrators, and nursing consultants (Kalb, Conner-Von, Schipper, Watkins, & Yetter, 2012).

Tools necessary for curriculum development in nursing

Evaluation benchmarks

This offers the nursing institution a bearing for comparing its own curriculum against those of the other players in the sector. For example, a nursing school should consider pass rate on an accredited examination. Similarly, the schools need to assess the costs of the program, admission criteria, accreditation status, alumni employment rates, and community reputation rates (Keating, 2014). Taking into account all these factors provides a benchmark for improvement and updating of curriculum.

Qualification of the faculty members

Productivity of the faculty members hold direct bearing on the productivity of nursing school alumni. Developing an updated and competitive nursing curriculum requires employment of experienced and highly qualified faculty members. Recruitment of such members must consider individual records of accomplishment, publication history, and research records (Keating, 2014).

Phases of Curriculum Development

Phases of Curriculum Development 

Analysis and Design phase

In the analysis phase, tutors clarify instructional problem to students with adequate establishment of goals, objectives, missions, and visions of the course in question. Similarly, it is at this stage that the tutors define the expected learning environment to the students. This stage enables the students to appreciate the different skills and knowledge existent among their fellow students, thus creating a bonding structure necessary for long-term coexistence. On the other hand, in the design phase, tutors and students go through thorough analysis of the learning objectives, assessment instruments, expected exercises, and course outlines (Iwasiw & Goldenberg, 2015). Likewise, the class develops subject matter analysis, lesson plans, and channels of communication. This phase requires a systematic and specific attention into finer details in order to develop efficient curriculum execution plan.

Development and Implementation phase

Upon the completion of design phase, development phase tasks the designers to develop and assemble content assets necessary for realization of the course schedule. Development phase requires concrete and objective engagement between the tutors and the students since it present the talents and interest identification stage. The implementation phase has a direct bearing on the amount of time investment in the learning settings since it covers the methods of testing and evaluation of performances (Iwasiw & Goldenberg, 2015).

Evaluation phase

Even though this stage overlaps across the entire phases of the curriculum development, it helps in the formative and summative assessment of all the aspects in the curriculum to develop an in depth understanding of the projects. This stage assesses the success, complacency, and efficiency of the implemented curriculum. Besides, it assesses the ability of the set out style of training to respond to students’ need in respect to the instructors’ abilities (Kalb et al., 2010).

Conclusion

Curriculum development remains the basic responsibility of faculty members in nursing schools. In order to keep up with the emerging trends in the health sector as well as the rising needs for specialized health care services, faculty members require effective curriculum development skills relevant to the societal desires. Periodic reviewing and updating of existing nursing curriculum helps nursing schools respond to changes in the society, health care needs of the rising population, and service delivery trends. In addition, it offers future nursing administrators to develop adequate leadership skills necessary for organizing and executing the evaluation and assessment activities.

References

Billings, D. M. & Halstead, J. A. (2012). Teaching in Nursing. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders.

Ching-Kuei, C., Chapman, H., & Elder, R. (2011). Overcoming Challenges to Collaboration: Nurse Educators’ Experiences in Curriculum Change. Journal of Nursing Education, 50(1), 27-33.

Giddens, J. F., & Brady, D. P. (2007). Rescuing Nursing Education from Content Saturation: The Case for a Concept-Based Curriculum. Journal of Nursing Education 46(2), 65-69.

Iwasiw, C. L., & Goldenberg, D. (2015). Curriculum Development in Nursing Education. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

Kalb, K. A., Conner-Von, S. K., Schipper, L. M., Watkins, A.K., & Yetter, D. ( 2012). Educating Leaders in Nursing: Faculty Perspectives. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 9(1), 1-13.

Kantor, S. A. (2010). Pedagogical Change in Nursing Education: One Instructor’s Experience. Journal of Nursing Education, 49(7), 414-417.

Keating, S.B. (2014). Curriculum Development and Evaluation in Nursing. New York: USA, McNaughton & Gunn Printers.

Stanley, M.J C., & Dougherty, J. P. (2010). Nursing Education Model. A Paradigm Shift in Nursing Education: A New Model. Nursing Education Perspectives, 31(6), 378-80.

Tanner, C. A. (2010). Transforming Pre-licensure Nursing Education: Preparing the New Nurse to Meet Emerging Health Care Needs. Nursing Education Perspectives, 31(6), 347-53.

Standards Of Knowledge For Nurses

Introduction

Health outcomes of the general public depend on the knowledge that nurses learn while receiving education and utilize while working. That is why they are to meet certain standards formed on the basis of the needs of current society. Today’s nurse is to be “one that is equipped not only with the basic requisite knowledge and skill to function in the clinical aspect of health care provision, but must also possess the requisite knowledge and skill to function as a team leader, manager of resources, counselors and advocate to patients” (Buncuan, 2010). Of course, each aspect is taken into consideration and maintained in the educational program, but nurses still face difficulties when they start working. It means that the range of improvements is to be conducted to bridge the gap between education and practice so that the transition will be insensible and will not cause any problems.

Identifying the Gap

Needless to say that the gap between education and practice is mostly seen by the nurses who have just crossed this line. Still, it is important to realize that the problems occur on some basis. It means that to deal with them the attention is to be paid to the educators, students, and practitioners.

Nursing today cannot be imagined without utilizing new technologies. Unfortunately, many educators who spent years working only with a particular material are often reluctant to learn new information. They do not want to get knowledge; thus, they are not able to teach the students.

New clinical technologies and medical devices streamline the process of healthcare delivery. The majority of personnel are already familiar with a variety of software. They use it every day to examine the consumer, perform electronic documentation and provide the access to the patient’s charts with the help of the computer. Many hospitals provide training for their employees to understand how the tools can be used and realize the advantages of their utilization. However, such programs are usually maintained when the equipment is on the stage of implementation or has just been implemented. It means that if a nurse starts working at the hospital that already dealt with the device and is successfully using it for a long period of time, one is likely to face difficulties. Of course, it depends on the education.

Some educators refer to the outdated information and provide the students with it. Thus, they do not know how to work with particular devices after graduation. As, the training will not be repeated, the nurse is to learn on one’s own. All people tend to make mistakes at the beginning, but in such situation they can have an adverse impact on the patients’ outcomes. The gap can also occur if the student was not diligent enough and just failed to learn the information provided by the professor. Still, this issue also depends on the educators. They are to check the students’ knowledge and decide whether one is ready to work as a nurse practitioner or not.

The competency also presupposes the knowledge of the latest procedures and protocols, etc. The educators cannot use one plan to teach students during several years. The peculiarities of healthcare delivery change very often, as they are targeted at improvement. Thus, the educators are to understand that their notes should be updated to include the most recent information. The students usually do not check the data they gain during the classes and take the words of their teachers on trust. As they start practicing, some may utilize this knowledge and face unexpected problems.

As a rule, the educators fail to update the information due to the severe academic load. Being always busy, they find time only for classes and the evaluation of the students’ knowledge. Moreover, the professors need to conduct researcher, which is also time-consuming. Consequently, they do not have enough time for such things as clinical attachment. Of course, the source of the problem can be the lack of commitment. One may lose interest to the job or have problems with co-workers, which affects the issue.

Sometimes nursing students cannot see the connection between their knowledge and practice. They may know lots of theoretical information but lack understanding. Usually, such things occur when one is cramming everything up even not trying to deepen into the subject and comprehend how this or that data can be used. Eventually, they know a lot of solutions but are not able to identify the issues that are to be solved. This discrepancy underlines the gap and its influence on the healthcare delivery.

Nurse practitioners sometimes also broaden the gap between education and practice. They are focused on the results of their actions and omit the peculiarities of the procedure itself. The working day of people who work within the sphere of healthcare delivery is overloaded very often. If something is to be done straight away, some nurses act intuitively and do not evaluate the situation. In this case, they may fail to follow particular instructions or protocols, etc. The same is likely to happen if the number of tasks that are to be done till the end of the shift is enormous. This issue shows that the knowledge failed to be imprinted, and it is not automatized. The gap can be broadened due to the lack of personnel. Thus, one may have no time to attend some sessions or training.

Bridging the Gap

The nurse leaders in several spheres discussed the necessity of implementation of the latest evidence-based study to enhance the process of healthcare delivery. Unfortunately, they faced problems and understood that nursing practitioners reject any changes they propose. Moreover, the survey showed that many ambitious new nurses are discouraged to provide any improvements and alterations in the usual processes. It was concluded that instead of treating them as partners on a health-care team, those supervising them during placements “often silence them when they raise issues or questions about something they have observed in a patient’s care” (Eggertson, 2013). Considering this situation, the researchers discussed the ways that can help to bridge the gap between education and practicing.

Today many learning tools are created for the nurses. Depending on their level, they can be utilized by students of different levels. They provide the professionals with the essential knowledge and can be integrated int the lifelong learning programs (Nilbert & Troseth, 2011). The most important thing is that they discuss current healthcare environments without flourishes. In this way, students gain an opportunity to understand what are the peculiarities of a real clinical practice.

Evidence-based practice is the best way to bridge the gap between the knowledge and practice (Bradly & Lewin, 2007). It allows the students and practitioners plan their actions according to the information that was already proved. For the educators and nurses to realize the necessity of the implementation special sessions should be provided. The most important task is to convince these professionals that the results will really improve.

Nurse practitioners and educators should keep to the continuing education, as it will provide them with the necessary knowledge. They are to communicate and to share their experience to get to know new approaches and create innovative ideas.

The educators are to have a particular amount of working hours designed for clinical attachment. A load of nurses is hard to influence, but its facilitation is likely to make the profession look more attractive and give enough time for adaptation to the changes.

Moreover, the representatives of the mentioned spheres of nursing are to be provided with special training where they can gain the knowledge and experience in utilizing new clinical technologies and devices so that they will not waste time trying to cope with everything independently (Jerlock, Falk, & Severinsson, 2003). The performance of the students, practitioners and educators is to be assessed, as the best way to make sure that the gap is bridging is to control the situation.

Conclusion

Thus, it can be concluded that the gap between nursing practice and education exists. Moreover, it has an adverse influence on the process of healthcare delivery. The nurses face many difficulties due to the gaps in education that affect their work. They become reluctant to alterations and fail to meet the requirements applied to the professionals. Still, the situation can be improved if it is taken under control. The superiors are to underline the necessity of new implementations, provide training and assess the performance of the nurses.

References

Bradly, N., & Lewin, L. (2007). Evidence-based practice in nursing: Bridging the gap between research and practice. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 21(1), 53-56.

Buncuan, J. (2010). Bridging the gaps between education and practice in nursing. Web.

Eggertson, L. (2013). The gap between clinical practice and education. Canadian Nurse, 109(7), 22-26.

Jerlock, M., Falk, K., & Severinsson, E. (2003). Academic nursing education guidelines: tool for bridging the gap between theory, research and practice. Nursing & Health Sciences, 5(3), 219-228.

Nilbert, A., & Troseth, M. (2011). Nursing education & practice: Bridging the gap. Web.

Counseling Of Juvenile Males And Recidivism

Introduction

The rate of juvenile crimes especially in males seems to be rising and the trend has had many innocent people affected by these crimes. A juvenile has been defined as a person who has not attained the age of 18. Surveys conducted indicate that approximately 2 million juveniles are arrested yearly with those from poor states and homes being the most affected. Further research also indicates that the number of male offenders is higher than that of their female counterparts and they are notorious for crimes such as rape, theft and drugs (Wines, 1896). This has been attributed to various reasons such as the young men’s need to express their masculinity. Factors such as the quest to appear tough and daring among their peers are the main causes that lead the male juveniles to commit antisocial or illegal behaviors.

Due to the fact that these juveniles are below the age of 18, they cannot be tried as adult offenders and in most cases, depending to magnitude of the crime committed, the juvenile court may appear lenient to the juvenile offender. Serious crimes such as rape and robbery with violence may lead to the juvenile offender being detained in juvenile custody or institution. However, despite the penalties imposed on the detained male offenders, they commit the crimes several times once they are released to go back to the community. This recidivism of juvenile offenders is on the increase with many of them committing more than three crimes after their detention. This research will therefore discuss whether counseling should be introduced to the detention camps to reduce the rate of recidivism among the male juvenile offenders (American Psychological Association 2000).

Statement Of The Problem

Recidivism has been viewed as a consistent and continuous form in juvenile delinquencies despite the juveniles having completed their terms in detention centers or probation. Some predicators for recidivism have been attributed to the age and status of the juvenile during his first conviction, drug and alcohol abuse, the length of the first detention among many other factors.

Previously conducted studies indicate that the high rates in recidivism are linked to low levels of education among the male juveniles. The studies further argue that lack of education is due to the fact that the juveniles are not encouraged to join school and learn hence become ignorant to many factors. The detention camps focus on punishing the juveniles rather than rehabilitating them through various modes such as counseling. This hardens the juvenile and once they complete their term in the detention camp, they commit another crime and end up in the detention camp several times. The male juvenile offenders rate highly in recidivism upon being released as opposed to the female offenders.

Purpose Of Research

Bearing in mind the problem at hand, this research is therefore aimed at finding a lasting solution to the problem of recidivism among the male juveniles. The aim of this research will be to discuss the role of counseling program in juvenile detention centre as a mode of reducing the rate of recidivism.

The other aim of the research is to study the group counseling of juvenile males in detention facilities and how this counseling reduces recidivism.

It will also discuss the mode of adopting the counseling programs in the institutions and the legal implications of the process.

The other aim of the research will be to determine the scope of counseling in decreasing the chances of offenders from repeating their crimes once out of detention camps.

It will further discuss the role of the centers as rehabilitation centers rather than punitive centers in helping the juvenile to reform. This includes introduction of educational programs in various subjects such as reading and crisis counseling that help in reduction of recidivism.

Literature Review

According to Hess (2009), juvenile recidivism is also known as chronic juvenile offending. She attributes it to both factors of frequency and duration and defines juvenile recidivism as offenders who engage in numerous repetitions of crimes over a period of time after serving conviction sentences. The main contributing factors of juvenile recidivism include poor family and social background, family factors such as alcoholism and abuse and previous history of offenses by the juvenile. Poverty is the main reason of recidivism with the juveniles being accustomed to the harsh life hence leading them to commit further crimes in order to survive. The male juveniles from poor background commit petty crimes such as shoplifting. Juveniles from shaky family backgrounds such as violent families and alcoholism is a main contributing factor in juvenile recidivism. This has been attributed to the fact that the family members serve as bad example and the home atmosphere is not conducive for a juvenile from detention. The family atmosphere causes the juvenile to commit further crimes due to lack of proper support.

Introduction of counseling programs in various juvenile detention institutions indicate a decrease in the rate of recidivism (Loeber and Farrington, 1998). This is in particular to offenders who receive the counseling in earlier stages of detention hence decreasing their chances of engaging in further crimes upon their release in the community. Further, the parallel punitive measure in the detention camps only hardened the juveniles instead of helping them change for the better. The juvenile offenders therefore continue their recidivism and turning to adult criminals.

Juveniles in peer groups tend to commit further crimes due to peer pressure. According to psychologists, the peer groups lack proper guidance therefore taking upon them to commit actions that sought to gain recognition in the society. Marquart and Sorensen (1996) argue that the quest of attention among the peers leads them to commit numerous crimes and this can only be solved by giving them proper guidance rather than punishing them. Counselors understand the male juveniles and the main factors that lead them to commit the crimes hence addressing the problem from the core (Civic Research Institute, 2005).

Research Methodology

The main research methods that will be used to collect relevant information will be use of questionnaires, conducting surveys and interviews. This are preferred sources as the data collected is primary data and they are cheap means of collecting information. They are also the best methodology as they engage the participant on one-to-one basis hence allowing the researcher to see their attitudes and expressions when giving the information. They also create a level of familiarity between the researcher and the participants hence increasing the level of excellent outcome of the study (Kothari, 2004).

The sample participant to be used to collect information will be participants between the age of 13 and 16. The researcher will conduct the research in three different juvenile centers in different states within the United States and will recruit 40 participants from each juvenile facility making it a total of 120 participants in total.

To be able to conduct the research in the detention facilities, the researcher will have to adhere to certain rules. Permission should be granted from the detention facilities to conduct the research within their premises. Further, the participants have to meet three important qualifications so as to be recruited as samples to be used for research. The first requirement is that the participant should fall under the age bracket between 13 and 16 years old. They should also have a written informed assent and lastly notify their legal guardians or parents about their participation in the study.

Each participant will be required to answer a questionnaire requiring them to fill in details such as what they had been charged with, the length of their detention and their goals, if any, upon their release. They will also be given a survey which will answer questions regarding their feelings towards incarceration, their feelings and attitudes towards their peers within the detention facilities and also about the exuded confidence in reaching their set goals in the questionnaire. The participants will then undergo a 90 days of group therapy upon which they will be required to fill in another survey with the same set of questions of the first survey. The participants will then be interviewed after the lapse of two years upon being released from the detention facility that will help to determine whether the group therapy had any effect on the reduction of recidivism in the span of two years as a free citizen.

The Research Variables

The variable of this research is mainly group therapy and the rate of recidivism reduction. It is for this reason that the participants will be divided into three categories. The first 40 participants from the first detention facility will receive neither personal nor group therapy. The second group of 40 participants from the second detention facility will only receive one-on-one or personal therapy conducted for 90 days. The last group of participants will receive a 90 days group therapy. The relationship between the variables will be determined by the type of therapy received by the participants and their effect on the reduction of recidivism.

The following operational definition was used to determine whether group therapy was effective in reducing the rate of recidivism. Group therapy is counseling given to a group of peers help up in detention while recidivism is repetition of crimes after being released from detention. The research showed that compared to personal or one-on-one therapy of the juveniles, group therapy was the most effective to help reduce further engagements to crimes by the juveniles once they were released from the juvenile detentions.

The Benefit Of The Study

The research will help the reader to understand the usefulness of implementing group therapy over various treatments that seek to reduce the high rising rates of recidivism.

The revelations of the study will help the juveniles to be fully rehabilitated by the time they are leaving the detention camps.

It will also widen the knowledge of people who fail to understand why the juveniles engage in recidivism hence helping the juveniles get the right kind of group therapy treatment.

This study will also be a benefit the society at large. The members of the society are the most affected with juvenile recidivism and the study findings will help them cope with juveniles out of detention facilities. This will be in contrast to the treatment by juveniles by the society who treat them as outsiders hence leading them to commit more crimes.

Limitations of The Study

The research is deemed to be faced by various challenges. The major challenge likely to be faced is when collecting data from the participants. Most participants may be unwilling to reveal the true information required hence affecting the outcome of the research. Due to their criminal background, they may appear reluctant to open up to a stranger and is bound to give a cold response.

In addition, the age of the participants may be a limiting factor to accomplish the study. The participants should hit the target limit of 120 members all aged between the age of 13 to 16 years. The participants in the chosen detention centers may fall below or above the set age bracket hence affecting the outcome of the study.

The male juvenile participants may also pose as a challenge when collecting data due to their masculinity issue. They may refuse to receive therapy due to superiority complex and this is another limitation of the study.

Conclusion

With the juvenile male offenders recording the highest number in juvenile recidivism, the study is important to indicate how the level of recidivism can be reduced. Personal and group therapies have both been proposed with each serving its own arguments as to why they should be adopted. This research will focus on group therapy as a remedy and determine why it should be used in place of personal therapy. The study will use the participants to study the effectiveness of both personal and group therapy to determine the validity of each through the outcome.

References

American Psychological Association (2000). Psychological Abstracts. American Psychological Association Vol 87, 1-2.

Civic Research Institute (2005). Juvenile Justice Update. Pittsburg: Indiana University

Hess, K. (2009). Juvenile Justice. USA: Wadsworth Pub Co

Kothari, C. (2004). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. Delhi: New Age International Ltd Publishers

Loeber, R. and Farrington, D. (1998). Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful. USA: Sage

Marquart, J. and Sorensen, J. (1996). Correctional contexts: Contemporary and classical readings. Philadelphia: Roxbury Pub

Wines, H. (1896). Report On Crime, Pauperism and Benevolence in the United States at the Eleventh Census, 1890: Analysis. USA: Government Printing Office