Family And Medical Leave Act Law Essay Sample For College


Respect and protection of employee rights is one of the fundamental functions that an organization should aim to achieve. Primarily this is a function of the human resource and planning department, whereby they always have to advocate for good working conditions and equal treatment of all workers regardless of their social, political, health, and economic status. Different states in the U.S. have different rules of protecting their employees’ rights but the adoption of the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) law by the government enhanced worker protection practices by organizations.

Background information and history of FMLA

The U.S. congress accepted FMLA as a law in the year 1993 under leadership of President Bill Clinton. Primarily it is a labor law that gives employees opportunities of seeking leaves, which amount to a maximum of three weeks depending on employees’ needs and commitments. The law ensures that employers guarantee their employees job security while on leave. Provisions by this law allow individuals to seek leaves when they are sick, about to give birth, or in case they are required to give support to sick family members. Implementation of the law is primarily done by the employment standard administration department (wage and hour division), a section of the U.S. labor ministry (Williams, 2001, p. 3).

Before implementation of the law by the government, the majority of employees could lose their jobs although they had genuine reasons for not attending work. Majority of organizations rejected employee’s pleas for job leaves in case they had to attend to sick members of their families. In addition, due to long periods taken by mothers to recover after birth, majority of them could find organization’s administrations have replaced their positions because to them work must continue to ensure achievement of organizational goals. This resulted to reduced career prospects among many individuals, whereby majority of those affected were women. In addition to losing jobs, majority of caregivers endangered their lives, because, for them to secure their jobs they had to work as they recover or work while sick. Previously there were no law provisions for the sick hence; FMLA has helped to bridge the gap that previously existed (Amelia, 2006, Para 1-3).

In addition, this law guarantees individuals payment of their full benefits after leaves, hence giving families economic securities. Although organizations may not have employees demanding leaves, the law dictates that all employers must provide their employee’s notices providing guidelines on FMLA. The law strongly prohibits employer’s biased handling of employees seeking for leaves, hence guaranteeing employees protection in their working stations (Amelia, 2006, Para. 4).

Features of FMLA

Passing of the law primarily left the overall role of workers’ leaves on organizations’ human resource departments. All employers have to make critical considerations before granting any leaves to its workers; hence, depending on the seriousness of involved cases, organizations grant workers varying leave periods. Workers may apply for a leave in the following situations: new births, adoptions of new babies, to take care of ailing family members or incase employees themselves suffer from health complications hence, cannot work in that present situation. The law also dictates that only employees who have worked in an organization for a period of more than one year are eligible for such leaves. In addition, it is a must for an individual to have worked for a specific organization for more than 1,250 hours, within a period of one year. One thing all employees have to bear in mind is that, the law governs only organizations with more than 50 workers, although variations occur depending on the state. This law’s compensating scheme follows guidelines provided by FLSA, on how to handle workers compensations. For workers of educational bodies, rules of FMLA are a little bit different because of the nature of responsibilities associated with such organizations (Swider, 2000, Para.1-3).

On the other hand, the law gives no protection to the following situations namely: workers in organizations with less than 50 workers, workers in airline companies, workers who demand time to recover from short-term health problems, and workers who demand time off for them to attend medical routine checkups. The law only covers need of immediate family members, although expansion of the scope of the law extended favors to adult and adopted children. According to the law, “sicknesses” depends on the period and frequency of health problems, which in most cases take to be three days. The law requires employees to follow the stipulated rules in reporting sickness, whereby confirmation on reporting day is compulsory for all employees hence, importance of medical examination certificates (Hyman, 2008, p.1).

Benefits of FMLA

FMLA plays a very important role of giving individuals protection from work discriminations associated with seeking of leaves, in case of medical emergencies. It guarantees workers unpaid leaves, which in turn promote well being of all individuals in terms of working conditions and health environments. All organizations within the U.S. with more than fifty workers must follow guidelines spelt in the law, when dealing with workers’ absenteeism cases. This has helped to ensure organizations treat workers of both sexes equally. The rule directs all employers to sustain their workers’ health coverage plans regardless of the nature of health plans such employees have, hence continual support to employees in case of health complications. This law has really promoted well being of disabled employees, who previously were discriminated by organizations owing to their health conditions and complications (U.S. department of labor, 2008, p.1).

In addition, beneficiaries of this law may be eligible to receive their UC-sponsored gains depending on benefits options taken by an individual. This gives workers an opportunity to renew their UC-sponsored coverage once they resume work, in case it expired when one was on leave. For states such as California, women organizations can guarantee women up to 4 months of pregnancy leaves in situations where applicants of the same have not fully utilized their 12-week leaves. On the other hand, this law provides the required flexibility in UC-transfers in that, in case individuals change their plan areas they can transfer their UC- sponsored schemes (University of California, 2004, PP. 2-3).

The law also grants individuals substitution rights, whereby individual organizations have to grant all employees right of substituting their paid leaves. This law gives individuals no boundaries for substituting paid leaves, but it prohibits substitution of sick leaves with other activities (University of Wisconsin system, 2007, Para. 1-9).

Areas of Business Responsibilities Regarding FMLA

To reduce suits associated with adoption of FMLA by organizations, all organizations are supposed to provide its employees with time-to-time updates on FMLA coverage. At all times business must inform their employees of cases where it is applicable to coin both the paid and unpaid leaves incase an employee seeks for both. Due to certification required to prove reasons for absence from work all employers must provide all workers with required documents for doctors or concerned parties to fill during the leave period. Employers should grant imminent leaves to employees in case of the following two factors namely: when employees have to attend to childbirth or adoption issues. Secondly, employers should grant workers such leaves in case of an employee or employees’ family members suffer some health complications, hence need for medical attention and care.

In addition, all employers must provide their employees health insurance at all times whether they are in job or on leave. On the other hand, all employers must give their employees all their gains when they resume work following rates specified in employment agreements. All this if not followed by employers, then there is a likelihood of many court suits because denial of employee rights breaks labor laws as provided by the U.S. labor ministry. At all times employers must provide their employees notifications primarily FMLA eligibility criteria, rights, and how they can enhance the leave scheme. The new FMLA law grants only employers’ health care giver rights of talking with concerned medics who provide medication to their employees, hence ensuring security and privacy of employees’ health information. This helps to minimize victimization of employees by their bosses. In addition, the law grants only concerned human resource personnel rights of clarifying employees’ medical conditions in case need arises for the same (Fleischer, 2008, Para. 1-7).

Future Policy Considerations for Human Resource Departments

The FMLA law is already operational hence; organizations have to structure their human resource departments to accommodate any changes, which may result from implementation of the law. Major problems faced by organizations are determining the accuracy of information provided by employees and seriousness of their medical conditions. Another challenge faced by organizations is adoption of methodologies, which accommodates both the law’s specifications with other duties of employers as concerns the whole leave scheme. The government has not incorporated this law to currently existing laws hence, making its overall implementation in organizations hard, due to conflicts between organizational and employees’ needs. Organizations have to structure their human resource departments in a way, which will ensure that impacts resulting from workers’ leaves have fewer effects on the running of organizations. Organizations should adopt measures that ensure correct calculation of coverage depending on leaves taken by employees. This will ensure organizations minimize losses resulting from suits and wrong calculations of coverage hence, promotion of both employee and employer needs.

Reinstatement of employees is another key issue affecting many organizations. The FMLA law dictates that organizations must provide its workers with notices in case reinstatement is not possible, whereby clearly explained reasons for the denial should accompany the notice. This one main challenge because in most cases such dismissals have many legal issues, which organizations must follow. This then calls for adjustments in organizations’ policies of dismissal and readmission to ensure all workers clearly know their boundaries in terms of reinstatement and dismissal (Seminar information service, 2009, Para. 1-6).


In conclusion, the FMLA law has promoted employees’ rights, hence victimization and unequal treatment of employees is slowly diminishing from organizations. In addition, to ensure sustainability of organizations and protection of employees’ rights adequately organizations should adopt measures, which will ensure organizations have proper tracking mechanisms for all intermittent leaves.

Reference List

Amelia. (2006). History of FMLA. Labor law center. Web.

Fleischer, M. department of labor issues long awaited final FMLA regulations. Training Time. Web.

Hyman, J. (2008). Summary of new FMLA regulation: 10 key changes. Ohio employers lawblog. Web.

Seminar information service. (2009). FMLA compliance. Sis. Web.

Swider, D. L. (2000). An overview of the FMLA. All business. Web.

University of California. (2004). Family and medical leave: benefits checklist while on FMLA leave. Web.

University of Wisconsin system. (2007). Employee benefits: FMLA WFMLA. Human resources and workforce diversity. Web.

U.S. Department of Labor. (2008). 29 CFR 825.209 – maintenance of employee benefits. Web.

Williams, A. H. (2001). FMLA leave: a walk through the legal labyrinth. Tennessee: M. Lee smith publishers.

Antecedents Of Brand Loyalty: The Case Of Coca-Cola


This paper defines the importance of brand loyalty as a desirable outcome in the total marketing mix and personifies brand bonding in the case of a college student who cannot live without Coca-Cola. A refreshment needs to be created by advertising, demand for Coca-Cola grew via an unusually fortuitous chain of the unique product idea, affordable pricing, a franchising model that extended market reach while sharing production costs with bottlers, and a single-minded focus on availability at retail for every thirsty drinker that wanted a Coke. To build critical mass, sustainability of the business and brand loyalty, Coca-Cola has depended on consistent advertising that fostered both a highly favorable brand image and contained a hard-sell message.


I have always been fascinated by the neighbor’s 19-year-old college kid. When all the other young guys I knew disappeared night after night in binge drinking and the newfound liberties of college, here was Francis happy at home with his computer, pizza and endless squeeze liter bottles of Coke. It had always been his drink of choice since starting school and not the zero-calorie or wimpy Cherry Coke flavor either.

Description of Person’s Loyalty to a Brand

Once brand equity has been established by promising brand strategy, differentiation, brand familiarity via sustained advertising, image-building market entry, brand relevance and eminently satisfactory performance against the brand promise, consumer marketers pursue the goal of profitable market share by enhanced market penetration and building brand loyalty. In fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG’s) like carbonated soft drinks (CSD) particularly, the concentrate makers desire the brand bonding that impels core adolescent and young adult market segments to prefer one brand during every consumption occasion to the exclusion of all others (Armstrong and Kotler, 2009). The ideal is the kind of brand loyalty that motivates a thirsty young man to try another store if the first he tried has run out of his favorite soft drink brand.

In practical terms, brand loyalty may not even be totally exclusionary. In response to brand-switching campaigns by the competition, value-added promotions, bundling deals in the supermarket, or exclusivity forged by competitors with restaurant chains a Coke drinker may occasionally drink other brands. But the company can live with that because a reasonable level of brand loyalty is the base that supports the conquest of new drinker segments and geographic areas. Without brand loyalty, CSD makers would have to offer “reasons why” to shoppers every day so as to defend volume share. But it is too expensive, in terms of advertising and promotional spending, to keep doing so.

Background on the Brand

The phenomenal story of Coca-Cola from one man’s concoction in a solitary soda fountain to market leader in America and successful world-beater is one of the remarkable and legendary success stories of the last twelve decades. It is a story of creating an entirely new product class, satisfying a nonessential want, building an enduring business model, sticking to beverages, and moving aggressively on distribution and advertising to shape brand loyalty despite shifts in market trends and occasionally successful forays by archrival Pepsi Cola.

Both the Coca-Cola recipe and unique, two-part manufacturing process date back to the summer of 1886 when Atlanta pharmacist John S. Pemberton brought a jug of his brand-new concoction down to Jacob’s pharmacy to be mixed with carbonated water and sampled. Pronounced tasty and refreshing, the drink was branded Coca-Cola right from the start and sold for five cents a glass (The Coca-Cola Company, 2009).

Success was by no means instant. That first year, Coke averaged sales of just nine glasses a day all over the city. On Pemberton’s death, Asa Chandler (also an Atlantan) acquired the controlling shares and pushed a ten-fold sales to increase with a strong advertising push, couponing, the launch of branded premiums that were to remain an important part of the marketing arsenal for over a century, and the enduring four-fold “mission” product benefit statement: “delicious, refreshing, exhilarating, invigorating!” (The Coca-Cola Company, 2009). This core message was executed most recently as the theme, “Open happiness”.

On the matter of distribution, Candler pursued the business model he was familiar with. Less than a decade after the formula was born, he had shipped syrup to pharmacists all over the United States. It took three Chatanoogans to obtain the national bottling rights and invest in autonomous bottling plants, two of which they had in operation by 1899. In the next two decades, the three partners co-opted numerous local businessmen to blanket the nation with 1,000 plants. This became the enduring platform for market dominance not only domestically but overseas as well.

Marketing Application and Analysis

For a product class that is not essential to human survival, security or happiness, Coke has fostered brand loyalty more enduring than the temporary surges produced by the “Pepsi Challenge”. This the company has forged by associating itself with every aspect of American dining and lifestyle, as well as with highly convincing advertising themes such as “It’s the real thing,” “Real”, “Coke is it”, all of which reinforce the image of the brand as the original CSD and therefore sustain loyalty when it comes to the refreshment benefit (Ries, 2003).


This all-too-brief review has shown that the consumer loyalty accorded Coke sprang from product innovation, a franchising business model, hyper-aggressive efforts to achieve retail availability, pricing to accommodate impulse purchases, and advertising campaigns that melded a behavioral response with music, fun and the American lifestyle.


Armstrong, G., & Kotler, P. (2009). Marketing: An introduction. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

The Coca-Cola Company (2009). The chronicle of Coca-Cola. Web.

Ries, A. (2003). Coca-Cola gets real. Advertising Age.

Families, Delinquency And Crime


Crime would be considered a major social problem in the United States according to opinion surveys, with the major cause being laxity and inefficiency in parenting (Simons, Simons & Wallace, 2004). Antisocial tendencies can be evidenced in children right from childhood, with adult antisocial lifestyle being implanted in people at formative years. In addition to inborn personal traits like temperament and personality, it is considerate among the social scientists that family environment provided by parents play an important role in influencing the child’s psychological and behavioral development according to Simons, Simons & Wallace (2004). Aggressive and non-compliant elementary schoolers were found from a number of studies to be at risk of adolescent delinquency and adult crime (e.g. Caspi and Moffitt; 1995; qtd. in Simons, Simons & Wallace, 2004). The factors that were found by the Gluecks (husband-and-wife team of Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck) to be most important in the family environment that influenced the delinquent behavior were parental supervision, disciplinary activities and child-parent attachment (qtd. in Simons, Simons & Wallace, 2004).

Delinquency, crime and theory

Control theorists who contend that all people enter the world as antisocial orientation and react antisocially, argue that we need to determine the mechanisms whereby the transformation from antisocial behavior to conformation takes place. These theorists argue out that individuals begin to delay gratification latter in life so as to consider the interests of others. They try to avoid conducts that are socially disapproved and strive to follow social norms and to cooperate. Social control theorists argue that we should ask why people conform other than why people are defiant. According to Hirschi whose social control theoretical ideas were more widely accepted than preceding theorists, individuals would conform when they established bonds to the society. Delinquency would arise if there were weaker or broken bonds (Hirschi, 1969; qtd. in Simons, Simons & Wallace, 2004).

The four elements presents in the society bonding were attachment, commitment, involvement and belief. The first depict the extent to which the individual would feel close, care about and identify with other individuals in the society such as peers, parents and teachers. This would cause one to relate family attachments with the importance in the development of child delinquency and their exhibiting of criminal behavior latter in life. Children, like other individuals would be concerned in meeting the expectations of the people they cared about and seek to avoid defiant actions and behaviors that would alienate or anger them.

The individuals would be more concerned with the opinions of the parents for example, the more they would become attached to them. According to Hirschi, the most powerful influence was the child’s attachment to its parents. Commitment as an element meant the investment to which an individual would make towards achieving certain goals in life, for example, performing well at school and getting a good job. Through such investments, children would be ready or able to conform because delinquency and conduct problems reduced the probability of meeting these goals. Thus it was possible that those children lacking commitment to goals in life even at early stages of life would develop delinquent behavior (Simons, Simons & Wallace, 2004). Parents would therefore need to encourage the children to commit to certain goal and emphasize on achieving these goals in children at an early age.

Therefore, poor parenting as well as family violence that would cause adverse effects such as parental absentee can be linked to lack of emphasis of children to commit to life goals. Poor parenting such as excessive permissive model would be blamed for failing to provide guide towards such commitment to life-term goals as well as failure to provide limits that would be necessary for the child’s conformation. According to Hirschi, children would be too busy to engage in deliquescent behavior if they participated (or were involved) in conventional activities such as athletic teams, religious organizations, family events, and after-school employment.

This synthesis can be thought to have linkage with the idea of Bandura that children were able to learn through observing televised violence since it can be understood that the attention with which these programs would draw children, would discourage participation in conventional activities. The family and societal bond would enable the child to belief in legitimacy of societal morals and laws and believe that they should be followed. Permissive parenting would provide the least appropriate environment for development of such a belief because children would not be let to fully understand the limits to which they may exercise their freedom, and take advantage of the guidance provided by their parents. Further dimensions of parenting in addition to attachment, were found to be related to child delinquency.

These factors included consistent discipline, monitoring and parental warmth, and which inversely related to the probability of the child becoming delinquent (e.g. Wright and Cullen, 2001; qtd. in Simons, Simons & Wallace, 2004). The Baumrind’s typology ideas of parental responsiveness and demandingness can also help in the understanding of the relationship between family and delinquency. The parents are supposed to be supportive and attuned to the needs of the children, warm and approachable and at the same time exercise control over them through confrontation on disobedience, disciplinary efforts, and supervision. The theory can help us understand the effects of each of the parenting models, and the advantages of intertwining the different types through typology so as to maximize on the advantages. Permissive parenting would score high in responsiveness but low on demandingness as authoritarian parenting would contrast it. Authoritative parenting would score high on both factors whereas neglectful parenting would score poorly on both. Although according to Baumrind’s assertion that authoritative parenting which scores high on both factors was the best, it has been theorized elsewhere that a blend between the first two would yield better results.

Children who are victimized as they grow up will victimize others according to the cycle of violence theory. The same view is shared by the US National Research Council (1993; qtd. in Tomison, 1996). However, according to Kaufman and Ziggler (1993; qtd. in Tomison, 1996), intergeneration may be an outcome of an interplay between social and genetic influences. The immediate aforementioned authors note that many parents who were abused as children do not become themselves abusive when they are adults although some do. However, this finding has been contrasted by that of many retrospective investigators who have found the opposite (Steele and Pollock, 1968; qtd. in Tomison, 1996). This type of study focuses on the studying of maltreating parents after being identified as having mistreated or mistreating their own children.

The study has been criticized as being unable to resolve the proportion of adults who were maltreated but who subsequently cared for their children adequately. The study is able to determine those parents who were abused as children and went ahead to abuse their children. The rate of intergenerational transmission may be over-estimated if parents falsely report of abuse at childhood because the method lacks credibility in determining whether the parents gave distorted accounts of their childhood (National Research Council; qtd. in Tomison, 1996). However, it is possible that parents who faced maltreatment at childhood would normalize their abusive experiences and thus fail to report a history of maltreatment, which would lead to under-estimation of the reported intergenerational rate. Prospective studies follow children from families where they are adequately cared for, and from families where they have been maltreated, until the both groups have children. These studies have produced lower rates of intergenerational transmission (Tomison, 1996).

Another view is that the children may acquire genetic predisposition for aggressive behavior, and this would turn out to be children maltreatment when the child becomes an adult. Other family factors that can be associated with future juvenile and adult offending includes; poor child rearing techniques or methods including rejection, poor discipline, no rule-setting and poor supervision; parental psychopathology; child maltreatment and abuse-sexual and physical-or neglect; negative sibling influences; large family sizes; and disrupted families like divorced and absentee parents. The lifestyle with which the family adopted was also likely to influence the behavior outcome at latter years. Because Bandura pose it that we can learn through observing others, we understand the reason as to why it is possible to copy other lifestyles simply by watching incidences like movies and Television programs.

Children, like other people would acquire new styles of conduct, emotional responses, and attitudes through observing of television programs like other people’s behavior (qtd. in Social Learning Theory of Albert Bandura, n.d.). Violence would be learned when children for example watched violent movie events in television. However, approval of such acquired behavior by those who are around the children is very important. This can be understood because children at tender age look for approval from their guides and parents. Children can negatively reinforce certain behavior if they responded to the needs of the child when they exhibited unwelcome behavior such as yelling, shouting and insulting; such that repeated incidences would make the child to learn that the behavior they exhibit in demand for things yields positive responses. Parents may on the other side be caught up with this kind of cycle if they feel that responding to the needs of the child would help stop the behavior they are exhibiting-thus may unknowingly reinforce the behaviors or actions.

The fact that the family lifestyles themselves would influence the tendency of the child being violent and aggressive may be exacerbated by improper parenting styles like permissive parenting where the child would be let to determine the limits themselves which may happen too late. In addition, the poor family lifestyles can be reinforced by the presence of family violence-partner to partner violence. According to Bandura, televised violence would hold the attention of the child because it was simple, distinctive, prevalent, and useful and depicted positively (qtd. in Social Learning Theory of Albert Bandura, n.d.).

A relationship between marital violence and child abuse among families has been explored with Wolfe & Wilson (1990) posing that child violence was present in one third of families experiencing marital violence. According to Leighton (1989), children were present during 68% of the incidents of wife assault while according to Sinclair (1985); they were present during 80% of the incidences. The children who experience violence have been demonstrated to be at greater risk for adjustment difficulties in emotional, psychological and cognitive domains (Goodman & Rosenberg, 1987; Jaffe, Wolfe & Wilson, 1990). These children may experience side effects like the feelings of hopelessness, anxiety, lack of self-control and lack of self-esteem and poor academic performance among other things. Problems like depression and anxiety may be present in adulthood, which means that they will influence the behavior of the children if still present. Children, whether as witnesses of family violence or abuse or as victims of abuse or family violence, may show aggressive behavior at latter stages in life (Fantuzzo & Lindquist, 1989; Dodge, Bates & Pettit, 1990). The risk of an individual for becoming violent in adulthood increased with the individual’s experience of violence in the family of origin according to Widom (1989b). According to this author, 30% of children who were abused would also abuse their own children.

Social Learning Theory

According to this theory that was put forward by Bandura, people were able to learn from one another through observation, imitation and modeling. When individuals observe others, they were able according to Bandura, to develop ideas of how new behaviors were formed and this coded information would serve as a guide for action in previous occasions encountered by the observer or learner. The theory involves attention, memory and motivation and has therefore been considered a bridge between the cognitive learning and behavioral theories. The influence in learning occurs through interaction between behavioral, cognitive and environmental aspects of life. This theory may therefore be interpreted to mean that bad behavior was likely to be transmitted to children or family members from others and thus encouraging criminal behavior amongst others. According to latter development by Bandura, personality would evolve from and be influenced by an interaction between the environment, behavior and one’s psychological processes (a person’s ability to entertain images in minds and language). Because a family involves continuous interactions between the parents and the children, it was possible that the parents, who portrayed violence towards their mates or family members, would transmit the same behavior or tendency to their children and latter life as married people.

According to Bandura, learning of aggression and violence from family members, the media and the social environment would be possible. Aggression would be learned through vicarious learning where it was possible to train children and make them use violence by modeling their behavior upon the adults they observed. Because family members are intimate to the child, aggression reinforced by them was considered the most prominent of behavior modeling in this manner. Children were likely to deal with certain life events and individuals in the same aggressive manner and tactic witnessed from the parents. The children who witnessed violence at home would learn to control behavior or solve conflicts and other problems through aggression, and therefore, were likely to replicate the same behavior at adulthood. If aggression or violence was observed or perceived to have solved the problem, the behavior would be reinforced in the child’s life. Future violent and criminal behavior would be avoided by diagnosing aggression at childhood according to Bandura (1977). Controlling or elimination of aggression and bad behavior at childhood can be achieved through application of behavioral and psychological interventions. The child can be empowered through helping him or her to solve conflicts in appropriate manner,

Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles

The above two parenting styles are among the three identified by researchers, the third one being authoritative parenting. Application of any of the above parenting style in order to bring good children may be advisable depending on the response the kid gives to one of them and may give certain results or characteristics. For example, children who do not respond to the authoritarian mode, may be tried out with permissive model, whereas authoritative parents have been found by research as bringing up most well rounded and socially acceptable children with least amount of trouble.

The authoritarian style is where the parents may be seen as very demanding to their children and may set strict rules and regulations that are to be obeyed and giving orders, and where the adult does not give in response. This mode of parenting may be exceeded to lead to physical abuse of children and therefore must be controlled. In this model, which is termed the best for parenting, the parents need listen to and nurture the child to some extent. Parents using this model may carry the perception that parents are supposed to be under control in all situations with children only following without discussions or questions. The parents have very high expectations for their children, and use a set of standards of conducts which are usually absolute models, in order to shape, control and evaluate the behaviors and attitudes of the child. In addition, the absolute models value obedience as a virtue and punitive and forceful measures used to curb self-will in the child (Baumrind, 1996; qtd. in Ritter, n.d.).

Children may be let free in the permissive model of parenting with no limits, leading to a situation where the children may feel unloved because of the lack of limits. Children may even be left free to make decisions of life without referring to their parents for advice (Hickman, Bartholomae, & McKenry, 2000; qtd. in Ritter, n.d.), in addition to being let to regulate their own activities as much as possible (Baumrind, 1966; qtd. in Ritter, n.d.). In this type, the parents may consider or view themselves as their children’s friends other than more than the parent-child relationship.

The combination or a blend between the two modes; authoritarian and the permissive styles are said to bring the respect out of all types. When children are young and unable to take substantial steps towards self-responsibility in life issues may be guided and instructed. At this stage, the authoritarian model may be effective to have the children evade bad actions before growing up to realize it. A more relaxed model of authoritarian parenting may be applied at transition when the children are graduating from childhood stages and where they are able to take responsibility. A permissive approach may allow children to be self-responsible when growing up, build self-confidence and motivation, whereas authoritative approach will train the child to be obedient, recognize the need to seek for guidance and build respect for older people. Authoritarian approach can help the child not indulge freely in crime activities as they grow up because they know that strict measures will be taken if they do.

On the other side, permissive model may let the child to learn already too late. Parents in the combined model set strict rules and guidelines and at the same time allow discussion between the kid and them. While the child’s views may be considered highly, the parents use disciplinary and tutorial interactions through which the parents takes responsibility for guiding the child’s actions, emphasizing reasoning, ensuing communication and rational discussions (Baumrind, 1996). Parenting model influences how children relate to others, how they respond to others and react to situations. The child may develop personal strengths to thrive and best deal with life stresses (Ritter, n.d.), which may influence the chances of the child involvement to crime. For example, there is research evidence that permissive or authoritarian models bring up children with lesser self-control, self-efficacy, lower self-esteem, and lesser performing at school according to Ritter (n.d.).


The parenting methods and the environment are likely to cause delinquent behavior among the children, as well as nurture the existing behavior. There has been found a linkage between the research explanation towards family delinquency and crime. While Bandura theorized that individuals were able to learn through observation and modeling and therefore children would learn from family members on social behavior, and that televised violence was capable of influencing the child’s behavior, Hirschi theorized the four concepts of societal bonding, which was related to delinquency. In addition, Hirschi asserted that children participation in conventional activities would reduce chances of participation in delinquent behavior and this idea can be fine-tuned with Bandura’s view that televised violence which was attention-drawing could increase participation in delinquent behavior because they do not only learn through observation and modeling, but also it discouraged participation in conventional activities mentioned by Hirschi.

Through observation and modeling, children who were witnesses of wife battering and abuse would also exhibit the same behaviors at latter life. In addition, physically abusing the child and the aforementioned witnessing would explain the development of aggression and anxiety behavior in children. It can also be understood that parents who participated in persistent family violence had higher chances of parting ways or encouraging parental absentee which would reduce the time and impact with which parental guidance would be necessary in helping the child to commit to lifetime goals such as excellence at school, time of bonding with the immediate family members, and the time for learning and believing in the legitimacy of established societal norms and behaviors and knowing that they must be obeyed. Moreover, poor parenting can be conceived as one of the most important cause of development of crime in children because parents are responsible to identifying, controlling and eliminating antisocial behavior and criminal tendency exhibited by children at early stages of life. Although authoritarian type of parenting has been considered as the best method of parenting because it scores highly in responsiveness and demandingness, it has been theorized elsewhere that a combination between authoritarian and permissive parenting would yield the best results compared to individual methods.


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