Family Violence – Literature Review Essay Example

Millions of men and women in the US experience abuse from intimate relationships each year, making domestic violence a widespread issue. Family and spousal violence affect roughly 10 million people yearly in the US, making it a common problem. Domestic violence affects up to one out of four women as well as one out of nine men (Huecker & Smock, 2022). It is crucial for law enforcement to respond to these circumstances to protect victims and punish offenders responsibly. Domestic abuse response by law enforcement has a long history that is both full of achievements and difficulties. Family violence was once frequently considered a private affair between partners, and police officers were reluctant to step in. Nonetheless, activists were successful in their efforts to amend the law, so that police officers had to make arrests of abusers when there was probable cause in the 1980s and 1990s (Gordon, 2022). It was an essential step in tackling family abuse because it made perpetrators liable and made it clear that this kind of behavior would not be allowed.

The police continue to prioritize their reaction to domestic violence. Around 350 family violence practitioners or non-police personnel who deal directly with domestic violence victims were polled for this examination to get their opinions on the services provided to victims. About 63% of respondents said that after the release of the initial study in 2014, the police’s response to domestic abuse has improved. A very encouraging fifth believed there had been a noticeable difference. In the broader framework of protecting vulnerable individuals, police commanders continue to place a high priority on combating domestic violence.

When there is domestic violence, police are frequently the first to arrive. They are equipped with the knowledge and skills to evaluate the situation, provide rapid aid, and, if required, make arrests. When there is reason to think that a domestic violence offense has been perpetrated, police officers are required by law to make an arrest. Holding the abuser responsible and protecting the victim are the objectives. There have been occasions, though, where police personnel have been accused of treating instances of domestic violence improperly, neglecting to apprehend abusers, or ignoring the victims’ complaints.

Despite these legal changes, law enforcement officials may still take various actions when responding to domestic violence incidents. While other cops could be more assertive, making an arrest and evicting the abuser from the house, some officers might be less inclined to do so or would discount the victim’s worries. Personal prejudices, departmental rules, and the intensity of the abuse are only a few causes of this. Law enforcement personnel contribute their perspectives, morals, and prejudices to their profession like any other human being. This may affect how individuals view and react to instances of domestic abuse. Also, the regulations and procedures used by various law enforcement organizations to handle domestic abuse cases may differ. Some departments could offer more in-depth instruction about handling certain situations, while others might have laxer or contradictory rules.

Officers may occasionally react more violently if the abuse is thought to be more drastic or life-threatening. Officers might be more inclined to make an arrest, for instance, if the victim has apparent wounds or if there is proof that a weapon was used. In addition, if the victim is reluctant or declines to file a complaint, cops could be less inclined to arrest any required arrest laws that may be in place. Officers may find themselves in a challenging situation due to balancing the victim’s autonomy and duty to bring abusers responsibly.

Although sexual and domestic violence is a serious public health concern, they are frequently underreported in the US, especially in metropolitan settings. Women who had suffered IPV or SV were questioned as part of research in Baltimore, Maryland, to understand why they might not have reported the incident to the police. According to the findings, racial and gender-based injustices overlap at the structural and local levels, discouraging citizens from reporting crimes to the police (Decker et al., 2019). Power imbalances, the perception that the police were unconcerned, the worry that the police would harm them, and victimization were all structural effects. However, community social norms opposed calling the police and imposed harsh penalties on those who did.

For Black women, the tension between anticipating unfair damage to their spouse from an excessive and ethnically biased cops’ reaction and feeling helpless in the face of a legal system that did not prioritize IPV/SV was a peculiar problem. To improve IPV/SV access to justice, the study emphasizes the necessity to address historically pervasive race prejudice in the court system and the historical discounting of assault against females (Decker et al., 2019). A social determinants paradigm might aid in understanding these difficulties and achieving more equal outcomes for survivors.

In their work, Garza and colleagues (2021) argue that institutional responses to IPV against Latina women must be analyzed from a LatCrit perspective, recognizing the intersections of racial, social identities, ethnicity, and gender in comprehending experiences of injustice and prejudice. While Latina women encounter high rates of IPV, the author points out that because of their immigration status, language limitations, and other cultural considerations, they frequently face extra obstacles to receiving help and resources. The paper examines how the criminal justice system responds to IPV against Latina women, stressing how these reactions can compound existing imbalances and continue to foster injustice (Garza, 2021). They contend that a LatCrit viewpoint can aid in identifying and challenging the institutional underpinnings that cause IPV and obstruct access to assistance and services. This viewpoint may also advance therapies that are attentive to cultural context and suited to the particular requirements of Latina women who encounter IPV.

Compared to white people, research has found that Black, Indigenous, and African-American individuals are less likely to obtain proper assistance and resources after suffering family abuse. They include institutional racism, a lack of cultural competency by care providers, and prejudices and preconceptions regarding BIPOC populations, among other things. Moreover, those with lower socioeconomic status are more likely to encounter domestic abuse but may also encounter more difficulties getting help and resources. These might include having trouble getting about, having insufficient funds to leave abusive partners, and having restricted access to resources like healthcare and other services. Further, illegal people could encounter more difficulties receiving assistance and support because they worry about being deported or suffering other legal repercussions. They may find it challenging to get assistance or report abuse. Last but not least, those who identify as LGBTQ+ may have particular difficulties while looking for assistance and services after suffering domestic abuse, such as stigma and prejudice from law enforcement and trouble locating inclusive and welcoming resources.

Cultural sensitivity, trauma-informed treatment, and an intersectional perspective to supporting victims of domestic abuse must be prioritized by professionals and enforcement agencies if these inequities are to be addressed. This entails offering services that are both linguistically and culturally relevant, fostering environments that are safe and accepting of LGBTQ+ people, and working to remove structural barriers that lead to response discrepancies. Politicians and activists may also try to eliminate the structural inequality and poverty that are the primary causes of domestic violence to encourage more fair and just responses.

Anecdotal evidence from the COVID-19 pandemic suggests that travel constraints connected to the epidemic may have made domestic violence during that time one of the most common instances of sexual identity violence in emergency circumstances. This study aimed to compare family abuse event information from police statistics in Atlanta, Georgia, prior to and after COVID-19 to determine any variations (Evans et al., 2020). To examine Part I offense patterns from 2018 to 2020, the Atlanta Police Department gathered crime data for thirty weeks. As reported to the APD, there was an increase in Part I domestic offenses during 2020 compared to weeks 1-31 of 2018 and 2019.

Moreover, trendlines indicate that family violence counted in 2020 rose at about the same rate as those recorded in the preceding epidemic. After local and governmental directives to shelter in place, a rise in domestic offenses was observed. Family abuse appears to occur more frequently, as seen by the rise in overall domestic offense numbers from the COVID-19 timeframe of 2020 to the two years prior. In the U. S., there is currently a time of racial justice crisis. The co-occurring outbreaks of COVID-19 and family abuse disproportionately affect Black, People of Color, and Indigenous.

For instance, in some places, law enforcement officials may be subject to obligatory arrest laws that compel them to conduct an arrest once they have solid evidence of domestic abuse. In some states, police may be obliged to arrest unless they witness the violence or if they think the victim is in immediate danger. For teachers, in case of witnessing or suspecting child abuse, they must report it to the necessary authorities; this also depends on the state’s law. Teachers may occasionally be required to file reports of possible exploitation of elderly or disabled adults or other vulnerable adults. Moreover, similar to the health practitioners. Depending on their state’s regulations, healthcare professionals and psychological health experts might have varied reporting responsibilities. In certain jurisdictions, these experts may be obligated to notify police officers or child protective services of any suspected domestic abuse. Still, they may not be compelled to do so in others unless they feel the victim is in urgent danger.

The efficiency of law enforcement’s reaction to domestic violence might vary. There are worries about the possible harmful effects on victims, even while arrests and criminal charges can provide victims with a feeling of justice and make offenders answerable for their deeds. A case in point is when victims hesitate to notify the police because they fear the abuser will retaliate if they make an arrest. Also, the fear of losing control of the situation, as police forces and prosecutors ultimately decide whether to file charges and take legal action. Furthermore, victims could experience extra pressure to give testimony because of how slow and uncertain the judicial system can be. Law enforcement’s reaction may also be influenced by the victim’s color, racial background (Fischel-Wolovick, 2021), gender identity, and financial background, with minority people frequently encountering institutional prejudices and obstacles when seeking assistance.

The value of preventative and educational initiatives to address the underlying roots of family abuse and encourage healthy relationships is becoming increasingly understood. This covers activities that support awareness, training, citizen intervention on a societal level, and initiatives for kids and young people.

Models for Coordinated Community Response: To provide a better integrated and victim-centered approach to domestic abuse, these strategies incorporate coordination between law enforcement, judiciary, victim advocates, and other key stakeholders. It has been discovered that CCR models successfully lower the rate of repeat victimization and raise victim safety. The Duluth model is one illustration. A little municipality in northern Minnesota called Duluth has been at the forefront of developing strategies to hold domestic abusers responsible and protect victims since the early 1980s (Papamichail & Bates, 2019). The “Duluth Model” is a constantly changing manner of considering how a community may come together to stop domestic abuse.

Recognizing the effects of trauma on people’s emotional, physical, and psychological health, several groups and institutions have introduced trauma-informed ways to work with family violence survivors. This method entails offering services in a manner that is accepting, empowering, and mindful of the individual perceptions and necessitates of the survivor (CDC, 2019). The CDC created a website to assist states and societies in utilizing the top accessible research to stop domestic abuse, empower survivors, and decrease long-term and short-term consequences.

The Duluth Model, used in several nations, including Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, is a collaborative community reaction model that entails cooperation between law enforcement, prosecutors, human rights activists, and other key stakeholders to provide a more cohesive and victim-centered response to family abuse. The seriousness of the domestic violence crisis and the requirement for measures to tackle it have been amply demonstrated by survey studies and examinations of police files, medical emergency departments, and women’s shelters. The United States has developed court-ordered batterer intervention programs as a critical strategy to deal with this issue. These programs are currently being used in Canada and Europe (Wilson et al., 2021). These initiatives sprang out of the women’s refuge movement, giving rise to initiatives with a significant feminist bent, such as the Duluth Model. The created initiatives were cohort and included psychoeducational techniques. By educating men on different ways to deal with their emotions, they hoped to persuade men to own up to their sexist attitudes and stop hurting their partners.


CDC. (2019). Prevention strategies|intimate partner violence|violence prevention|injury center|cdc. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Decker, M. R., Holliday, C. N., Hameeduddin, Z., Shah, R., Miller, J., Dantzler, J., & Goodmark, L. (2019). “You Do Not Think of Me as a Human Being”: Race and Gender Inequities Intersect to Discourage Police Reporting of Violence against Women. Journal of Urban Health96(5), 772–783.

Evans, D. P., Hawk, S. R., & Ripkey, C. E. (2020). Domestic Violence in Atlanta, Georgia Before and During COVID-19. Violence and Gender8(3).

Fischel-Wolovick, L. (2021). The experience of domestic violence survivors in the US family courts: gender bias in the court. The International Journal of Forensic Psychotherapy3(1), 43–53.

Garza, A. D. (2021). Situating Institutional Responses to Latina Intimate Partner Violence Victims: An Argument for a LatCrit Lens. Crime & Delinquency67(8), 001112872198906.

Gordon, L. (2022). Heroes of Their Own Lives: The Politics and History of Family Violence–Boston, 1880-1960. In Google Books. University of Illinois Press.

Huecker, M., & Smock, W. (2022). Domestic Violence.; StatPearls Publishing.

Papamichail, A., & Bates, E. A. (2019). The Appropriateness of the Duluth Model for Intimate Partner Violence and Child-to-Parent Violence: A Conceptual Review. Partner Abuse10(4), 517–532.

United States Department of Justice. (2017, December 6). Federal Domestic Violence Laws.

Wilson, D. B., Feder, L., & Olaghere, A. (2021). Court‐mandated interventions for individuals convicted of domestic violence: An updated Campbell systematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews17(1).

Fundamentals Of Airline Management Writing Sample


The airline sector is an essential part of the global economy because it links people and companies all over the world. However, operating an airline is not without its challenges, as companies must navigate a complex web of government regulations and economic restrictions. In addition, airlines must work closely with a range of stakeholders, such as manufacturers, airports, and air traffic management, to ensure safe and efficient operations. This report’s objective is to give a general overview of the principles of airline management, including the political and financial constraints on which airlines must operate and the interactions they have with different stakeholders. By analyzing these key aspects of airline management, this report aims to provide insights into how airlines can optimize their operations and improve their profitability in a highly competitive industry.

A Framework of Stakeholders in the Airline Industry:

As we know, the airline industry operates within a highly interconnected framework that involves various stakeholders, including airports, manufacturers, air traffic management systems, and regulatory institutions (Roungas et al., 2021).

Airlines are the primary players in the industry, responsible for transporting passengers and cargo from one location to another. However, they do not act alone, and they rely on other stakeholders to provide essential services and support.

Airports are one of the most critical stakeholders in the airline industry, providing essential services such as runway access, ground handling, and passenger facilities. Airlines must comply with regulations and guidelines set by competent authorities to ensure safe and efficient operations at airports. Airports also impose fees and charges on airlines for the use of their facilities, which can impact the airlines’ profitability.

Manufacturers are another critical stakeholder in the airline industry, responsible for designing and producing the planes that airlines use to transport passengers and cargo (Cardeal et al., 2020). Manufacturers must comply with regulations and standards set by competent authorities to ensure that their planes are safe and reliable. Airlines must purchase or lease planes from manufacturers, which involves negotiating contracts and ensuring that the planes meet their operational requirements.

The safe and effective movement of air traffic at and around airports is the responsibility of air traffic management systems. These systems involve air traffic control towers, radar systems, and communication networks. Airlines must follow specific procedures and guidelines set by air traffic management systems to ensure that their flights are safe and efficient.

Finally, regulatory institutions and organizations such as the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) set guidelines, standards, and regulations that airlines must follow to ensure safety and efficiency in air transportation (Ateş and KAFALI., 2020). Airlines must comply with these guidelines and regulations to maintain their licenses and certifications.

In summary, airlines operate within a complex framework that involves various stakeholders, each playing a critical role in the industry’s success. Effective collaboration and communication among these stakeholders are essential for ensuring safe, efficient, and profitable airline operations.


The airline industry operates within a complex regulatory framework with many government and economic restrictions. Airlines must comply with regulations and guidelines set by competent authorities to ensure safe and efficient operations. Effective collaboration with stakeholders such as airports, ground handlers, and maintenance organizations is crucial to ensuring high-quality services and operations.


When working with manufacturers, airlines should keep in mind that they are purchasing or leasing a product that is essential to their business. Therefore, airlines must ensure that the planes they acquire meet their operational requirements and are safe and reliable. This involves negotiating contracts with the manufacturer, specifying the features and performance characteristics required, and ensuring that the planes are certified by competent authorities. The main operations that appear in this interaction include plane selection, purchase/lease negotiation, and plane delivery and maintenance.

Cost-Estimating Model for Aircraft Maintenance

Figure 1: Cost-Estimating Model for Aircraft Maintenance

Source: Google


When interacting with airports, airlines must arrange for essential services such as runway access, ground handling, and passenger facilities. Airlines must comply with regulations and guidelines set by competent authorities to ensure safe and efficient operations at airports. Airports also impose fees and charges on airlines for the use of their facilities, which can impact the airlines’ profitability. The main operations that airlines need to arrange with airports include runway access, gate allocation, ground handling services, and passenger facilities.

Air Traffic Management:

Air traffic management (ATM) systems are responsible for ensuring the safe and efficient flow of air traffic in and around airports (Pratama et al., 2020). ATC is mainly responsible for providing pilots with information and instructions to ensure safe flight operations. Airlines must follow specific procedures and guidelines set by ATC to ensure that their flights are safe and efficient. These procedures include flight planning, communication with ATC, and following specific flight paths and altitudes.

Air traffic controller plan 2017-2026Air traffic controller plan 2017-2026

Figure2: Air traffic controller plan 2017-2026

Source: Google

Institutions, Governments & Regulatory Organisations:

Various organizations and regulatory institutions affect airline companies in terms of regulations, including the International Air Transport Association (IATA), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). Airlines are affected by regulations in terms of safety standards, operational procedures, and licensing requirements. Airlines can participate in the regulatory process by providing feedback and input to these organizations, which can influence future regulations.

Government and Economic Restrictions:

Airlines operate within a highly regulated industry, with many government and economic restrictions. Governments regulate airline safety, security, and environmental impact, among other things. They also impose taxes, fees, and other charges on airlines, which can impact their profitability. Economic factors such as fuel prices, currency exchange rates, and global events such as pandemics can also affect the airline industry. Airlines must comply with regulations and guidelines set by competent authorities to ensure safe and efficient operations.

Structures and Activities Mandated by Competent Authorities:

Competent authorities, including government bodies and regulatory institutions, mandate structures and activities that airlines must comply with. For example, airlines must maintain certain safety and security standards, provide training for their employees, and comply with licensing and certification requirements. Airlines must also follow specific operational procedures, such as those related to takeoff, landing, and communication with ATC systems. Failure to comply with these regulations can result in penalties, fines, or even revocation of licenses.

Relationships Between Different Airline Stakeholders:

Airlines have relationships with many stakeholders, including airports, ground handlers, maintenance organizations, and others. These stakeholders provide essential services such as runway access, ground handling, and maintenance of planes. Effective collaboration with these stakeholders is crucial for airlines to ensure safe and efficient operations. Airlines must negotiate contracts with these stakeholders and comply with regulations and guidelines set by competent authorities to ensure these services are provided at a high level of quality.

Maintenance Organizations and Ground Handlers:

Maintenance organizations and ground handlers are essential stakeholders in airline operations (Dožić, 2019). Maintenance organizations provide essential maintenance services to ensure planes are safe and reliable for flight. Ground handlers are responsible for a range of services, including baggage handling, fueling, and catering. Airlines must negotiate contracts with these stakeholders and ensure compliance with regulations and guidelines set by competent authorities. Failure to do so can result in disruptions to flight operations and reduced profitability.

Understanding the Connections between Stakeholders and Airline Companies:

The analysis of the stakeholders in the airline industry provides a clear understanding of the connection between these stakeholders and airline companies. Each stakeholder plays a critical role in the operations and success of airlines, and airlines must consider the operations and procedures of each stakeholder in order to operate effectively.

For example, airlines must work closely with manufacturers to ensure the design, production, and delivery of reliable and safe aircraft. They must also consider technological advancements that may improve their efficiency and performance. Similarly, airlines must arrange a range of operations with airports, including ground handling services, passenger handling services, and fuel services, and must comply with various restrictions on airport operations.

Air traffic management is also critical to the operations of airline companies, as they are responsible for managing the flow of air traffic and ensuring safe and efficient operations. Airlines must comply with air traffic control instructions and procedures and must also consider the impact of weather conditions and airspace restrictions on their operations (Budd and Ison, 2020).

Institutions, governments, and regulatory bodies also play a significant role in the airline industry. They set regulations and standards for the industry, covering a wide range of topics such as safety, security, and environmental impact. Airlines must comply with these regulations and may also participate in industry associations and advocacy groups to influence policy and regulation.

In summary, the analysis of the stakeholders in the airline industry highlights the critical connections between these stakeholders and airline companies. By understanding these connections and considering the operations and procedures of each stakeholder, airline companies can develop effective strategies to optimize their operations and improve their overall performance.


In conclusion, the airline industry operates within a complex web of government and economic restrictions, including regulations set by competent authorities. Airline companies must also work closely with various stakeholders, such as manufacturers, airports, and air traffic management, to ensure efficient and safe operations. The relationships between these stakeholders are critical to the success of the airline industry, as each party plays a key role in the management of airlines. By analyzing the different aspects of airline management, including cost analysis, airport fees, on-time performance, and safety incidents, airlines can make informed decisions and implement effective strategies to optimize their operations and improve their bottom line. It is essential for airlines to maintain strong relationships with their stakeholders and stay abreast of the latest industry trends and developments to remain competitive in a constantly evolving market.


Ateş, S.S. and KAFALI, H., 2020. Personnel Licencing in Aviation Authorities: An Implementation in Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics of Eskisehir Technical University. Journal of Aviation, 4(1), pp.103-114.

Budd, L. and Ison, S. eds., 2020. Air transport management: an international perspective. Routledge.

Cardeal, G., Höse, K., Ribeiro, I. and Götze, U., 2020. Sustainable business models–canvas for sustainability, evaluation method, and their application to additive manufacturing in aircraft maintenance. Sustainability, 12(21), p.9130.

Dožić, S., 2019. Multi-criteria decision-making methods: Application in the aviation industry. Journal of Air Transport Management, 79, p.101683.

Pratama, M.D.Y., Yassi, A.H. and Machmoed, H.A., 2020, October. Code-switching applied by air traffic controllers in air navigation services. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 575, No. 1, p. 012170). IOP Publishing.

Roungas, B., Raghothama, J., Baena, M., Ros, O.G.C., Alcolea, R. and Herranz, R., 2021, December. Technology adoption in air traffic management: a combination of agent-based modeling with behavioral economics. In 2021 Winter Simulation Conference (WSC) (pp. 1-12). IEEE.

Historical Assessment: Saipan Essay Example


Saipan is an island, a U.S. commonwealth in the Western Pacific, and the largest island in the Northern Mariana Islands. It is the most developed island of the Northern Mariana Islands, with Golden beaches, restaurants, monuments, and hotels that are tourist attractions (Dundas, 2021). The island is also home to some of the most informative historical sites in the region, which contain historical evidence of the early Carolinian and Chamorro civilizations and other ancient artifacts that provide information about the island’s history, including the history of WW II (Grehan, 2021). The tourism attraction site has a favorable climate all year round, contributing to its green and productive landscape. Saipan’s diversified musical culture is categorized into local, Asian, and mainland American. The music is embedded with traditional dances which preserve the cultural beliefs and practices of the residents. Saipan’s history revolves around its culture, economy, and significant historical events that contributed to its development.

Saipan was formally established in 1899 when it became a German colony after it was purchased from Spain and Germany gained all rights to the island. However, the Japanese took over the newly acquired German territory after they defeated Germany during WWI, and Japan ruled the island until World War II in 1939 (McKinnon, 2020). Saipan became a battlefield during WW II, and the United States took over the island by establishing military bases, which facilitated their control and protection of the island from other countries, such as Germany and Japan (Grehan, 2021). The control of the United States over the Mariana islands, which included Saipan, was enforced and officially recognized by the U.N. trusteeship agreement. This agreement facilitated its formal recognition from a global perspective as the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. CNMI granted Saipan Island the liberty to govern itself and establish its government and constitution. Although the island was granted liberty to govern itself and enjoy government aspects such as labor, immigration, and taxation of its citizens, the United States was in charge of the defense of the island and represented its foreign affairs and interests in other nations (Dixon, 2022).

Saipan was established through its history of control by powers such as Germany, Japan, and the United States, which contributed to developing the island into a formally recognized nation. Their colonial powers contributed to the recognition of Saipan Island as part of the Northern Mariana Islands through the U.N. trusteeship agreement created by the United States. This agreement facilitated the island’s growth through independent governance and protection by the United States, facilitating its political, economic, and social development. The trusteeship agreement required the U.S. to encourage the social, economic, and political development of the Northern Mariana Islands, including Saipan, by supporting self-government in the Northern Mariana Islands and citizen engagement in governance. The trusteeship arrangement supported the U.N.’s post-World War II peace, security, and economic goals (Soder & McKinnon, 2019).

Before the establishment of Saipan Island, it was previously inhabited by the Chamorro and Carolinian people whose cultural heritage is still evident today through the available archeological sites. The remaining historical artifacts of these early populations of Saipan Islands inform about their ways of life, such as their economic practices like farming and fishing and cultural practices such as weaving. These archeological artifacts remind the current Saipan generation about their ancestors’ way of life. These early populations interacted with foreigners and adopted some of their cultural beliefs although the communities still preserve their cultural practices through social aspects such as music and dance. Religious beliefs, such as Christianity and Catholicism, were introduced to the early Saipan population by the Spanish, who imposed their language and cultural practices on the Chamorro and Carolinians. The traditional hunting and gathering way of life of the early communities of Saipan was also disrupted by the German’s establishment of coconut plantations. The colonization of Saipan Island by the Japanese and the United States limited their hunting expeditions due to restrictions.

The growth of Saipan was mainly contributed by the colonial powers such as the United States, Japan, and Germany, who introduced new policies and ways of life to the Carolinian and Chamorro. After WW II, Saipan Island developed economically and politically under the administration and protection of the United States, which was facilitated by the U.N. trusteeship agreement (McKinnon, 2020). The United States’ investments in tourism and infrastructure significantly contributed the economic growth, providing employment opportunities for local citizens. The security from eternal attacks by foreign powers such as Germany and Japan also contributed to the development of Saipan into a tourist attraction site, thus, facilitating trade and traveled across the Mariana Islands (Greham, 2021). In the current society, Saipan Island is a significant tourism and trade attraction due to its peace, serenity, clean beaches, cultural-based restaurants, and rich archeological sites. The tourism industry contributes to economic development by creating employment for the local citizens and government revenue used to build infrastructure, cultural exchange, and environmental conservation. These factors establish Saipan Island as a culturally diverse society due to the interaction of the local people with tourists.

Saipan Island has been shaped by historical events since its formal establishment, contributed by powers such as Japan, Germany, and the United States, some of which still contribute to its development today (Greham, 2021). The Spanish colonizers were the first historical event that resulted in significant cultural changes in the Saipan society through the introduction of Christianity. The arrival of the Spanish also resulted in the displacement of the early inhabitants of Saipan Island, such as the Chamorro. The second historical event that shaped the history of Saipan was the occupation of the Japanese and the beginning of WW II, which resulted in mass casualties and prolonged violence. The third historical event that shaped Saipan Island was the presence of the United States during WW II which resulted in the displacement of the inhabitants due to the establishment of military camps, which influenced their hunting expeditions (Soder, 2019). Another historical event that contributed to the modern-day Saipan Island is joining the commonwealth, which was facilitated by the U.N. trusteeship initiated by the United States. This event paved the way for the self-governance of Saipan Island, which contributed to its social and political development. The U.N. trusteeship also stipulated that the United States offer border protection of the Saipan Islands against powers such as Japan and Germany. The Commonwealth status granted to Saipan gave them more control over their foreign affairs, which contributed to the development of infrastructure, creation, and employment. These historical events made Saipan Island a melting point today due to diverse cultures such as Filipino, Chamorro, Chinese, and Korean. These diverse groups contributed to the social fabric in Saipan comprised of different religions such as Christianity, Islam, and Buddhists. Tourism and the garment industry drive Saipan’s economy due to its stunning beaches and coral reefs, which draw tourists worldwide. Offshore gaming has increased revenue in Saipan in recent years. A mayor, city council, and U.S. Congress delegate in the CNMI legislature control modern Saipan. Corruption, labor, and immigration have recently been significant issues in Saipan (Dixon, 2022).

Saipan comprises various power structures that benefit the region’s economic and social development. The Saipan has a government structure that holds most of its power within its borders. The U.N. trusteeship contributed to developing government power in the United States. The trusteeship enabled Saipan to join the CNMI, enabling Saipan to handle their international affairs and represent themselves on an international forum (Dixon, 2022). The establishment of independent Saipan government power has enhanced public services, economic development and employment, and law enforcement through its constitution. The past power structure that controlled Saipan Island was the tribal power which comprised the Carolinian and Chamorro communities. The tribal power contributed to Saipan’s development by enforcing cultural laws. Chamorro and Carolinian land ownership and stewardship underpin tribal power, which values sustainability and natural resource protection and respects the land and sea. Tribal power helped preserve and promote cultural traditions by passing on their people’s cultural traditions and practices (LaBriola, 2019). Tribal elders promoted communal unity and cooperation by serving as role models and leaders. However, the tribal power structure has been significantly depleted in contemporary society due to the introduction of modern government and laws. The family was the earliest power structure still significant in modern Saipan. The community was controlled by powerful families such as the Sablan family, which had social and economic connections, thus contributing to decisions that affected the community (LaBriola, 2019). The Sablan family was involved in political matters because they became members of the CNMI government and acquired positions such as representative and senator. The involvement of such families in politics made them significant members of society by contributing to social and economic development. These past and present power structures influenced the development of the modern Saipan, which is politically and socially stable.


Saipan’s history revolves around its culture, economy, and significant historical events that contributed to its development. During World War II, Saipan was used as a battleground between the United States, Japan, and Germany. The United States established military stations on the island to ensure its control and safety. Saipan is part of the Mariana Islands, and the United Nations trusteeship agreement formalized and recognized U.S. rule over these islands. The growth of Saipan was mainly contributed by the colonial powers such as the United States, Japan, and Germany, who introduced new policies and ways of life to the Carolinian and Chamorro. The Spanish colonizers were the first historical event that resulted in significant cultural changes in the Saipan society through the introduction of Christianity. Another historical event that shaped Saipan Island was the presence of the United States during WW II which resulted in the displacement of the inhabitants due to the establishment of military camps, which influenced their hunting expeditions. The United States and the joining of Saipan to the CNMI also shaped Saipan. These events and powers contributed to Saipan Island’s economic and social development.


Dixon, B. (2022). Cold War conflicts and the USCG Afetna Point LORAN station in Saipan, CNMI. Journal of Conflict Archaeology, 1–18.

Dundas. (2021, July 19). Saipan Is the Most Beautiful U.S. Island You May Not Know. Retrieved March 27, 2023, from

Grehan, J. (2021). Saipan 1944: The Most Decisive Battle of the Pacific War. Frontline Books.

LaBriola, M. C. (2019). Marshall Islands in Review: Issues and Events, July 1 2017 to June 30 2018.

McKinnon, J. F. (2020). Community consensus-building and preservation effort on WWII-related caves in Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands. Journal of Community Archaeology & Heritage7(4), 272-286.

Soder, S. (2019). ” The Japanese and US Fought the War, We Ended Up Paying the Price”: The Indigenous Experience on Saipan During World War II. East Carolina University.

Soder, S., & McKinnon, J. F. (2019). It rained fire: Oral histories from the Battle for Saipan. Lulu. com.