Fashion Merchandising – Glossary Of Retail Terms Homework Essay Sample

  1. Ad slicks: Camera-ready ad, usually on glossy paper. Many vendors supply these for newspaper ads. Advertising: Paid message communicated through various forms of media and designed to influence the purchase behavior and thought patterns of the audience.
  2. Allocation: Suppliers determination of how much of (usually) scarce merchandise to assign to their customers.
  3. Allowance: Any price reduction given by suppliers to retailers for various reasons (late delivery, damaged merchandise, below standard quality, overstock, etc. ).
  4. Anchor tenants: Major stores that serve as the primary draw of customers to a shopping center. As is: Merchandise sold in its current, often slightly flawed, condition.
  5. Assets: Those items of value the company owns such as cash in the checking account, accounts receivable, inventory, equipment, and property.Assignment: The transfer of title, right, or interest in certain real property. For example, if you sell your business and turn over your lease agreement to the new owner, that is an assignment.
  6. Authorized shares: The total number of shares the corporation is permitted to issue.
  7. Automatic ordering: A feature in certain software systems of stores to automatically create suggested orders based on preset criteria for minimum and maximum stocking levels.
  8. Average margin: The difference between what you pay for all the goods you sell during a specific period, and what you buy them for, calculated as a percentage of the selling price of the goods.
  9. Average markup: The difference between what you pay for all the goods you sell during a specific period, and what you buy them for, calculated as a percentage of the cost of the goods.
  10. Back haul: Trucks that have delivered merchandise to a buyer and are now empty are available to back haul material to their home base.
  11. Back order: When an order cannot be filled because the products are not in stock, the order is left open until the goods arrive.
  12. Bad debt ratio: The amount of money you believe the customers will never pay, also called uncollectible funds, divided by the total sales, expressed as a percent.
  13. Balanced tenancy: The mix of stores in a planned shopping center chosen to meet the full range of consumers’ shopping needs.
  14. Balance sheet: Financial statement that shows the company’s assets, liabilities, and owner’s equity. The value of the assets must equal the value of the liabilities plus equity.
  15. Base rent: Minimum monthly rent payments excluding pass-through, percentage rents, and all other charges.
  16. Basics: Merchandise that customers need all the time. Beginning of the month (BOM) inventory: The inventory in the store at the beginning of the month.
  17. Big box store: A large store focused on a broad selection and low prices of a specific category of goods. Big box stores typically have few frills.
  18. Billed cost: Manufacturer’s price for goods.
  19. Board of directors: Group of business leaders, typically including a company’s CEO and other senior executives, who serve as advisors or supervisors of the company. In a private company, the board has little operating control. However, in a public company, the board represents the shareholders and may be called upon to make major strategic decisions including hiring or firing the CEO, making acquisitions or divestitures, etc.In return they receive either cash or shares of stock.
  20. Book value: Net value of a company as shown on the balance sheets. In successful companies book value is often much less than actual value.
  21. Bottom feeders: Customers who buy clearance merchandise, distressed companies in trouble, etc. , at rock bottom prices. Boutique: Upscale shop designed to present usually expensive merchandise tailored to a specific customer mix.
  22. Breadth: The extent of the selection of merchandise in a department such as, for instance, the number of different styles, colors, sizes, etc
  23. .Breakpack: Process of pulling inner packs from a master carton in order to ship smaller quantities to stores.
  24. Brick and mortar: Traditional retailing in a physical business location as opposed to virtual retailing conducted online.
  25. Business plan: Detailed road map of where a business is going and how it is going to get there.
  26. Buying groups: Organizations that coordinate or pool the buying needs of many small retailers into a larger order with manufacturers or suppliers in order to negotiate better pricing, delivery, and payment terms.
  27. Call tag: A freight carrier’s written authorization for customers to return merchandise to the retailer at no cost.
  28. Cash discount: Deductions taken from the cost of goods for performance of prearranged terms of payments. For example, 2/10 means payments within ten days can deduct 2% off the invoice.
  29. Cash flow analysis: Financial statement showing how much money the company had at the beginning of the month, how much money came in through sales and payments, and how much went out as payments to create what was left over at the end of the month.The cash flow statement may differ greatly from the profit and loss (P & L) statement. For example, a major capital purchase may deplete cash but not impact profit because it has merely converted one form of asset (cash) into another form (the capital good).
  30. Cash on delivery (COD): Goods that are delivered to the store only upon immediate payment for them to the deliverer.
  31. Cash wrap: Shelving and stands surrounding the cash registers.
  32. C corporation: Standard corporation structure that establishes the company as an independent legal entity.
  33. Charge back: Deductions on an invoice taken by the retailer for shortages, amages, freight allowances, etc. Clearance: Selling inventory at reduced prices at the end of a season or life cycle to move excess stock.
  34. Clipping service: Companies that are paid to read a broad selection of newspapers and magazines and cut out articles that reference specific subjects.
  35. Closely held corporation: Company controlled by one or a small number of owners.
  36. Closeouts: Merchandise that is no longer being manufactured that is sold at reduced prices to clear out remaining inventory.
  37. Comp store: Comparison of this year’s business to last year’s in stores that have been open at least one year.
  38. Consideration: For a contract to be valid, the requirement of one party to pay or do something must be countered by the other contracting party giving or doing something (the consideration).
  39. Consignment merchandise: Merchandise that is placed in a store but remains the property of the supplier and is paid for by the retailer only when it is sold. Consignment merchandise usually may be returned to the supplier whenever the retailer wishes.
  40. Cooperative Advertising: Retail advertising for which the supplier pays the retailer’s cost.
  41. Cost per thousand (CPM): Term used in media buying that refers to the cost of reaching a thousand people in your target market. (The Roman numeral for one thousand is M. )
  42. Cross merchandising: Using different lines of goods to help sell each other, for example by displaying them together.
  43. Current assets: Company assets that are liquid or can be converted to cash in less than one year.
  44. Customer base: The customers who shop in your store. Debt financing: Financially, supporting a business with borrowed money that costs interest and, per its terms, has to be repaid.In contrast, equity financing supports a business with invested money that remains in the business, carries no interest expenses, but reduces the percentage of the owner’s share of the business.
  45. Deep and narrow: Large quantities of a small selection of merchandise.
  46. Defectives: Merchandise that is incomplete or faulty.
  47. Demographics: Set of objective characteristics that describe a group of people. Includes characteristics such as age, home ownership, number of children, marital status, residence, location, job function, and many other criteria.
  48. Depreciation: The amount an asset is assumed to fall in value each year. This amount may be an actual reduction in the asset’s value (such as when a car is expected to wear out in a certain number of years) or set by accounting standards for purposes of collecting profit or taxable profit, even though its value may increase (such as a house).
  49. Depth: The number of pieces of merchandise of a specific item or category in stock. Distribution: The system by which goods move to retailers from manufacturers via importers, wholesalers, etc. Dividends: Money from corporate profits paid to shareholders in proportion to their investment.
  50. Doing business as (DBA): The name the business uses for its operations, as distinct from the name under which it is registered.

Biology Lab Report

Iodine is used to test for the presence of starch and Benedict’s solution is used to test for the presence of reducing sugars.

When solution A is tested with Benedict’s test, the clear blue solution turns slightly reddish and a brick red precipitate is formed. This indicates that solution A is a reducing sugar. Additionally, when performing the iodine test with solution A, the colorless solution remains unchanged, indicating the absence of starch in solution A.

When testing solution B with Benedicts test, it remains clear and blue, indicating it is a non-reducing sugar. However, the iodine test causes the clear solution to turn dark blue, indicating the presence of starch in solution B. These tests confirm that solution B is a starch solution and suitable for further testing.

In the second test, saliva and hydrochloric acid were combined with solution B. The enzyme involved in this test is salivary amylase, also known as ptyalin, which can be found in saliva. Salivary amylase breaks down starch into sugar. This process occurs in the mouth through the action of amylase when we consume food.

Amylase is responsible for the breakdown of starch into a reducing sugar, leading to a positive result in the Benedict’s test. The ideal temperature for amylase activity is equivalent to body temperature. Enzymes act as catalysts for different reactions, providing a more efficient route to decrease activation energy and speed up the reaction.

The binding process between the substrate and enzyme is affected by temperature. When the temperature is low, both the substrate and enzyme have reduced kinetic energy, resulting in a slower binding time and a lower reaction rate. Conversely, at high temperatures, both the substrate and enzyme possess increased kinetic energy which leads to more frequent collisions and faster binding rates.

When the temperature reaches the optimal level, both kinetic energy and collision increase. However, the rate of substrate-enzyme binding decreases because of strong vibrations in the amino acid molecule. If the temperature becomes too high and exceeds the enzyme’s optimum temperature for reaction, thermal energy will cause denaturation of the enzyme. The high temperature disrupts hydrogen bonds that stabilize the enzyme’s tertiary and secondary structure, resulting in loss of shape and inability to bind to substrate’s active site. HCl functions as a catalyst for organic process.

Starch is composed of a lengthy string of sugar molecules connected by glycosidic bonds. Hydrolysis can break these bonds, freeing glucose. To separate the glucose, HCl can be added to the solution, as hydrochloric acid introduces H+ and aids in hydrolysis.

When solution B is treated with HCl, it causes the breakdown of carbohydrates into sugar and generates a positive outcome in the Benedict test, confirming the existence of reducing sugar. However, this hydrolysis process involving HCl can only happen at high temperatures that are suitable for the reaction to take place. When the combination of solution B and HCl is kept at 37°C for incubation, there is no change in the result since the starch molecule has not yet undergone decomposition.

When an equal amount of saliva is mixed with solution B and incubated at 37°C for 5 minutes, it leads to the formation of an opaque green color and a red precipitate in the clear blue solution. This outcome suggests that there exists a small quantity of sugar in the solution. Specifically, the amylase present in saliva breaks down the starch present in solution B into a reducing sugar. Subsequently, when this combination of solution B and saliva is incubated at the same temperature for 35 minutes, it causes the previously clear blue solution to turn opaque green, indicating the presence of sugar.

The outcome demonstrates that a temperature of 37°C is optimal for amylase to break down starch into glucose. After incubating solution B with HCl at 37°C for 5 minutes, the Benedict test yields a negative result. The blue solution remains unaltered, indicating the absence of sugar in the solution. This suggests that HCl does not break down the starch in solution B after 35 minutes of incubation at 37°C; the blue solution also remains unchanged. Consequently, HCl fails to hydrolyze the starch. These findings reveal that the temperature is not suitable for the hydrolysis of starch by HCl.

Garlic For Mosquitoes

In recent years, garlic has been widely studied for its role in promoting health. There is good evidence that garlic possesses antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antiprotozoan and even insect-repellent properties. Given the recent surge of the West Nile virus spread by infected mosquitoes, it is interesting to explore the value of garlic as one more method for avoiding mosquito bites. A number of studies have shown that the oil fraction of garlic destroys certain species of mosquito larvae.

Garlic sprays (made primarily with garlic extract) are available on the market for use on plants as an alternative botanical pesticide to chemical pesticides. The sulfurs contained within the garlic extract have been shown to be effective against a wide range of insects, including mosquitoes, and the lingering odor can deter mosquitoes from the area for weeks.It is thought that garlic may be an alternative mosquito repellent for humans as well. In a field study conducted in India, a preparation made of 1 percent garlic oil, petroleum jelly, and beeswax that was rubbed on the arms and legs of study subjects was found to be effective in preventing mosquito bites for up to eight hours.

In addition, there is some evidence that heavy consumption of garlic through supplements or well-flavored foods may help ward off mosquitoes. When garlic is eaten and its components are metabolized, compounds are released from the body through the skin and the breath.Although they may not be detectable by others (or may, in the case of garlic breath! ), mosquitoes use smell to locate a host. For example, carbon dioxide and lactic acid released from the breath of humans are two known mosquito attractants that can be detected within 40 yards.

While it has not been proven through clinical studies, it is thought that the sulfur compounds present on the skin and in the breath after eating garlic may help ward off those pesky mosquitoes.Before deciding to use garlic supplements, it’s best to consult with your health care provider. For example, garlic supplements are not recommended for pregnant or lactating women, for persons on blood thinning medications, for those going into surgery or for those on certain medications such as the anti-HIV drug Saquinavir. The bottom line: Mosquito repellents containing DEET are still your best bet for avoiding mosquitoes – but a little garlic breath may also be a good thing.

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