Fashion Resistance: Challenging Dominant Cultural Norms, Promoting Diversity, And Fostering Social Justice University Essay Example


Fashion is more than simply keeping up with the newest trends; it is a cultural statement with societal implications. Fashion is a multifaceted corporation encompassing various disciplines and fields, including design, production, advertising, marketing, and distribution. Its significance in modern American society extends far beyond the realm of fashion. The way we express ourselves through fashion is essential to who we are as individuals. It allows us to express our thoughts about the situation of the world and our respective subjects of study. Clothing has always been used to express politics and culture. Fashion’s capacity to communicate political sentiments through clothing lends it great importance. Fashion resistance involves challenging dominant cultural norms and ideologies through fashion. Ethical fashion consumption concentrates on generating, dispensing, and consuming fashion environmentally and socially responsibly. Fashion can promote social justice by advocating for diversity and inclusion. It has the potential to recognise diversity by including fashions of different sizes, races, and gender identities in fashion shows and commercials. It can also promote cultural diversity by incorporating traditional clothing styles from different cultures into mainstream fashion. Cultural appropriation in fashion perpetuates stereotypes and minimises minorities’ contributions to mainstream culture. Many academics have studied fashion resistance in various contexts. This paper will look at the function of fashion in society, the resistance movements it has generated, the social justice it has promoted, and the disruption to the status quo it has produced.

Part 1: Key Concepts

People who use clothing and accessories to make a political statement are engaging in fashion resistance. Subcultures, countercultures, and fashion activism are all examples of resistance. Subcultures and countercultures form, each with its own particular identity and style in resistance to mainstream cultural standards. Fashion activism is using fashion to promote social and environmental causes. For instance, the ethical fashion movement aims to promote sustainability and ethical labour practices within the fashion enterprise (Black, 2012, p.36). Fashion resistance can challenge cultural imperialism by promoting diversity and inclusivity in the fashion industry. Fashion resistance can challenge cultural appropriation by fostering cultural understanding and respect in the fashion industry. While fashion can potentially sell creativity, self-expression, and individuality, it can also encourage negative stereotypes and social inequalities. There has been a developing fashion of fashion resistance movements that undertake the status quo and promote social justice in modern-day years. These movements challenge the dominant narratives of beauty, body image, and identity the fashion industry perpetuates.

Fashion plays an essential role in constructing and communicating one’s identity. Fashion is a communication type used to express personal and collective identity. Dressing and presenting ourselves through fashion reflects our social, cultural, and personal identity. Fashion is not just a way of self-expression; it can also deliver social and cultural values and exert influence. “Fashion is not merely a form of dressing; it is a language we wear, a visual expression that communicates our personal and collective identities to the world” (Lascity, 2021, p.). Fashion plays an extensive function in positive businesses’ social and financial features, and it can be used to boost or challenge dominant cultural ideologies (Lascity, 2021, p.87). People can display their social popularity, cultural affiliations, and political opinions using fashion. Fashion is a resource-extensive industry that has a tremendous effect on the environment. The idea of sustainability in fashion includes considering the environmental, social, and financial influences of fashion production and intake. Ethical fashion consumption entails making informed selections about what we buy, how we use and dispose of it, and how we will reduce our alternatives’ environmental impact. Fletcher and Maki argue that sustainable fashion seeks to reduce the harmful environmental and social impacts of fashion while keeping the aesthetic and functional qualities of dressing. “Sustainable fashion endeavors to mitigate the detrimental environmental and social consequences of the fashion industry, all while upholding the intrinsic beauty and practicality of clothing” (Fletcher and Maki, 2022, p.515). Fashion resistance involves challenging dominant cultural norms and ideologies through fashion.

Subversive fashion can be visible as social and political activism aiming to challenge the status quo. Subversive fashion is a way of resistance and a tool for social and cultural exchange. Subversive fashion serves as both a powerful means of resistance and a catalyst for profound social and cultural dialogue. Subversive fashion can take many forms, from wearing unconventional clothing to creating designs that challenge gender roles or cultural stereotypes. However, designers should integrate multisystem approach when pursuing a certain social change. Holroyd (2017) reveals that, “a broad scope is inevitable when pursuing social change: “[designers] must contend with questions of system level change, even if working on smaller and more manageable manifestations of the wider scale phenomenon” (p.21). Cultural appropriation in fashion has been much debated in recent years. Cultural appropriation is taking elements of one culture and using them for one’s purposes without regard for the cultural context. Cultural appropriation by buyers or designers has a long history in fashion. Cultural appropriation in fashion perpetuates stereotypes and minimises minorities contributions to mainstream culture. Cultural appropriation in fashion involves power, representation, and exploitation. Bennett states, “Culture and forms of social power are intimately bound up with each other” (Bennett, 2005. P.10). Recognising the cultural significance of fashion elements and respecting their origin and context is essential.

Part 2: Examples

Fashion resistance can also challenge cultural imperialism, which refers to the imposition of one culture’s values and beliefs on another culture. Cultural imperialism is often linked to Eurocentrism, which privileges European culture over other cultures. Fashion resistance can challenge cultural imperialism by promoting diversity and inclusivity in the fashion industry (Holroyd, 2017, p.20). For example, the decolonial fashion discourse aims to challenge Eurocentric beauty standards and promote diversity in fashion.

Fashion resistance can also challenge cultural appropriation, which refers to using elements of one culture by members of another without permission or understanding (Jacobs, 2022). Cultural appropriation in the fashion industry has been criticised for perpetuating stereotypes and erasing the cultural significance of fashion (Moscaliuc, 2019). Fashion resistance can challenge cultural appropriation by promoting cultural understanding and respect in the fashion industry (Jansen, 2020, p.820). One example of a fashion resistance movement is ethical fashion consumption. Ethical fashion consumption concentrates on generating, dispensing, and consuming fashion environmentally and socially responsibly. It targets to advocate for sustainability and fair labour practices and reduce the fashion enterprise’s terrible effect on the environment. This movement encourages clients to be more mindful of their purchasing conduct and consider their garments’ social and environmental impact. Ethical fashion consumption entails making informed selections about what we buy, how we use and dispose of it, and how we will reduce our alternatives’ environmental impact (Wilson, 2010, p.530). This movement also seeks to promote fair labour practices and support small-scale, sustainable fashion manufacturing.

Ethical fashion consumption is not just about buying clothes made from eco-friendly materials or fair-trade brands but also involves extending the lifespan of clothing through repairing, upcycling, and recycling. Fletcher and Maki (2022, p.517) state that the most sustainable garment is already in our wardrobe. By adopting a more conscious approach to fashion consumption, consumers can reduce their contribution to the fashion industry’s negative impact on the environment and society. Ethical fashion consumption is not just a personal choice but a collective responsibility to address the harmful effect of the fashion industry. Ditty (2018) states that ethical fashion is a movement that is not about individual choices but about collective responsibility, about considering the entire system that enables us to dress (Ditty, 2018). Therefore, ethical fashion consumption has the potential to bring about systemic change in the fashion industry towards a more sustainable and socially responsible future.

Another example of a fashion resistance movement is the body positivity movement. As the movement gained traction, individuals turned to social media platforms such as Instagram to share their body-positive messages and stories. As a result of this transition, people are rejecting the fashion industry’s unattainable beauty standards in favour of promoting their originality (Maynard, 2004, p.76). They have also begun to speak out against corporations and the media that promote an unhealthy preoccupation with thinness. The purpose of the movement is to create acceptance within the fashion industry, which has prompted designers to present models with various body forms on the runway.

Another kind of fashion resistance is wearing culturally meaningful apparel to reclaim and emphasise one’s cultural identity. Traditional attire has been suppressed or openly prohibited in many regions of the globe due to colonial powers or dominant cultures. Traditional attire, on the other hand, has been employed to prevent cultural extinction and preserve ethnic identities (Kratz and Reimer, 1998, p.197). Fashion is essential as a means of expressing oneself. People’s clothing reflects their personalities, attitudes, and worldviews. Dressing one’s finest is a kind of self-expression (Church-Gibson, 2006, p.25). It has far-reaching implications for our society, economy, and culture. Our clothing represents our culture’s common beliefs and ideals (Appleford, 2013, p.21). It is a way of communication, expression, and engagement. The clothing we wear represents our cultural values and ideas. It is a method of vocally expressing oneself and coming up with fresh ideas. When exposed to works of fashion art, people are typically motivated to reflect on their cultural background, personal history, and social environment (Enwistle, 2000). It also performs a crucial position within the financial gadget, providing jobs and contributing to the GDP of many nations internationally. Fashion is a multifaceted corporation encompassing various disciplines and fields, which include design, production, advertising and advertising and marketing, and distribution (Kawamura, 2014).

A style is an artwork form that reflects societal, cultural, monetary, and social tendencies. The clothes we wear, the accessories we select, and the styles we adopt are all influenced by broader cultural trends and societal values (Holroyd, 2017, p.13). Fashion boosts the global economy. Millions work in fashion design, manufacturing, retail, and distribution. Despite this, the fashion business struggles with sustainability, employment practises, and environmental effects (Fletcher and Maki, 2022, p.513). Fashion can promote social justice by challenging dominant narratives and promoting diversity and inclusion. However, it could additionally perpetuate poor stereotypes and social inequalities. Fashion can promote social justice by advocating for diversity and inclusion. It has the potential to recognise diversity by including fashions of different sizes, races, and gender identities in fashion shows and commercials. It can also promote cultural diversity by incorporating traditional clothing styles from different cultures into mainstream fashion. The potential of fashion to promote social justice is evident in the rise of the sustainable fashion movement. Sustainable fashion focuses on environmentally responsible practices and emphasises social responsibility and ethical labour practices (Baker, 2012). By prioritising fair wages and working conditions for garment workers, sustainable fashion helps to challenge the exploitative practices that have long been prevalent in the fashion industry.

Sustainable fashion supports local artisans and manufacturers, thereby contributing to the economic development of communities. On the other hand, fashion can perpetuate social inequalities and negative stereotypes by excluding certain groups from its story. The fashion enterprise has long been criticised for missing variety, mainly concerning race and size. The fashion industry reinforces negative stereotypes and promotes social inequality because of failing to include models of different races, sizes, and gender identities in fashion shows and advertisements (Rocamora and Smelik, 2015, p.23). However, with the growing call for diversity and inclusivity, the fashion enterprise has gradually shifted toward more various and inclusive representation.

Fashion can perpetuate negative stereotypes and social inequalities. For example, cultural appropriation in fashion can perpetuate negative stereotypes and cultural imperialism. Cultural appropriation is taking elements of one culture and using them for one’s purposes without regard for the cultural context. It is a form of exploitation that can harm marginalised communities. Cultural appropriation in fashion has been much debated in recent years. While some argue that it can be a form of appreciation and celebration of other cultures, others contend that it perpetuates negative stereotypes and cultural imperialism (Appleford, 2013, p.73). For instance, the appropriation of Indigenous designs and patterns in mainstream fashion has been criticised for reducing the culture to a mere fashion trend and stripping it of its cultural significance. These harms marginalised groups and encourage harmful stereotypes, resulting lack of understanding and recognition of different cultures. It is crucial for fashion brands and designers to understand cultural appropriation and to achieve cultural respect and appreciation in their designs.


In conclusion, the capacity to freely express oneself while simultaneously transmitting central cultural and societal themes makes the fashion business so essential. Fashion resistance is crucial because it promotes societal change by questioning long-held social and cultural norms. Resistance in the fashion industry can effectively combat cultural imperialism and appropriation and advance diversity and inclusion. By rejecting cultural imperialism and appropriation, fashion resistance fosters diversity and inclusivity within the industry, paving the way for a more equitable and representative fashion landscape. Ethical, sustainable, and inclusive fashion practices are essential to harness this potential fully. Promoting ethical, ecological, and inclusive fashion might be a potent weapon for social change. It has the potential to promote diversity and inclusion while simultaneously challenging dominant narratives, making it a powerful instrument in the struggle for social justice. Clothing trends, on the other hand, contribute to perpetuating negative preconceptions and deepening inequities. Recognising the influence of fashion and the push for ethical and socially responsible fashion practices is thus critical. Collaboration between various stakeholders is essential in pursuing a more equitable and socially conscious fashion world. Consumers, designers, fashion brands, activists, and policymakers must work synergistically to promote ethical and socially responsible fashion practices. By recognising the potential of fashion to bring about positive transformation, we can transform the sector and establish a more equitable, comprehensive, and socially conscious community.

Reference List

Appleford, K., 2013. Fashion and class evaluation. The Handbook of Fashion Studies.

Bennett, A., 2005. Culture and everyday life. Culture and Everyday Life, pp.1-216.

Black, S., 2012. The sustainable fashion handbook. Thames and Hudson.

Church Gibson, P., 2006. Analysing fashion. The Fashion Handbook. Routledge, London, pp.20-28.

Fletcher, K. and Maki, R., 2022. Transnational Fashion Sustainability: Between and Across the Gulf and the UK. Fashion Theory26(4), pp.509-524.

Holroyd, A.T., 2017. From stitch to society: A multi-level and participatory approach to design research. Design Issues33(3), pp.11-24.

Jansen, M.A., 2020. Fashion and the phantasmagoria of modernity: An introduction to decolonial fashion discourse. Fashion Theory24(6), pp.815-836

Kratz, C. and Reimer, B., 1998. Fashion in the face of postmodernity. The postmodern presence: Readings on postmodernism in American culture and society, pp.193-211.

Lascity, M.E., 2021. Communicating fashion: Clothing, culture, and media. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Maynard, M., 2004. Dress and globalisation. Manchester University Press.

Rocamora, A. and Smelik, A. eds., 2015. Thinking through fashion: A guide to key theorists. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Wilson, E., 2010. Ethics and the future of fashion. The fashion history reader: Global perspectives, pp.531-532.

Feasibility Study For AirAustralsia Sample College Essay

The viability of establishing the inexpensive carrier AirAustralsia to serve the Australasian sector is critically examined in this paper. The research examines the logistics and supply chain components needed to assist the company’s endeavor. Various professional managerial techniques and approaches, such as the Balanced Scorecard, Benchmarking, and PEST evaluation, will be utilized in the assessment. Around the world, the airline business has been overgrown, with cheap airlines dominating a sizable piece of the market. However, viability remains a severe challenge, with revenue levels typically below three percent (Andriakov, 2022). Carriers must regularly implement significant upgrades that focus on lowering costs to perform more effectively. The intense character of the contemporary aviation sector and the significance of logistics and supply chain management for maintaining company stability are both acknowledged by AirAustralsia. The organization has thus asked for a feasibility evaluation to ascertain whether it is feasible to establish a distribution network that will promote its commercial endeavor.

The existing regional distribution network and its ability to sustain the industry, logistics systems to promote carrier expansion, an assessment of the environment to encourage Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) processes, and the use of creative thinking and managerial techniques are the main areas of research. The research will start by outlining the Australian airline economy and the projected expansion of the Chinese corporate and business sectors, pointing to an interest in regional flight travel. The paper will next go into the project’s objectives and purpose, as well as the research techniques and strategy used to complete the project. This paper’s ultimate objective is to present a thorough study of the supply chain and logistics needs that will enable the launch of a budget carrier in the Australasian industry. The paper will show competence in creating assessments utilizing various consultant managerial methods and instruments, such as sensory visualization, analytical thinking, chance certification, and an environmental audit when appropriate.

Problem Identification

A business called AirAustralsia intends to launch a budget carrier to serve the Australasian industry. The organization is looking for consulting help to establish whether creating a network of vendors that supports the enterprise is feasible. During the past decade, the airline sector has expanded significantly, with low-cost carriers (LCCs) playing a significant role in this growth (Sant, 2020). Since marginal profits are often lower than three percent, attaining sustainability is still a realistic objective (Pels, 2020). The eternal paradox of this sector is that although other stakeholders in the supply cord, like terminals, aircraft builders, aircraft engine producers, tour operators, and service providers, generate handsome revenue, the corporations that transfer customers need help breaking even.

AirAustralsia has to implement significant and continuing enhancements to become a viable, inexpensive carrier. Saving energy is essential to cutting costs because it typically accounts for 40 to 55 percent of an aircraft’s operating expenses (Bogdanov et al., 2021). Developments to the company’s framework, operations procedures, and production methods can all help cut costs. Notably, older carriers may employ decades-long, complicated techniques that are much more expensive than the simplified ones used by LCCs. Australia’s airline sector has an extensive past, with many airlines flying domestically and internationally. Foreign carriers, broader airline business and its security, and local and regional carriers comprise the three main Australian civilian air travel trade segments. More than ninety percent of travelers to Australia arrive by air, which is served by international airlines that transport passengers and cargo to and from locations throughout the globe.

Approximately sixteen million travelers arrive in Australia each year roughly from all across the globe. Although in Australia, most travelers are transported by air, vessels carry most of the merchandise to different places. Future growth in China’s corporate and economic sectors suggests an increasing demand for air travel in the region (Zhang and Graham, 2020). Various topics must be investigated in the context of every company creation to construct the company’s justification for the enterprise. A crucial component of the enterprise under consideration is the supply chain and logistics structure that must be in place to guarantee continued operations. That is especially true given that the business aims to embrace an economical approach, which exerts additional strain on the amount it wants to shell out for services and products.

The business must take into account multiple value chain-related factors. Hence it is searching for an advisory service to do an impartial feasibility evaluation in this domain. The primary concerns which arose out of the early research are the requirement to comprehend the present regional distribution network that will help the company and maximize its ability to grow, the up-to-date logistical system to promote the carrier’s expansion in opposition to rivalry, environmental evaluation to back CSR processes, and the implementation of dealing with issues and managerial techniques. AirAustralasia is determined to make sure that they conduct a thorough study of the challenges which will influence what is needed in the supply chain for operating the company because they are aware of the intense competition in the current aviation market.

Australasian Economical Airline consultation

The viability of creating a budget carrier in the Australasian region and creating a successful supply network to back up the company’s operations initiative is, thus, the primary issues that need consulting help in this particular research. For successful competition against other air carriers in the area, the corporation must comprehend the regional supply network’s capability and the logistical system’s state. Additionally, the company must do an environmental evaluation to support CSR initiatives and employ managerial and problem-solving skills to ensure the supply chain operates efficiently (Lambrechts et al., 2019). To successfully launch a budget carrier in the Australasian economy, the consulting should offer an in-depth examination of the problems, pinpoint feasible remedies, and recommend the most practical and profitable action plan.

The team of consultants should research prospective campaigns for low-cost airlines in the Australasian area and the primary factors. Given the intense rivalry in the aviation sector, it is essential to create a distinct identity for the company that sets the low-cost airline apart from its rivals and attracts its target demographic (Dursun, 2023). The consultants might analyze the market to determine customer tastes and create an individualized advertising effort that successfully conveys the business’s distinctive value proposal. That may entail employing social networking platforms, collaborating with tourism organizations, and using additional electronic advertising channels to appeal to many people and spread the word about the recently launched carrier. To reduce threats and harmful effects on the business’s image, the consultants ought to create a strategy for handling crises (Rapaccini et al., 2020). The consultancy group can aid the low-cost airline in launching effectively and gaining a firm footing in the Australasian aviation industry by focusing on these essential components.

Critical Discussion

It is crucial to consider both the existing situation of the international aviation sector and the unique difficulties that LCCs confront to objectively analyze whether launching a budget carrier in the Australasian economy is feasible. According to the International Air Transport Association (IATA), the aviation industry’s profits have doubled over the past ten years, with LCCs primarily responsible for this development (Kaffash and Khezrimotlagh, 2022). Nevertheless, carriers’ revenue streams remain slim, especially for companies with stringent expense restrictions. To address the specific problems mentioned by AirAustralasia, an academic study using data from books and journals can provide informative information on the state of logistics and supply chain networks in the aviation industry today (Dutta et al., 2020). By comparing AirAustralsia’s logistics and supply chain network to those utilized by other carriers operating in the area, benchmarking may be used to pinpoint optimal procedures.

The logistics and supply chain network might be evaluated using the balanced scorecard versus essential parameters, including expenses, sustainability, and effectiveness. Fuel economy is a significant issue for budget carriers because it covers many operational costs. A review of fundamental abilities might pinpoint locations where AirAustralasia can create specific skills and competitive edge to help it run better and for less money. The business’s line of goods could be examined using the BCG matrix to determine sectors it could put money into or dispose of to increase revenue. The feasibility assessment for a low-cost carrier that wishes to differentiate itself from competitors by focusing on CSR should include environmental research as a critical factor (Chonsalasin et al., 2020). A PEST assessment or environmental inspection might be employed to evaluate the effects of macro-environmental variables on the aviation sector and spot possibilities and hazards.

Perceptual maps may be employed to determine how customers view AirAustralsia’s CSR initiatives and pinpoint opportunities for improvement. A vital assessment requires careful use of facts and scholarly literature (Jalil and Hwang, 2019). That entails thoroughly assessing the caliber and dependability of materials and considering the constraints of any information or assessment utilized. Different perspectives on belief, possible prejudices in the research, and possible moral or societal ramifications of the suggested suggestions should all be considered. The oversight climate is crucial when determining whether launching a budget carrier in the Australasian industry is feasible. Governments frequently restrict aircraft activity significantly, affecting costs, routes, and other aspects (Munawar et al., 2021). As a result, to assess the venture’s viability, a comprehensive review of the legal structure is required. As part of this investigation, the legal climate in important regions should be evaluated along with any prospective admission hurdles.

Government agencies and other parties should be consulted to acquire data and perspectives for the feasibility investigation. When determining the viability of a budget carrier enterprise, a thorough monetary study is also essential. The predicted income and expense levels should be examined, and significant economic indicators, including financial viability, break-even evaluation, and return on investment, should also be assessed. A sensitivity evaluation ought to be carried out to determine the effects of numerous variables on the carrier’s financial health, including fuel costs, currency rates, and economic circumstances. A comprehensive economic evaluation can assist in locating possible hazards and possibilities as well as helping to make choices regarding the investment’s feasibility. Budget airline firms should consider marketing and branding to develop a unique selling proposition and differentiate themselves from competitors.

Understanding client needs is possible thanks to market research and client assessments. Launching a budget carrier in the Australasian region is a difficult task requiring meticulous research and preparation. The viability of the enterprise can be better understood through a feasibility examination that tackles the major issues with the logistics and supply chain structure, the legal framework, economic evaluation, and branding and advertising. A thorough review and suggestions that can help branch out sustainability choices might be developed by utilizing various advisory service administration methods and instruments, such as a balanced scorecard, benchmarking, the BCG matrix, the core competencies analysis, perceptual mapping, and environmental audit/PEST analysis. To enhance the possibilities for achievement for the inexpensive aircraft enterprise, efficient execution of scholarly studies and thorough scrutiny are crucial for ensuring the accuracy and trustworthiness of the proposals.

Application of Theory

The PEST evaluation, Benchmarking, and Balanced Scorecard will be utilized in this paper to assess the viability of AirAustralsia’s idea to launch a budget carrier in the Australasian economy. A strategic management tool called the balanced scorecard enables firms to assess and control their results from four angles: monetary, client, organizational procedure, and development and improvement. Political, economic, social, and technological (PEST) evaluation provides a paradigm for identifying and analyzing outside variables that can impact a company’s success. Benchmarking evaluates and contrasts a company’s activities, procedures, and standards with its rivals or leading companies in the field.

It is a strategic management tool that aids businesses in locating opportunities to enhance productivity by adopting standards of excellence. By benchmarking, companies may define achievable objectives, independently evaluate their actions, and strategize to reach their goals. The procedure is a constant operation that aids firms in maintaining their competitiveness while continually enhancing their performance. Benchmarking may be carried out inside, through assessing productivity among various divisions or departments in the same business, and internationally, by evaluating productivity with other companies operating in a comparable field or market.

Balanced Scorecard:

The Balanced Scorecard’s economic viewpoint is concerned with the company’s financial health, encompassing economic viability, increase in sales, and expense control. The budget-friendly carrier strategy is intended to lower expenses while boosting earnings for AirAustralsia. By determining the factors that affect costs, like gasoline, staffing, and facilities, and putting measures to cut expenses, including fuel-saving aircraft and simplified procedures, the corporation has to assess the initiative’s economic viability. The main discussion topics are the client’s fulfillment, experience, and devotion. AirAustralsia must determine its target demographics’ demands and interests to build its solutions and offerings. That entails creating an intuitive webpage, delivering attractive prices, and supplying top-notch service.

The value link, arrangements, and effectiveness at work are the main areas of attention for the inside approach. AirAustralsia must build a solid supply network to sustain its operations and economical flight strategy. That entails locating the regional distribution network, supplier network, and possible vendors, as well as arranging advantageous conditions of service. The capacity of the business to acquire knowledge, develop new ideas, and advance is the main focus of the education and development approach. To foster ongoing advancement and creativity, AirAustralsia must foster an atmosphere of learning that includes spending money on staff development and training, implementing novel innovations, and comparing with current standards in the sector.

PEST Analysis:

PEST evaluation provides a structure for identifying and examining outside variables which can impact a company’s success. Regulations, taxation, and incentives are some political issues that might impact AirAustralsia’s inexpensive airline initiative. Restrictions and fees that the authorities might enforce, including airport fees and security requirements, can raise the expense of the business. Nevertheless, the rules may additionally supply incentives and subsidies to lower operating costs, like tax breaks and fuel assistance. Industrial expansion, rising prices, and currency fluctuations are some of the monetary factors that could impact AirAustralsia’s economic airline business. An increase in in-flight needs may result from the Australasian sector’s growing economy, which may present chances for AirAustralsia.

Nevertheless, factors like the price of gasoline and upkeep for airplanes can be impacted by price increases and currency exchange fluctuations. The affordable flight initiative undertaken by AirAustralsia may be affected by societal concerns such as customer habits, societal conventions, and changing demographics. To build its products and services appropriately, AirAustralsia must comprehend the social makeup of its intended customer base, which includes factors like age, financial status, and schooling. Consumer choices and societal expectations also affect the desire for flights, such as whether people choose complete versus budget airlines. Facilities, rivalry, and technical improvements are fundamental variables impacting AirAustralsia’s economic airline initiative. To increase its effectiveness in operation, AirAustralsia must incorporate novel innovations, including online reservation systems and environmentally friendly aircraft.

Facilities like terminals and systems for managing air traffic may also affect the expense and efficiency of procedures. The revenue and market share of AirAustralsia may be impacted by pressure from various air carriers, both full-service and affordable. The PEST evaluation and Balanced Scorecard might be used to assess the viability of AirAustralsia’s economic aviation business in the Australasian region. AirAustralsia may properly handle its financial results according to all four viewpoints of the Balanced Scorecard by executing cheaper strategies, developing customer-driven solutions, building a reliable supply network, and encouraging a culture of education. AirAustralsia’s low-cost carrier initiative’s foundation is its ability to strike an equilibrium between internal and external effectiveness.


A strategic management tool called benchmarking compares the success of a business with that of its rivals or to conventional industry standards to find areas where it may develop. By measuring the achievement of a company with that of competitors in the same business, benchmarking allows firms to assess their achievements and pinpoint places that need improvements. (Partanen, 2023). It is necessary to analyze and evaluate its methods, processes, and achievements compared to competitors in the industry to determine a company’s weaknesses and strengths. The PEST evaluation and the Balanced Scorecard may be employed using this tool to assess a company’s general success and pinpoint areas for development. Benchmarking allows AirAustralia to compare its results to its rivals in the Australasian region’s market for low-cost carriers. AirAustralsia can identify its strengths and opportunities for development by investigating and contrasting its competitors’ outcomes.

Benchmarking may assist AirAustralasia in locating and implementing market standards to enhance its overall efficiency. For instance, AirAustralia can compare its clientele care procedures with other budget carriers in the industry. AirAustralasia may find places where it can raise client happiness by contrasting its policies to those of its rivals, like streamlining the process for checking in or offering additional flight amenities (Dhamija, 2020). Benchmarking may be utilized to determine AirAustralsia’s logistics and supply chain procedures with those used by different carriers to find areas where cost management, supplier choice, and shipping timeframes can be improved. For companies like AirAustralsia, benchmarking is a valuable tool for assessing effectiveness, identifying development opportunities, and adopting standards of excellence to enhance performance.


In summary, AirAustralasia is working to launch an affordable airline that will serve the Australasian region. To attain this objective, the organization must first decide whether it is feasible to establish a network of suppliers that will promote the commercial effort. The report emphasized the aviation sector’s difficulties and possibilities, notably the requirement for stringent cost reductions, increased fuel economy, and structural upgrades. The Balanced Scorecard, Benchmarking, and PEST evaluation were among the leadership methods and instruments analyzed in the paper. Utilizing such resources allowed for an in-depth examination of the subjects that needed investigation to develop the economic rationale for the endeavor, comprising ways to solve problems and the regional supply network, logistical facilities, and environmental evaluation.


The research leads to the below suggestions for AirAustralasia for its economic airline business to be successful:

  1. Create a solid supply network management system, aiding business activities while minimizing expenses.
  2. Purchase fuel-effective planes to cut back on operating expenses.
  3. Utilize innovation to simplify business operations, enhance client retention, and lower expenses.
  4. Do frequent environmental assessments to verify that CSR activities are being carried out.
  5. Use a problem-oriented method of instruction to help workers improve their expertise and skills.
  6. Maintain an edge over others by regularly benchmarking with champions in the sector and identifying efficient ways to boost efficiency in operations.
  7. To track success across business objectives and goals, adopt an integrated scorecard.

These suggestions can help AirAustralsia improve its efficiency, lower expenses, and keep an edge in the fiercely competitive aviation market.


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Food, Drug, And Cosmetic Act Sample Assignment


The Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD&C) Act is a federal regulation policy that aims at ensuring the efficiency and safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics by providing good quality, safety, and labelling authorization protocols associated with the various implementation directives. The process aims to eliminate potential misuse cases that might cause substantial health complications due to increased awareness and care in their utilization. Moreover, it helps limit the manufacturing of low-quality products that might need to be more effective and secure for consumption among individuals. The regulation was approved in 1938, before which substantial accidents involved the need for more informational awareness and quality adherence. The policy provides the guidelines for all new entries in the market under the three categories to undergo an approval process before market availability, allowing the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) to authorize their safety and public use. The Act holds individuals or organizations who might be responsible for making false advertisements, providing them with an opportunity to face legal repercussions.

The Act has undergone various amendment processes to identify its maximum efficiency in preventing healthcare cases associated with the product’s safety, raising the need for its application within multiple settings. It examines its impact on operational environments while defining the various elements under its directives, making it easy for people to assert a practical understanding. The Act applies to different clinical practices in multiple ways. For example, it aids in ensuring that there is proper evaluation of manufactured drugs before subjecting them to human consumption; thus, allowing professionals to conduct experiments to deduce their safety. Moreover, it focuses on promoting the quality of the products and raising standards in their products that can positively impact clinical operations. The Act also highlights any inefficiency involved with the products, prompting the need and identification of corrective areas to improve their competence, thus, maintaining people’s protection. The assessment examines the FD&C Act and provides a compelling analysis while deducing the various clinical application procedures to understand its role in enhancing healthcare standards.

Analysis and Evaluation

FD&C Act incorporates regulatory guidelines to assess various foods, medical drugs, and cosmetics before entering the market by ensuring they acquire specific standards that are safe and effective for individuals’ consumption. The policy aims at establishing a partnership with the FDA guidelines eliminating cases of sub-quality products venturing into the market and certifying them as proper for use among individuals. Before the FD&C Act, minimal assessment processes were involved with the products, with substantial effects associated with contamination. For example, there was a considerable poisoning incident within the country involving unprocessed antibiotics containing the deadly diethylene glycol, resulting in significant health impacts and deaths of more than 100 individuals in different states (Lam & Patel, 2022). Such effects raised the implementation of protective measures among national officials, raising the need to devise ways to enhance the products and acquire specific operational standards that are safe for human use.

FD&C Act highlights the need to instill guidelines in specific products since the lack of proper authorization contributes to people taking advantage of the freedom and processing sub-quality products. The industry involved in the goods within different states is substantial, with a significant demand, which may foster various manufacturers to overlook various protocols while operating on a profit-minded regime. Therefore, President Roosevelt’s introduction of the Act served as a national awareness of the extent the lack of proper control could have on people’s well-being, creating a substantial milestone in enhancing citizens’ protection (Lam & Patel, 2022). Moreover, the movement formed the basis of introducing changes focused on ensuring healthcare protection among citizens, which in some cases, may be without their knowledge. For example, it is challenging for individuals to differentiate products that have attained the quality consumption standards and counterfeit or ineffective, raising the need to acquire protection support from the administration.

The primary concern in establishing FD&C Act was the level of foods, medical tools and drugs, and cosmetics that was below par and available for purchase in various markets. Therefore, the administration’s main aim was to ensure a thorough evaluation process to ensure optimum quality levels, eliminating healthcare insecurity involved in their purchase and consumption. Another critical trigger in creating the policy was the lack of proper product identification and differentiation. The Act aimed at ensuring clear labels would allow people with minimal healthcare awareness to differentiate the products; thus, in the case of prescriptions, it would be easy to self-administer (U.S.F.D., 2018). The lack of knowledge can be detrimental, especially in cases of medicine, due to adverse side effects, which can be life-threatening. The administration understood the need to eliminate instances of undertaking false drugs, sub-quality foods, and ineffective cosmetics, prompting it to enact the bill and enhance citizens’ protection.

Drug manufacturers can often take advantage of their operating guidelines to produce drugs that fail to meet set standards for various reasons, such as lack of enough resources or operating on a profit-oriented strategy. Close monitoring is crucial in understanding the procedures involved in the process and ensuring they are of high quality, which aids in eliminating safety concerns in use when dealing with various healthcare challenges (Quinn et al., 2020). The policy demonstrates efficiency in such aspects, acting as a consumer protective module, legitimizing its development and application as a federal law. In some cases, various manufacturing institutions involved in foods, drugs, and cosmetics may implement illegal operational procedures; thus, the monitoring process aids in eliminating such probabilities since they would negatively impact residents’ health conditions.

FD&C Act is a crucial policy within the various states as it ensures the regulation of multiple products, such as drugs, limiting their incorporation into the market and eliminating chances of ineffective products. Drugs are highly demanded and abused among individuals. Thus, the lack of control provides opportunities for inefficient utilization that can negatively impact health standards. On the other hand, the Act maintains organizations giving adequate information, such as nutritional data, that can be crucial in purchasing decisions among people (Lam & Patel, 2022). Moreover, it ensures that the packaging is per the guidelines, allowing people to make accurate projections in their choices and eliminating cases of misuse. A thorough health evaluation contributes to the policy’s effectiveness in protecting individuals, demonstrating the reasons for establishing the regulative guidelines.

Application into Clinical Practice

FD&C Act is a policy that can substantially impact clinical procedures as practitioners devise ways of enhancing healthcare outcomes among patients. One way in which its application to clinical practice is it contributes to eliminating the selling of misbranded or unlabeled drugs, which can have substantial health effects. Misbranded drugs also contribute to illegal actions, such as pharmaceutical fraud, aiming to maximize income by deceiving patients requiring various prescriptions (Timofeyev et al., 2022). Drug users are often unaware of the components involved in multiple medications; thus, they are unlikely to protect themselves from the wrong medication due to information misguidance. The Act ascertains that indulging in such measures would be a criminal offence, enhancing community protection and presenting safe healthcare environments.

The policy also enhances the production of quality medicine that can help eliminate healthcare issues and health concerns involving producing low-quality drugs. Prior to the procedure, there were minimal assessment criteria to ensure the drugs met the required standards to assert the intended impact among patients. In order to acquire authorization, there are critical protocols involved to ascertain the standards, eliminating any room for incompetency among the manufacturers. The regulations have enhanced using evidence-based modules in improving drugs’ efficiency. Using evidence-based medicine aids in ensuring all the components are government-mandated and lower the risk of acquiring potential side effects, highlighting proper application protocols (Seppi et al., 2019). The Act maintains top-quality in medicine and medical tools manufacturing, presenting practitioners with the ability to effectively cater to patients experiencing various complications.

Moreover, the Act contributes to enhancing drug safety and effectiveness. The lack of proper evaluations may contribute to practitioners employing drugs that offer minimal impact on health standards among patients. Efficient medication establishes a positive response from the body, demonstrating reliability in handling the existing healthcare complication upon intake while illustrating positive effects upon after-drug monitoring (Fozoonmayeh et al., 2020). Drug purification is crucial in enhancing patient safety since other elements might cause adverse responses among individuals, such as body defects. The Act ensures that the producers undertake all the necessary steps to provide medication per the set standards. Therefore, the Act provided the basis for reforms focused on ensuring healthcare progress by providing applicable drugs in clinical practices.

FD&C Act forms the basis of guiding and regulating the entry of new drugs into the market. The modules help manage the pharmaceutical environment by ensuring the operations meet the regulatory requirements. In the case of manufacturers intending to utilize their resources in making the medication, they go through the approval strategies, which examine the benefits and risks associated with their use, helping assert a positive impact on healthcare operations (Lam & Patel, 2022). Developing drugs for new healthcare challenges becomes easy by using legal and ethical guidelines while focusing on efficiency and quality.


FD&C Act is a federal reform that aims at regulating the production and provision of foods, drugs, and cosmetics among individuals for use. The policy seeks to assert safety, efficiency, and quality to ensure positive influence in clinical operations. Since its development, the policy’s various amendments have enhanced its positive impact on care operations, raising operational standards among manufacturers and maintaining healthcare progress. Incorporating the guidelines played a crucial role in asserting healthcare reforms, eliminating previous issues associated with unawareness, such as lack of labelling. FD&C Act has made a substantial impact on clinic operations through various measures. For example, it contributes to eliminating misbranding and mislabeling issues associated with poor medical utilization.

Moreover, it contributes to eliminating the provision of low-quality drugs by incorporating a critical evaluation process, ensuring they meet the various specifications. The policy ensures drug safety and efficiency, allowing them to assert positive impacts in clinical operations. FD&C Act is critical in limiting the entry of new drugs into the market and ensuring the incorporation of top-quality tools that will enhance healthcare progress within settings. Therefore, establishing FD&C Act as a federal policy has provided an opportunity to improve the safety and quality standards of foods, drugs, and cosmetics by implementing an authorization process that ensures the protection of citizens’ health.


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Lam & Patel. (2022, August 4). Food, drug, and cosmetic act – StatPearls – NCBI bookshelf. National Center for Biotechnology Information.

Quinn, S. C., Jamison, A. M., & Freimuth, V. (2020). Communicating effectively about emergency use authorization and vaccines in the COVID-19 pandemic. American Journal of Public Health111(3), 355-358.

Seppi, K., Ray Chaudhuri, K., Coelho, M., Fox, S. H., Katzenschlager, R., Perez Lloret, S., … & Djamshidian‐Tehrani, A. (2019). Update on treatments for nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease—an evidence‐based medicine review. Movement Disorders34(2), 180-198.

Timofeyev, Y., Hayes, S. A., & Jakovljevic, M. B. (2022). Predictors of loss due to pharmaceutical fraud: evidence from the US. Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation20(1), 6.

U.S.F.D. (2018, November 27). Part II: 1938, food, drug, cosmetic act. U.S. Food and Drug Administration.