Feminism And Social Change. Feminist Movement Free Essay

Gender inequality is widely discussed in the modern world and inspires the feminist movement to promote its philosophy instead of the idea of ​​male superiority. Functionalists argue that social change in relation to gender roles is impossible since differentiation is the basis for the functioning of society (Croteau & Hoynes, 2019). However, given the criteria which characterize all the transformations occurring in society, one can conclude that feminism has high chances to succeed.

Chapters Review

Chapter 11 provides information on sex, gender, and social phenomena associated with these concepts. First of all, the difference between sex as a purely biological characteristic and gender as a social construct is discussed. Gender expectations are determined by biological sex, culture, and level of interaction, and following them causes a certain reaction of approval or censure in society. Being an exclusively social construct, gender, and its influence on a person’s life in society is taught through communication with other people and communities. Since different genders are assigned different expectations, ideological and social inequality arises in sexism and various forms of social order. Gender also affects the allocation of resources both within the family and in economics or politics. Inequality also results in the emergence of gender-based violence and harassment, which has received more and more attention lately. Thus, the chapter explores the relationship between gender and society in different contexts.

Chapter 17 is devoted to social change and various theories of its origin and development. Globalization is discussed separately as a type of large-scale transformation of the modern world, its history, and its impact on various processes and structures. Shifts in demography, including migration processes, have also been identified as the source of social change. Most transformations occur unintentionally and unexpectedly, but the chapter also describes social movements as the engine of intentional social change. They can be aimed at correcting specific problems or phenomena in society, especially those which negatively affect certain groups of people. Social movements involve several organizational measures, which are also described in the chapter.

Gender Inequality

Gender inequality is a result of the unequal distribution of resources in society and of defined gender roles and associated expectations. Thus, women are forced to perform the functions which are assigned to them, even if they have other personal aspirations. However, in the modern world, the spectrum of women’s activities is much wider than before, which allows laying the foundation for lasting social change.

Feminism and Social Change

A functionalist perspective that gender inequality has positive reasoning may be incorrect in relation to modern society. Inequality is defined as “the unequal distribution of resources among groups of people” (Croteau & Hoynes, 2019, p. 111). In particular, regarding gender, inequality implies the privilege of men’s social position over women. Ideologically, this situation leads to the emergence and subsequent spread of sexism, which affects the life of society. A functionalist view of genders assumes a differentiation of roles for men and women. Men play an instrumental role as workers and achieve specific goals for financial stability. At the same time, women have an expressive function of providing support for children and the household. Thus, gender roles ensure the family’s integrity, defining the range of tasks for each of its members. However, with the advent of capitalism, reality changed, and many women also participated as performers in hired labor. It was this assumption which became the basis for the social movement for women’s rights.

The feminist movement challenged the functionalist views of the 1960s and 1970s. Feminism is defined as “a philosophy that advocates social, political, and economic equality for women and men” (Croteau & Hoynes, 2019, p. 291). As with any other social movement, feminism seeks to achieve social change, which has a number of characteristics. One of the main features is that the changes are continuous but partial. It is implied that they occur throughout history but do not influence fundamental aspects. Another characteristic is that change occurs at different levels, which affect each other. Thus, micro-changes can then turn into global transformations because structures and communities constantly interact. Social movements are often unintentional and stem from the same aspirations of many people. However, there will always be an opposing force which does not want one or another change. Thus, any social initiative can have a significant impact, but it is not always easy to promote it.

A feminist movement aimed at eliminating gender inequalities can produce lasting change. The women’s rights movement can change certain parts of society, but it will not influence the characteristics associated with biological sex. Changes are inevitable, as the world changes and the old rules do not always fit the new, but the basis will remain the same. Feminists promote women’s equality in many areas, including social, political, and economical. Thus, they can produce global transformation at different levels, interacting, and creating a new system. The movement arose from the desire of many women to claim their rights, which was shaped by many factors. Thus, feminism appeared unintentionally but in response to the needs of a particular group. The movement has many opponents, not only among men but also among women who support traditional social forms. Therefore, the possible changes to which feminism can lead meet all characteristics and can be consolidated in society.

Women have a need for gender equality, which will inevitably lead to social change. However, the scale of transformation is difficult to predict based on the unpredictability of human behavior. The feminist movement unites people in the shared desire and affects different parts of society, which ultimately will allow it to have a significant impact. Capitalist society implies a new social form and new social orders.

Reference

Croteau, D., & Hoynes, W. (2019). Experience Sociology (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill.

Investment Decisions In Economics And Finance: Global Mining And Pioneer Gypsum

Introduction

The expected return from individual securities carries some degree of risk. Risk is defined as the standard deviation from the expected return. More dispersion or variability from a security’s return means the security is riskier than one with less dispersion. In simple terms securities carry differing degrees of expected risk that may lead investors to have a notion of holding more than one security at a time, in an attempt to spread risks of the investment. These risks can be grouped as market risk and asset risk. The risk that affects the whole is usually cuts across the industries and does not affect one industry is market risk. While the risk that affects a certain asset is asset risk.Because market risks have market wide effects, they are sometimes called market risks (Fischer and Jordan, 2007).

The procedures used to arrive at the conclusion are laid out step by step. Although some assumptions are made before the final conclusion, but this financial analysis assumes the nature of real-time estimation of any investment which future yields matter a lot.

Combining the Pioneer and the market

Expected return

Holding A Pioneer stock and the market is less risky than holding Pioneer security, is it possible to reduce the risk of a portfolio by incorporating into it a security whose risk is greater than that of any of the investments held initially. Assuming the ratio of holding is 0.01% to 99.99%, then their expected return, risk premium, and standard deviation of the portfolio will be as shown below:

Pioneer Market
Return (%)

Standard deviation (%)

11.0%

32%

12.5%

16%

The portfolio consisting of 0.01% Pioneer and 99.99% the market and the average return of this portfolio can be thought of as the weighted average return of each security in the portfolio; that is:

Rp =Formula

Where:

  • Rp = expected return to portfolio
  • Xi = proportion of total portfolio invested in security i
  • Ri = expected return to security i
  • N = total number of securities in portfolio

Therefore: Rp = (0.01%)(11%) + (99.99%)(12.5%) = 12.50%

Expected standard deviation

Diversification is meant to reduce risk and the key was not that two provided twice as much diversification as one, but that by investing in securities with negative or low covariance among themselves, we could reduce the risk. This was described by Markowitz’s in his efficient diversification theory. The theory states that to reduce risk stocks of less positive correlation should be combined. In general, the lower the correlation of securities in the portfolio, the less risky the portfolio will be. This is true regardless of how risky the stocks of the portfolio are when analysed in isolation. It is not enough to invest in many securities, it is necessary to have the right securities (Gordon, Jeffrey and Sharpe, 2000).

Then the standard deviation will be calculated as follows;

Formula

Where:

  • σp = portfolio standard deviation
  • Xx= percentage of total portfolio value in Pioneer
  • Xy = percentage of total portfolio value in market
  • σ x = standard deviation of pioneer
  • σy = standard deviation of stock Y

σ p =Formula

σ p = 16%

Thus, we now have the standard deviation of a portfolio and one is able to see that portfolio risk is sensitive to the proportions of funds devoted to each and the standard deviation of each.

The reduction of risk of a portfolio by blending into it a security whose risk is greater than that of any of the securities held initially suggests that deducing the riskiness of a portfolio simply by knowing the riskiness of individual securities is not possible. It is vital that we also know the interactive risk between securities (Harold, 1999).

The risk of the portfolio is reduced by playing off one set of variations against another. Finding two securities each of which tends to perform well whenever the other does poorly makes more certain a reasonable reruns for the portfolio as a whole, even if one of its components happens to be quite risky.

Risk premium

To allow a risk a business requires a premium that is above an alternative that is risk-free. The more uncertain one is about the future returns, the higher the risk and thus the greater the premium. The risk premium is included in the capital analysis of the business through discount rate. This rate is risk-adjusted because it allows for time and risk preferences. It represents the total of risk-free and risk premium and it reflects the investor’s attitude towards risk. Risk-adjusted discount rate is thus equal to risk free rate plus the risk premium. In Capital Asset Pricing Model, risk- premium is the difference between market rate of return & risk free rate multiplied by beta of the project. The risk-adjusted discount rate varies the discount rate depending on the degree of risk of investment, a higher rate being applied for riskier projects (Jordan and Miller, 2008).

Risk –adjusted discount rate is a method used to assess the relative attractive nature of projects. The capitalization rate of the project is pegged the nature of the cash flow of the system, the discount is directly proportional to the risks involved. This implies, the higher the risk the higher the discount. This is a procedure mostly taught in business school and is among the methods employed to comprehend project risks. The Capital Asset Pricing Model puts it in check. Capital Asset Pricing Model states that there is a linear relationship between the yield required on an asset and the asset’s contribution to portfolio risk. Therefore the greater the risks involved, the bigger the expected return on the investment.

Rate = risk free rate + (β× (expected return on the market- risk free rate) OR,

r = rf + (β × (rm – rf))

rm – rf is market risk premium. If the risks associated with a given investments are high then the risk-adjusted discount rates are also high while for less riskier businesses the discounts on premium capital are also lowered since the chances of risks occurring in the business are low. The risk free rate is 5%

r = rf + (β × (rm – rf))

12.5% = 5%+ β × (12.5%-5%)

12.5% = 5%+ β × (12.5%-5%)

7.5% β =7.5%

β =1.0

The Sharpe ratio of this investment will be

= Average return of portfolio – Risk free rate

Standard deviation of the portfolio

= 12.5% – 5% = 0.469

16

Adding pioneer to the market will improve the Sharpe ratio since is less than one.

Combining the Global mining and the market

The average return of this portfolio can be thought of as the weighted average return of each security in the portfolio; that is:

Rp =Formula

Where:

  • Rp = expected return to portfolio
  • Xi = proportion of total portfolio invested in security i
  • Ri = expected return to security i
  • N = total number of securities in portfolio

Therefore: Rp = (0.75%)(12.9%) + (99.25%)(12.5%) = 12.50%

Expected standard deviation

Then the standard deviation will be calculated as follows;

Formula

Where:

  • σp = portfolio standard deviation
  • Xx= percentage of total portfolio value in Pioneer
  • Xy = percentage of total portfolio value in market
  • σ x = standard deviation of pioneer
  • σy = standard deviation of stock Y

σ p =Formula

σ p = 16.03%

Thus, we now have the standard deviation of a portfolio and one is able to see that portfolio risk is sensitive to the proportions of funds devoted to each and the standard deviation of each.

Risk premium

Rate = risk free rate + (β× (expected return on the market- risk free rate) OR,

r = rf + (β × (rm – rf))

rm – rf is the market risk premium. If the risks associated with a given investments are high then the risk-adjusted discount rates are also high while for less riskier businesses the discounts on premium capital are also lowered since the chances of risks occurring in the business are low. The risk free rate is 5%

r = rf + (β × (rm – rf))

12.5% = 5%+ β × (12.5%-5%)

12.5% = 5%+ β × (12.5%-5%)

7.5% β =7.5%

β =1.0

The Sharpe ratio of this investment will be

= Average return of portfolio – Risk free rate

Standard deviation of the portfolio

= 12.5% – 5% = 0.468

16.03

Adding Global mining to the market will improve the Sharpe ratio since is less than one.

The Sharpe ratio measures the risk premiums of the portfolio where the risk premium is the excess return required by investors for the assumption of risk relative to the total amount of risk in the portfolio. It summarizes the risk and return of a portfolio in a single measure that categorizes the performance of the fund on a risk adjusted in a single measure that categorizes the performance of the fund on a risk adjusted basis. The larger the Sharpe ratio the better portfolio has performed.

Thus A ranked as the better portfolio because its index is higher, despite the fact that portfolio B had a higher return. The Sharpe ratio, which we are about to discuss have yielded very similar results in actual empirical tests.

Recommendation

I will recommend to the investor to buy shares of Global Mining because the standard deviation is lower but it has a higher return than Pioneer Gypsum. The investment in Pioneer Gypsum will generate almost the same rate of return but the standard deviation is high and they are likely to generate a negative return at one point in the portfolio life time.

Wildcat oil

The coal oil mine costs $ 5 million and the analysis is to recommend whether Jones should go ahead with the purchase of the mine. I have been assigned the task of recommending to the company as to whether it should go ahead with the acquisition of the coalmine.

Investment in the wildcat

In order to get the require rate of return for John and Marsha capital asset pricing model will be used as follows;

r = rf + (β × (rm – rf))

The risk free rate is provided in this case as 6%, beta is 0.8 and market premium 7%

r = 6%+ (0.8 × 7%)

r = 11.6%

You may determine the optimal sequence of decisions by “rolling back” the tree from the right-hand side. In other words, first appraise the most distant decisions; namely, the choice of whether or not to switch form regional to national distribution. To do so, determine the mean net present value for wildcat, given that production success and failure. The mean net present value is simply the net present values at the branch tips times the probabilities of occurrence.

They feel that there is a 30-70 chance that the production will be successful. Given an opportunity cost of capital of 11.6 percent. If not successful, they will discontinue the project and the cost of the field will be wasted. The firm is not obliged to enter full production, but it has the option to do so depending on the outcome of the tests. If there is some doubt as to whether the project will take off, expenditure on the pilot operation could help the firm to avoid a costly mistake.

You can probably now think of many other investments that take on added value because of the options they provide to expand in the future. In each of these you are paying out money today to give you the option to invest in real assets at some time in the future. Managers therefore often refer to such options as real option. These options do not show up in the assets that the company lists in its balance sheet, but investors are very aware of their existence. If a company has valuable real options that allow it to invest in profitable future projects, its market value will be higher than the value of its physical assets now in place. We consider the valuation of options.

The decision to terminate a project is usually taken by management, not by nature. Once the project is no longer profitable, the company will cut its losses and exercise its option to abandon the project (Peirson, Brown, Easton, Howard, Pinder and Sean 2000).

Using excel net present value calculator attached the net present value is 4,135,156 and internal rate of return of 28%. The production will continue for four years before starting to break-even.

If the output is known and shipping costs are fixed and all over sudden it changes to variable cost then the net present value will fluctuate from time to time depending on the cost production. in the case of operating leverage the company could be forced to adjust the expected cost of capital.

One must point out that the main difficulty associated with risky investments lies in obtaining cash flow estimates from people, not in the mathematical manipulation of the data obtained. People being what they are, biases invariably creep into the process. Sometimes the incentive compensation of managers is linked to the return on assets relative to some standard. If this standard is based on the expected return for investment projects, managers are likely to bias their estimates downward. In this way they are more likely to be able to exceed the standard. To ensure unbiased cash-flow forecasts, it is essential that the compensation of those doing the forecasting is divorced from subsequent performance(Whitman, 2000).

An individual may make unbiased cash-flow estimates for projects arising in that person’s area of responsibility. For some projects, these estimates will prove to be too high, whereas for others they will be too low. However, on average, the estimates are unbiased in the sense that over and underestimates cancel out. But not all projects are accepted. The forecasts are given to a higher level of management, which, in turn, makes the accept-reject decision. Acceptance, of course, depends on a project’s likely return relative to its risk. In this regard, there may be a tendency to select projects where costs are underestimated and revenues overestimated. Even though a person’s overall estimates are unbiased, this tendency will result in those selected being biased. If this happens, actual returns on accepted investment projects will be lower on average than their projected returns. Decision tree approaches have been advanced for adjusting for this type of bias (Sharpe, 2000).

In the adjustment for biases, one problem faced in any organization is over adjustment. Sam makes a forecast that he regards as unbiased and sends it up through the chain of command for final project approval. Also, there is the problem of accountability. Because capital investment projects involve returns over many years, it is difficult to go back to the person who made the forecast with the actual results. That person often has been transferred or has left the company. While the best approach to correcting biases may be to present a forecaster with the actual results for a number of projects and to compare these results with the forecasts, this often is not possible for long-lived projects (Brealey, Myers and Marcus, 2007).

In addition to the biases described, others also are possible. Although the focus is on the quantitative organization of data, we must be mindful of the fact that the accuracy of the final results depends heavily on behavioural considerations. Every effort must be made to provide an environment conductive to the unbiased forecasting of project cash flows.

Conclusion

The risk in this venture is very high as the net present value shows that the return on capital is higher than the cost of capital. The probability of occurrence of negative outcomes (loss), in this venture is very high.

Reference List

Brealey, R., Myers, S., & Marcus A., 2007. Fundamentals of corporate finance. Sydney: McGraw-Hill.

Fischer, D., & Jordan, R., 2007. Security Analysis and Portfolio Management. New Delhi: Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited.

Gordon, A., Jeffrey, B., & Sharpe, W., 2000. Fundamentals of Investments. New York: Prentice-Hall.

Harold, B., 1999. Corporate financial strategy and decision making to increase shareholder value. Pennsylvania: Frank J. Fabozi Associates.

Jordan, B., & Miller, T., 2008. Fundamentals of Investments Valuation and Management. Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

Peirson, G., Brown, R., Easton, S., Howard, P. & Pinder, S., 2000. Business finance. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc, Sydney.

Sharpe, W., 2000. Portfolio Theory and Capital Markets. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Whitman, M., 2000. Value Investing: A Balanced Approach. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Healthy People 2020: Promoting Positive Outcomes

Introduction

Healthy People 2020 is the US government’s prevention agenda, which aims at building a healthier nation by identifying and addressing the most significant preventable threats. According to the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP, 2020), one of the central problems in US healthcare is Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), as they are a source of complications that lead to an increased hospital stay, morbidity, mortality, and costs. However, recent studies suggest that the prevalence of HAIs can be decreased by 70% if healthcare providers join in a collective effort to implement the latest prevention practices (ODPHP, 2020). Such changes can reduce the annual cost of care by up to $31.5 billion (ODPHP, 2020). The present paper contrasts causes of disparities related HAIs and outlines a plan for communication for these populations.

Disparities in HAIs

The risk of HAIs is not the same among different populations. Multiple studies addressed the problem of disparities in HAIs by assessing the prevalence of the condition in large samples of mixed populations. A recent retrospective study by Leys et al. (2020) demonstrated that Native Americans have the highest risk of HAIs, and White Americans were the second population that was affected by HAIs the most. The level of HAIs occurrence varied between 1.7% and 2.9%, which is a large range signifying a disparity in HAI prevalence (Leys et al., 2020). Additionally, the prevalence of the condition differed significantly depending on the gender of the participants, as women had a lower chance of occurrence of HAIs. As for infants, Hispanics had the highest chance of getting HAIs, according to a study conducted by Liu et al. (2020). The primary causes of the disparities are varying socio-economic characteristics, frequency of healthcare service utilization, access to preventive measures, and adherence to antibiotics admission schedule (Leys et al., 2020). Since there are significant disparities of HAIs among different populations, a sound health communication strategy is needed to improve the outcomes.

Proposed Health Communication Strategy

One of the central causes of HAIs is antibiotic misuse, which creates antibiotic-resistant bacteria (Barchitta et al., 2021). The problem of antibiotic misuse is crucial during the COVID-19 pandemic, as many people believe that SARS-COV-2 can be treated with antibiotics (Barchitta et al., 2021). Additionally, many people do not finish their antibiotic courses, which also creates antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which increases the prevalence of HAIs. Thus, it is crucial to create a health communication strategy that promotes thoughtful antibiotic use among all populations.

A health communication strategy is usually based on risk perception, reinforcement of positive behaviors, the influence of social norms, and empowerment of people to change (Rural Health Information Hub, 2020). The communication is usually conducted using radio, television, newspaper, flyers, social media tools, the internet, and brochures. Since the target of the communication strategy is to decrease the prevalence of HAIs among Whites and Native Americans by reducing antibiotic misuse, the communication strategy will use different channels for communication. In particular, the communication strategy proposes to use social media, brochures, and radio to communicate the harms of antibiotic misuse, provide education about the correct antibiotic use, and to reinforce the behavior by demonstrating the results of correct antibiotic use in communities.

Communication Plan Outline

The communication intervention is based upon Lewin’s change model, which implies that there will be three crucial steps: unfreezing, moving, and refreezing (Hussain et al., 2018). During the first stage, dissatisfaction with current practices is created using relevant communication techniques. The moving stage is creating new norms through education about the correct use of antibiotics. The final stage is refreezing by reinforcing the change using examples of successful practices. The outline of the communication plan is provided below.

Preliminary work

  1. Select the community for the health communication intervention;
  2. Assess the characteristics of the community, including the socio-economic status, race, ethnicity, age, and gender composition;
  3. Identify the most frequently used media channels and most effective communication methods used previously.

Phase 1: Unfreezing

  1. Gathering content for communicating the negative effects of antibiotic misuse;
  2. Creating a schedule for communicating negative effects of antibiotic misuse using social media, radio, and brochures;
  3. Dissemination of knowledge through the selected channels.

Phase 2: Moving

  1. Gathering relevant material;
  2. Conducting education cessions about correct antibiotic use online;
  3. Conducting education cessions about correct antibiotic use in local healthcare organizations;
  4. Distributing brochures about correct antibiotic use after hospitalization in local healthcare organizations.

Phase 3: Refreezing

  1. Communicating the results of the intervention to the community;
  2. Demonstrating the effects of correct antibiotic use in other communities.

Evaluation

  1. Gathering relevant quantitative and qualitative data;
  2. Analyzing the gathered data.

Evaluation Plan

It is crucial to evaluate the results of the intervention for assessing its effectiveness and further modernization. The proposed intervention will be evaluated using both qualitative and quantitative data. In particular, information about the prevalence of HAIs will be gathered after the intervention and compared to the statistics before the intervention. The data will be assessed using statistical analysis. Any significant reduction in the prevalence rates in any of the populations will be considered a success. Additionally, random members of the targeted populations will be asked about their satisfaction with the provided intervention, its perceived importance, and success.

Targeted Communication by Population

  1. Native Americans. Since many Native Americans have decreased access to the internet and social media and live in remote areas, the most appropriate channel for communication is radio. The target for this population is to reduce the prevalence of HAIs among Native Americans by 15% by creating and delivering radio programs on the correct use of antibiotics and the harms of incorrect use of antibiotics after hospitalizations.
  2. Whites. Antibiotic misuse is most probable among this population due to increased access to medications and a higher mean level of income. The target for this population is to engage in local social media to reduce the prevalence of HAIs by 10% by making relevant posts on the correct use of antibiotics and the harms of incorrect use of antibiotics.
  3. Other populations. The target for other populations is to decrease the prevalence of HAIs by distributing brochures on the importance of correct antibiotic use after admission to in-patient facilities.

Reflection

The present project provided several insights on health communication interventions, which will use in the future. First, I realized that health communication is not always a perfect method for health promotion. In particular, addressing HAIs through health communication is not effective, as nest practices demonstrate that interventions should target care providers (ODPHP, 2020). Second, I learned the importance of using theoretical frameworks to plan health communication interventions. Lewin’s change theory helped to understand the crucial steps that should be taking to promote a positive change in the community. Finally, I realized that health communication is a valuable tool for reaching communities to promote health and prevent diseases.

References

Barchitta, M., Maugeri, A., La Rosa, M. C., La Mastra, C., Murolo, G., & Agodi, A. (2021). Three-Year Trends of Healthcare-Associated Infections and Antibiotic Use in Acute Care Hospitals: Findings from 2016–2018 Point Prevalence Surveys in Sicily, Italy. Antibiotics, 10(1), 1-11.

Hussain, S. T., Lei, S., Akram, T., Haider, M. J., Hussain, S. H., & Ali, M. (2018). Kurt Lewin’s change model: A critical review of the role of leadership and employee involvement in organizational change. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 3(3), 123-127.

Leys, L., Weze, K., Donaldson, S., & Mehari, A. (2020). Racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare-associated infections in the United States. Chest, 158(4), A339.

Liu, J., Sakarovitch, C., Sigurdson, K., Lee, H. C., & Profit, J. (2020). Disparities in Health Care–Associated Infections in the NICU. American journal of perinatology, 37(2), 166-174.

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020). Healthcare-associated infections. Healthy People 2020.

Rural Health Information Hub. (2020). Health Communication. RHI hub. Web.