Fetal Growth Retardation As A Pressing Issue In The Modern Medicine Sample Assignment

Fetal growth retardation (FGR) might be considered a pressing issue in the modern medicine framework. A plethora of scholars and practitioners are dealing with this phenomenon to a great extent nowadays. Below, a thorough discussion on the essence of fetal growth retardation will be provided.

The placenta is a provisional organ, the formation of which occurs during intrauterine development. The structure of the placenta is determined by the processes of implantation, placentation, fetalization and is closely related to its direct functions. The main substrates necessary for the growth and full development of the fetus are oxygen, glucose, amino acids ,and fatty acids (Nardozza et al., 2017). The processes of their transfer are depended on the crucial features of the placenta, among which there are size, its morphological structure, the correct development of the vascular component, and the appropriacy of blood flow of the placental vascular bed.

Then, it should be noted that there is a number of other important aspects, including insulin-like growth factors, apoptosis, autophagy, and glucocorticoid exposure, which also affect placental growth and transport of essential components. Complications of pregnancy and childbirth, as well as FGR syndrome, are usually a result of placental insufficiency. They are related to a considerable degree of perinatal morbidity and mortality. FGR (formally – intrauterine growth restriction) “is defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal for the growth potential of a specific infant as per the race and gender of the foetus” (Sharma, 2016, p. 3978).

Many studies by leading scientists worldwide indicate a causal relationship between fetoplacental pathology and adverse health outcomes in adulthood. The most formidable complications associated with placental insufficiency are antenatal and intrapartum fetal death (Nardozza et al., 2017). During pregnancy in humans, Chen and his colleagues identified a substantial decrease within the scope of the density of the vascular component in the villi and cell proliferation in the trophoblast and stromal cell compartments of the placenta with FGR.

It should be noted that a full-fledged morphological analysis of the placenta, including macroscopic, histological, immunohistochemical, and, if necessary, molecular genetic research, cannot be conducted during pregnancy. The study of the human placenta in vivo is likely to result in particular complications. Such a state of affairs takes place due to the fact that functional research methodology does not give complete essential features of the placenta (Zhang et al., 2015). Then, the invasive methods carried out during pregnancy pose a certain risk for both the mother and the fetus. For a more in-depth study of the processes of formations of placental issues, experimental modeling of FGR in animals is considered as an appropriate option. Given the morphological similarity, for instance, the placenta of higher primates can be compared to the human one.

It can be argued that the experimental dimension provides various ways of placental changes related to human pregnancy and animal models of placental issues that are interconnected with FGR. These differences may depend on the nature, timing, and severity of problems associated with the placenta, as well as with the kind and outcomes of in vivo or in vitro research (Zhang et al., 2015). Nevertheless, it should be emphasized that no animal model could completely recreate the FGR of a person. However, the mentioned approach provides the opportunity to properly explore all the peculiarities of the disorder, as well as to realize the molecular aspects that are relevant to the occurrence of FGR. It also contributes to the creation of new systems of averting and treating the mentioned pathology.

To conclude, fetal growth retardation is a problem that may lead to a number of complications during an infant’s growth and development. A consistent exploration of the phenomenon’s essentials was given above. It was found that it is not easy to study FGR, given possible issues that a mother and fetus may face. In this regard, the related research on animals’ placenta serves as an alternative.


Nardozza, L. M., Caetano, A. C., Zamarian, A. C., Mazzola, J. B., Silva, C. P., Marçal, V. M., Lobo, T. F., Peixoto, A. B., & Araujo Júnior, E. (2017). Fetal growth restriction: current knowledge. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 295(5), 1061–1077.

Sharma, D., Shastri, S., Farahbakhsh, N., & Sharma, P. (2016). Intrauterine growth restriction – part 1. The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine, 29(24), 3977–3987.

Zhang, S., Regnault, T. R., Barker, P. L., Botting, K. J., McMillen, I. C., McMillan, C. M., Roberts, C. T., & Morrison, J. L. (2015). Placental Adaptations in Growth Restriction. Nutrients, 7(1), 360–389.

Strategic Planning In Healthcare

A stakeholder is anyone with interest in an organization’s value. In developing strategic plans, it is important for organizations to set objectives that are anchored on the needs of all their stakeholders. In the healthcare industry, for instance, stakeholders include physicians, nurses, front-line staff, finance, governing board, and patients. Having the knowledge of the stakeholders puts an organization in a better position to engage and manage as well as turn them into supporters and advocates. The governing board plays a central role in supporting and guiding the corporate affairs of healthcare organizations in implementing their missions, visions, and values. The board also helps in bridging the gap between administrative and clinical considerations in implementation.

Physicians, nurses, and front-line staff possess a wealth of knowledge about healthcare information, industry insight, and current processes. Hence, they help in translating the vision of the administration and putting it into practice. They also align their functions with the objectives of the organization. These are also the people who understand an organization’s technical limitations and available resources (Ginter et al., 2018). Indeed, a deep knowledge of the organizational assets and clinical information systems assists in understanding the true position of the hospital.

The empowerment of employees in healthcare organizations is increasingly becoming important. It refers to an ongoing process of providing resources, motivation, tools, encouragement, and training that employees need for optimal performance. Healthcare is an industry that is constantly plagued with shortages of staff. Therefore, it is important to empower employees to get as much mileage as possible from them. Employee empowerment leads to speeding up the process and offers employees the drive and motivation to not only solve problems and also give solutions more rapidly than an average employee who is empowered or inspired. Other benefits include job satisfaction, increased employee productivity, and cost reduction.

Due to the rising cases of patient harm within various healthcare facilities, patient safety within the healthcare system is emerging as a serious healthcare concern. The objective of patient safety is to reduce or prevent errors, harm, and risks that happen to patients during health care provision. Indeed, there is a consensus that healthcare delivery would be safe, people-centered, and effective if the safety of patients is guaranteed. For the purposes of this paper, the two operational considerations for patient safety are risk management and safe medication practices.

In a healthcare organization, risk management entails analyzing the practices and processes in existence as well as identifying risk factors and the implementation procedures that should be used to address them. Risk management in health care is more significant than in other sectors. It involves the management of such risks as medical malpractices and procedures, faulty equipment, and other hazards (Harris, 2018). Proper management of these risks not only helps in keeping people secure and safe but also in cutting down costs. However, the main challenge associated with this operational consideration is the cost implication that goes into the purchase of equipment and paying the risk management personnel.

On its part, safe medication practices help in reducing medication errors. They are summarized as five rights- the right patient, the right drug, the right dose, the right route, and the right time. These five rights should be embraced as medication process goals. However, the main challenge associated with safe medication practices is communication barriers between healthcare professionals and patients. In many cases, patients do not understand what their nurses, pharmacists, and doctors tell them and end up doing the wrong things. The opportunity cost of not implementing the risk management operational consideration will be to save on costs. Meanwhile, the opportunity cost of not implementing safe medication practices will be enhanced communication between healthcare professionals and patients.


Ginter, P. M., Duncan, W. J., & Swayne, L. E. (2018). The Strategic management of health care organizations. Wiley.

Harris, J. M. (2018). Essentials of strategic planning in Healthcare, Third Edition. Health Administration Press.

“Killers Of The Flower Moon” By David Grann: Plot, Main Idea, And Characters

The author, David Grann, presents his understanding of the relationship between the United States government and the Native Americans. He explains that the adverse treatment of the Native Americans was driven by the jealousy the government had for them. The United States government saw all the wealth the Osage tribe had, and it was controversial to the belief the government had about the Native Americans, which was that they should be second-class citizens.

Grann’s novel sheds light on the political attitudes of American authorities toward Native Indians. The American state intensively expanded its borders without regard for the rights of the indigenous population to the territories being developed (RedCorn 27). The armed forces brutally suppressed the Native Americans’ attempts to assert their land rights. As a result of this policy, Indians now live on scraps of land allotted by the U.S. government and have voting rights, but not everywhere (United States Commission on Civil Rights 13). Before slavery was abolished, they were on an equal footing with slaves, the lowest level of civil rights. Treaties made with tribal leaders were not always honored by the government. In his book, Grann tries to restore historical truthfulness and give the descendants of those events solace by revealing the mysteries of the time (117). The author demonstrates the unfair treatment and brutality towards the indigenous peoples, which has been the basis of the authorities’ policy throughout its history.

The story of Molly’s family demonstrates the general attitude of U.S. authorities toward indigenous people. Her relatives’ fate is more than just a private chronology of events of a small group of people. For members of the Osage Nation, the circumstances described in the book remain extremely fresh. David Grann saw Molly as a real person, not a generalized stereotype of just one of the many Indians subjected to segregation, racism, and discrimination. The government’s policy of dispossessing Aboriginal people of lands that were doctrinally regarded as no one’s territory has destroyed the lives of countless Indian families. Molly’s story demonstrates the devastating effect state decisions can have on the fate of defenseless and innocent people.

The colonial worldview allows Europeans to divide people into the good, the white population, and the bad, the native population. Thus, they justified the conquest of America as a necessity that would give the Indians high morals and correct their slumbering savagery. The conquest of the new lands was given an advantageous ideological basis – the economic interest of the greedy conquerors was covered by good intentions. Therefore, the conquistadors, who in fact sought to seize new lands and exploit Indians as cheap labor, were in their own eyes the bearers of salvation for the local pagans. This explanation allowed them to modify and destroy the culture of the indigenous peoples, forcibly indoctrinating them with false values.

Forcing colonial thinking into the minds of Native American children served as a means of disrupting the intergenerational transmission of cultural values. The policy could be considered cultural genocide, used by the American government to confiscate land from American Indians (Leigh-Osroosh and Hutchison 3). The destruction of culture kills people spiritually, leading to their degeneration. The inclusion of individuals in the values of their nations is an important factor in preserving the spiritual culture of a society. As the book’s author rightly points out, colonization destroyed entire peoples by conquering established cultural values.

At the present time, all over the world, along with the rise of ethnic consciousness, there is a tendency for different peoples to recognize their common interests, their universal unity. Cultural identity is formed as a result of the superposition of various cultural influences to which an individual is exposed. Indians are among those who could but were unwilling to give up their own national identity. At the same time, they not only perceive themselves as members of a single union of Native American tribes but also as members of a union of the Earth’s aboriginal peoples (Leigh-Osroosh and Hutchison 15). The Indians perceive themselves as representatives of a universal brotherhood of peoples and seek to build their relations with other nations based on mutual interest and a desire to understand one another.

There is both the ingrowth of Native American communities into the U.S. economic and political system and the search for their own ways of being. These include both cultural assimilation and increasing attention to their history, religion, traditions, and language. The Indians, long perceived as a dying-out vestige of a bygone era, find themselves extremely relevant today with their culture’s simple and immutable truths. With the arrival of Europeans in America, first of all, the economic basis of the Indian’s sense of self-worth was undermined. The traditional Native American way of life has been disrupted throughout history by invading colonialists. However, the people’s resilience in Grann’s novel is undeniably noteworthy and deserves immense respect.

Works Cited

Grann, David. Killers of the Flower Moon: The Osage Murders and the Birth of the FBI. Random House Children’s Books, 2021.

Leigh-Osroosh, Katheryne T., and Brian Hutchison. “Cultural Identity Silencing of Native Americans in Education.” Race and Pedagogy Journal, vol. 4, no. 1, 2019, pp. 1-33.

RedCorn, Alex. “Considerations for Building a Prosperous and Self-Determining Osage Nation Through Education.” Journal of Cases in Educational Leadership, vol. 23, no. 1, 2020, pp. 21–39.

United States Commission on Civil Rights. Broken Promises: Continuing Federal Funding Shortfall for Native Americans. Government Printing Office, 2018.

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