Fitness Plan: Cardiorespiratory Endurance, Muscular Strength, Flexibility Writing Sample

Cardiovascular/Cardiorespiratory Endurance

Activity (Mode) for cardiovascular fitness

I have chosen cycling as an activity that will enhance cardiovascular fitness. Cardiovascular exercises are a physical activity designed to improve the functioning of the cardiovascular system. These exercises should be done at least twice a week. Most programs run three to five or more times a week. One must repeat contractions of significant muscle groups often enough to raise the heart rate to the target level determined during testing. Cycling does not imply stops during this activity; therefore, it is suitable for the conditions of cardiovascular exercise.


The textbook indicates that one needs to do cardio loads at least twice a week. I plan to cycle three times a week.


My Resting Heart Rate (RHR) is 72. I am 55 years old. My Predicted Max Heart Rate (PMHR): 220 – My Age =165. Therefore, my Target Heart Rate: (PMHR-RHR) x.7 + RHR = 137.1 (Most beneficial). My Safe Maximum Heart Rate: (PMHR – RHR) x.8 + RHR =146.4.


Moderate exercise intensity is counted as 50% to about 70% of one’s maximum heart rate. The intensity of my activity is 80%, so I will be cycling for an hour and a half per day given for training.

Progressive Resistance

After four weeks of my cycling exercise, I will increase the duration of the training. I will cycle at a higher speed and choose routes that require more activity that is physical. In particular, these will be routes with uneven mountainous terrain. By increasing driving speed and making the road more complicated, I will achieve the required intensity by the eighth week of training. By the end of the fourth week, my average bike ride will be two hours. I will gradually increase the time to prevent overstraining.

Muscular Strength

Activity for muscular strength

I am planning to do lat pulldowns as a muscular strength-building activity. Muscles developed during this exercise are latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, and biceps. This exercise uses a strength machine designed to target the largest back muscles (lats). To simulate the natural movement of the arms more closely, the components of the device are moved along diverging trajectories. This simulation makes it possible to concentrate the load on the target muscles.


I plan to do these sets about three times a week; this frequency is recommended in the textbook.


To avoid soreness and stiffness, beginners should gradually increase repetitions to three to four sets. However, I do not consider myself a beginner, as I have done similar exercises regularly in the past and am generally in good physical shape. For this activity, my maximum weight lifted is 80 lb. However, on average, I plan to raise 50 lb. 62.5% of my maximum lifting weight will be used to increase muscle strength (50lb * 100% / 80lb = 62.5%). I think initially, I will be doing fewer reps than muscular endurance for muscular strength, but over time, I plan to increase the number of reps and sets.


I will be doing three sets of five repetitions. My rest period will be between 30 seconds to two minutes.

Progressive Resistance

After four weeks of exercising, I will increase the intensity of my training. I will increase the weight lifted to 70 lb. By the eighth week of training, I will reach the required intensity. By the end of week four, I will be doing six sets of ten reps. Instead of three times a week, I will do the exercises four times. I will gradually increase the time so as not to overexert myself.


Activity for Flexibility

To develop flexibility, I plan to do stretching. To do this exercise, I will need to rest my hand on the wall. Next, I need to bend my right leg and take the left leg back at least a foot, keeping it straight. Both feet should be on the floor. The left calf muscle is stretched while keeping the left leg as straight as possible and the left heel on the floor. I will need to change my legs after doing the exercise on one leg. This exercise uses the calf muscle groups. This exercise does not help prevent back pain. It also does not help in the healing of back injuries.


To be most effective, I plan to train three times a week. I will increase the number of workouts in the following weeks to four times a week. Such a frequency of exercise is recommended in the flexibility chapter of the student book. The total duration of one activity, which includes several stretching exercises, will not exceed one hour.


If the force applied during the exercise is too great, it can damage the tissue, leading to an inflammatory response. According to the information in the textbook, if a person trains three to four times a week and reaches the target heart rate for at least 30 minutes, the training intensity can be considered sufficient. It is precisely such indicators as the frequency of training and hitting one’s target heart rate that indicate that the sessions are intense.


Each stretching exercise should take at least forty seconds. If it is possible to be in one position for only fifteen seconds, three fifteen-second approaches should be performed. If one can hold the stretch for 30 seconds, only two repetitions should be done. It is believed that after 40 seconds of static work, the nervous system can no longer function effectively. Therefore, the final repetition should also not exceed a minute. Based on my fitness, I plan to do two reps, each of which will be about 30 seconds long. Therefore, my final repetition in total will not exceed a minute, as provided in the textbook.

Good muscle stretching is essential for young people and the elderly. It is also helpful for those prone to injuries or those who have already received them. If an individual is susceptible to injury, then he should stop at the exact moment when pain is felt.

Pattern/When to Stretch

According to the information in the textbook, if the exercise does not require an excessive range of motion, the best time to stretch is usually after an aerobic or strength workout, when the muscles are warmed up. Stretching can and should be combined with other exercises; one can end one’s run or strength workout with a stretch. The textbook states that to prevent injury during activities that require flexibility, stretching is needed after the appropriate warm-up phase. With a general warm-up, the main goal is to raise your core temperature and increase blood flow to your working muscles. At the same time, the purpose of stretching is to increase the flexibility and range of motion of the joints.

The Implications Of Devaluing The Yuan

Since China is the most significant exporter globally, any changes in its currency have a substantial effect on the international market’s situation and macroeconomic landscape overall. In particular, the recent unexpected devaluation of the Chinese yuan renminbi (CNY) to boost exports provoked controversial reactions and had varied implications for many countries. This paper aims at examining the repercussions of CNY’s devaluation for the USA and Japanese economies and the global oil industry.

In 2015, the People’s Bank of China (PBOC) astonished the global political and economic community with serial devaluations of CNY that fall by over 3 percent despite the currency strengthening for the previous decade. The PBOC stated that this step was stipulated by its move towards a more market-oriented economy, while some experts considered that it was a deliberate attempt to favor China’s export (The Investopedia Team, 2021).

Nevertheless, Chinese trade partners, especially the United States and Japan, suffered from such actions. The devaluated yuan makes US goods comparatively more expensive, which results in its decreased demand. This also contributes to US unemployment and deteriorates the trade balance between the US and China, leading to a larger current account deficit. Concerning Japan, Yasutoshi Nishimura claims that China’s currency devaluation may have a tremendous influence on the Japanese economy since Japan is a significant exporter of machine tools and electronics (“Japan sees,” 2019). Overall, CNY’s devaluation had adverse aftermath for China’s trade partners and large international exporters.

Regarding the oil sector, the PBOC’s decision on devaluation also caused a noticeable impact. Specifically, as China is the world’s largest consumer of carbon products, the price of crude oil considerably depends on it. The devaluation of the CNY signalized to large investors that Chinese oil demand is likely to fall. As a result, the cost of the world benchmark Brent crude dropped above 20 percent due to the currency devaluation in mid-August (The Investopedia Team, 2021). Many other leading companies in the oil industry also experienced unexpected losses.

Work Cited

Japan Sees ‘Enormous’ Potential Impact from Yuan Devaluation.The Straits Times. 2015. Web.

The Investopedia Team. The Impact of China Devaluing the Yuan in 2015. Investopedia. 2021. Web.

The Opioid Crisis In The United States Of America

Moral hazard refers to a scenario in which a person takes part in a risky activity because they know someone or something will bear the consequences of their actions. A moral hazard can be seen when a person drives a car at a higher speed just because he or she is wearing a seatbelt or when a swimmer chooses to go deep into the sea because a lifeguard is present. CDC stands for Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC reported that in 2017, there were about 72,000 deaths caused by drug overdoses (Vedantam, 2019). Tobacco accounts for over 480,000 deaths every year in the United States of America.

Alicia had a back problem which worsened as years went by. She then went to see a doctor in 2014 and they prescribed OxyContin, an opioid drug. She became more dependent on the drug which led to her divorce and consequently shared custody of children. As the addiction to OxyContin increased, Alicia started skipping working days, and finally, they let her go. Moreover, she lost shared custody of her twins. One day when she was allowed to visit her kids at the social services center but the children rejected her toys and would not let her kiss or hug them. This was her breaking point, and that was when she started using heroin.

Naloxone is used as an antidote for overdoses in the United States. The drug is called Lazarus in relation to the miracle performed by Jesus when he raised Lazarus from the dead. Though this is not exactly the case, during an overdose, naloxone causes the breathing to return to regular, lips turn from blue to usual color and skin color changes from white and ash color to normal (Vedantam, 2019). Presently, the drug is administered as a nasal spray and it is called Narcan.

The moral hazard concern raised was that naloxone would lead to increased abuse of drugs such as heroin or fentanyl. To prove this, an experiment was set up in which naloxone was supplied only to some states. Data was collected, analyzed, and the results concluded that naloxone did not decrease drug abuse-related deaths. In fact, in some places, there was an increase in mortality. Other scientists did not agree with this finding; they argued that there is a difference between the availability of drugs and the presence of laws that make the drug more available.

Tiffany argues in favor of Narcon by presenting a scenario of how life would have turned out for addicts if Narcon was prohibited; many people would have died, including her. Even though people become careless and abuse drugs more, it will not be right to let them die because of their negligence.

As I listened to the podcast, the story of Alicia was overwhelming. The idea that every year, over 7200 families have to go through the same ordeal before losing a family member is depressing. It was my first time to hear about Narcon and how it has saved many lives. However, the sad part is how people become careless because they know the antidote will revive them in case of an overdose. In my family including my close friends, we have not experienced a case of drug abuse. However, a few years ago, I had a neighbor whose kid was using drugs. Fortunately, he was taken to a rehabilitation center before turning into an addict.


Vedantam, S. (Executive producer). (2019). Life, death and the Lazarus Drug: Confronting America’s opioid crisis (No.1). In The brain. NPR. Web.

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