Five Stages Of Great Coaching For Your Business Free Essay

In any particular work environment, there are many varying personalities and behaviors. The beauty in these differences is that they bring out ideas and opinions that help shape an organization and its goals. However, what happens when an individual in a high-ranking, leadership role fails to meet a company’s standard because of their traits and actions? Although there are many approaches to guiding a manager or supervisor into a more productive mindset, one that has extensive research of proving effective is action coaching. As defined by Dotlich and Cairo (1999), action coaching is “a process that fosters self-awareness and that results in the motivation to change, as well as the guidance needed if change is to take place in ways that meet organizational needs” (p. 18). Although traditional coaching styles share the common goal of self-awareness, action coaching goes a step further and uses self-awareness as a way to change the unproductive behavior the individual is exhibiting, rather than using it as an end point. Action coaching is a personalized approach that helps connect the relationship between the individual and organization through strategic action planning which leads to performance development and growth (Dotlich and Cairo, 1999, p. 21).

Jill was the individual chosen for this coaching project for several reasons. First, she exhibits many unproductive behaviors that are present in someone who could be described as a poor leader. Second, she lacks emotional intelligence crucial for someone in her position. Lastly, her direct staff and therefore the organization she works for is affected by her ineffective leadership abilities, which leads to a decrease in retention rates due to dissatisfaction of employees.

Jill is a kind and very likable person outside of the organization where she holds the position of night shift manager. The goal of the coaching project in this situation is to help Jill understand the outcomes of her actions and behaviors. Self-awareness produced by evidence from employee turnover rates and examples provided from 360-degree reviews within the organization is key to the change in behavior toward Jill’s staff and performance as a manager.

ill has been with this company for over ten years, even graduating from the Medical Laboratory Science program that is offered within the organization. She started as a phlebotomist, graduated to a medical technologist, and has reached her goal as a laboratory manager.

Since she has been through all of the steps of the laboratory up to her position, it could be assumed that Jill understands the sometimes hectic, overwhelming workflow or the issues that can arise while working in the laboratory. However, since being made manager a few years ago, Jill has become very inaccessible. She rarely comes out of her office, usually only for mandatory meetings. When the staff working on the bench are struggling with the workload and call her for assistance, she makes up excuses as to why she cannot help and suggests we call the other managers and supervisors in the office.

While attending meetings with the management staff, I have noticed that Jill is always agreeing with fellow managers and supervisors, even when she may not agree with the decisions being made. Jill does not like confrontation, especially with those above her rank in the laboratory, and therefore does not stand up for what she believes in or for what her staff are requesting.

Given the characteristics and specific types of Jill’s leadership style, I have assembled two key tools I believe will bring self-awareness and eventually performance break-throughs that will help not only Jill, but her staff and the organization as a whole. First, I would collect the 360-degree feedback reviews from Jill’s staff. 360-degree reviews are used by direct reports to assess their manager or supervisors’ leadership traits and rank their abilities in order to provide feedback in an anonymous manner. Those is management positions can use these reviews in comparison to their own self-evaluations to assess where they can grow and develop as leaders. According to Gritzo, Fusfeld, & Carpenter (2017), who based their study on the correlation between 360-degree reviews and leader’s self-evaluations, comparing the two assessments allows managers and supervisors to discover their personal blind spots and insecurities. Blind spots are defined in the study as leadership traits and skills where the manager’s opinion of themselves is higher than how other perceive them, where insecurities are when the direct reports’ reviews of them is higher than what they rated themselves (Gritzo, Fusfeld, & Carpenter, 2017, p. 49). In short, the relationship between a leader’s self-evaluation and their direct reports’ assessments can make a manager aware of their personal actions and behaviors and how they affect others.

The second tool I would use to implement an action coaching plan for Jill would be the correlation between her lack of relationships with her staff and employee turnover rates. As described by Reina, Rogers, Peterson, Bryon, & Hom (2018), “managers must examine their own behaviors as a contributor to talent loss and recognize that their behaviors toward employees are central to employee turnover.” By examining the increased turnover rates for direct reports under Jill, she can understand the need for not just a professional relationship, but an emotional on, with her staff.

The validity of the tools I have chosen to use for this specific action coaching plan can be found in many peer-reviewed research articles. In 2017, Kim, Tam, Kim, and Rhee used an online survey to measure organization justice, supervisory justice, authoritarian organizational culture and organization-employee relationship quality to gather data in order to understand the primary reasons for employee turnover. Although authoritarian organizational culture was the strongest indicator for turnover, “the study also redirects scholarly attention to supervisory justice as a predictor of organization-employee relationship quality, emphasizing the important role of internal communication manager in managing supervisor-subordinate relationships and employee retention/turnover” (Kim, Tam, Kim & Rhee, 2017, p. 320). There is also evidence within the study indicating that support from and relationships with managers affects an employee’s motivation, which also correlates with turnover rates. Another study used the social exchange theory (SET) to determine the relationship between employee engagement and turnover rates. The results from this study indicated that an employee-manager relationship is vital for increased retention rates, because it influences the employee’s future career plans within the company (Covella, McCarthy, Kaifi, & Cocoran, 2017, p. 8).

The 360-degree reviews would also prove successful for this action coaching plan. One study offered the effectiveness of providing a manager with an understanding of their own personal emotional intelligence. By reviewing the evaluations of their direct reports, managers can develop self-awareness of their actions and behavior, which is a primary step in the initial stages of the action coaching plan (Gregory, Robbins, Schwaitzberg & Harmon, 2016, p. 3568).

In order to have a more organized approach while coaching Jill, I would use the five steps of action coaching.

Let’s take a look at each of the steps in details.

Step 1 – Clarify the goal

The first step in your  strategy is to specify your client’s goal in an objective and measurable way. In order to know if your client has reached their goal, you and your client must know exactly what outcome they want and be able to measure progress in a quantitative way. When your client is clear, you are clear. Your client knows that you are clear and the goal will start to take on a new level of reality.

Step 2 – Make the goal real

Our subconscious doesn’t know the difference between imagination and reality. The chemical reactions in our brains are the same whether an experience is actually happening to us or whether we are imagining it in our minds. And the more you can imagine a scenario using all 5 senses, the more impact it will have.

For this step, have your client imagine in detail what it will be like when he meets his goal. Where will they be? What are their surroundings?  What are they doing? What sounds would they hear? What would it smell like?

Step 3 – Strategize the action steps for achieving the goal

Now that a clear and measurable goal is in place, the next step in the coaching strategy is to work with your client to develop a plan to reach their goal. What are the first things they need to do and what is the timeframe it needs to be completed?

Your coaching strategy might be to start at the end and work backwards from the goal to figure out the best actions for them to take. It’s highly unlikely your clients goals are going to just fall in their lap. They will need to take focused action to achieve their goal.

Step 4 – Your coaching strategy must include accountability for your client

Step 4 in the coaching strategy is to hold your client accountable for each step along the way to their goal. Keep track of their commitments and make sure they stick to them. Being accountable for their actions will make your client feel empowered by their progress. This will result in your client  gaining important confidence in their ability to reach their goal with each action step they complete successfully.

Step 5 – Celebrate each step toward the goal

Last but not least, is to acknowledging every step your client takes on the way to his goal. This is an essential part of the 5 step coaching  coaching strategy. Some of the coaching strategy steps are easier than others, but they all contribute to making impossible goals happen for your clients. In this step, you should make sure your client understands that celebrating what he has already achieved is necessary and will provide motivation for achieving more.

Jill was chosen for this action coaching project because of her loner and pleaser unproductive behaviors, as well as her worrier tendencies caused by the friendships she has developed with other managerial staff (Dotlich & Cairo, 1999, p. 96). Factual evidence collected from 360-degree reviews and turnover rates from her direct reports will allow Jill or any coaching subject with the same unwanted behaviors to become self-aware of their personality and actions. Through careful steps developed within the action coaching plan and evidence validated with recent peer-reviewed literature, Jill’s unproductive behaviors can be identified, reviewed, and modified to match the goals of the organization and the needs of her staff.

Dynamism Of Modernity: The Impact Of The Digital Revolution оn Human Brain

In the 21st century, Known as the digital age we have made many advancements in the technological field. Technology fosters intelligence in humans because. We have developed smart assistants to help us around the house, we have everything connected and at our fingertips with the internet, and we have created early stages of A.I that could teach us anything.

Many companies such as Amazon, Google, Sony and recently Apple have been putting Bluetooth speakers with voice processing capabilities onto the consumer market. These speakers are known as “smart” assistants which have the ability to connect to other “smart” devices and help you out around the house. For example, if your cooking nachos in the oven and want to read In the meantime, you can say “Alexa set a timer for 5 minutes”and she’ll do it allowing you to sit back worry free while you take in more knowledge. Suddenly “oh no!” You went to take your nachos out of the oven and they all toppled over onto the floor, lucky for you-you just cleaned it so you pick them up only to realize there are crumbs all over the place, not to worry “Alexa clean the kitchen.” Suddenly your wifi enabled Roomba vacuum wheels its way over and cleans the mess for you while you sit down and enjoy your nachos. Before we had smart assistants we wasted lots of time cleaning and cooking now with start assistants we are free to sit back and relax whilst taking in all the knowledge we can.

There are quite a few people that hate the internet, they say it is filled with garbage that will rot your Brain almost like 3 bags of Sour Patch Kids. Although there are some bad aspects to the internet, for example, Drug sales, human trafficking, blood and gore, pornography, fake news, illegal gun sales, cyberbullying, Jake Paul, Logan Paul, T-series and many more. There are also many good things such as online databases that allow students and adults of all ages to access and learn from billions of university fact-checked articles on almost anything you can think of, there are also billions of videos teaching you how to fix your car at home, paint your house, clean your gutters and even make a 400,000 volt stun gun for $10. The internet has opened up so many options for us and now we can learn anything anywhere anytime.

The main worry with the introduction of A.I is that it will take over the world deeming that the only way to achieve world peace is to kill everyone on earth. Well there’s good news the a.i we currently use is not sentient and therefore cannot think for itself. A.I today is created by what’s known as a neural network almost like our brains but on a smaller simpler scale. Neural networks work by taking in information processing it and giving an output command. With the help of A.I’s like these we could problem solve many problems and change the world for the better, we could use A.I as a calculator for anything, make self-driving cars and even implant them in human making us so immensely smart by having everything no longer at our fingertips but having everything by our command.

Although some people may be skeptical, our intelligence is only rising and it will continue to with the development of new technology.

Tourism In Rwanda As An Example Of Why Should Countries Encourage Tourism

Tourism in Rwanda has not only caught the attention of East Africa but of the international community as well. The World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) is a body that represents the travel and tourism private sector globally. This organization carried out an intensive research on the contribution of travel and tourism to the GDP and employment sectors in Rwanda. The WTTC shares that the contribution of tourism to GDP in 2017 was Rwanda Francs (RWF) 383 billion and expected to rise to RWF 404.8 billion which is 5.7% rise.

With the attention from the international and regional tourists, the local people of Rwanda have been able to benefit from this as proven by the numbers shown by the WTTC and early statements by Nielsen and Spenceley (2010). Journalist Joseph Ondiek, traveled to the Northern province of Rwanda to the district of Musanze, Ruhengeri which is home to the mountain gorillas. He spoke to the residents of that district to get an understanding of how life is in this tourist destination. One of the managing directors of a tour agency mentioned that when they started, only four hotels were available but the number has tripled over the years in the district.

The addition of such hotels have given the local people jobs such as in construction of the hotels, customer and transportation services. In addition, the district has encouraged local citizens to become entrepreneurs. The locals have been making cultural outfits and handcrafts that have been selling well with tourists who visit. The district of Musanze is now being considered second in the country behind Kigali when it pertains to modern infrastructure and scenery.

Furthermore, Rwanda’s leading newspaper the New Times, mentions how the country has not only focused on gorilla attractions but positioning the itself to provide the ‘big 5 experience. The ‘big 5’ experience according to adventures in Africa is “five animals that were considered the most difficult and dangerous to hunt while on foot.” These animals are: lions, elephants, rhinos and buffaloes. This has boosted the county’s stamina to compete against top tourist competitors in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. The New Times also reports that President of the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund said that “Rwanda’s mountain gorillas are the best studied gorillas in the world. And the decades of data accumulated on them continue to provide crucial insights into their conservation needs.” Therefore, the government of Rwanda has prioritized the ‘big 5’ experience along with the gorillas to further the economic development.

Major concerns to Rwanda Tourism

On the other hand, while the authors above have agreed with Nielsen and Spenceley (2010) tourism success in Rwanda, there have been concerns when it comes to animal conservation in Rwanda. These concerns include: high population, poaching and rise in tourism costs.

Fitzgerald (2018) sheds light on an issue that Rwanda is facing as the gorilla population rises. She poses a crucial question about whether Rwanda is able to sustain the growth of these species in the Virunga Mountains. Rwanda has a population of 12 million according to the World Bank data at a size of 10,169 mi²; the nation is 26 times smaller than Texas. Rwanda being densely populated faces a task of making sure animal conversation remains intact and at the same time providing shelter for its citizens.

On the bright side, Fitzgerald (2018) shares how the African Wildlife Foundation purchased 27.8 hectares around the volcanoes national park and donated it to the government of Rwanda. This non-profit organization prides itself on protecting endangered and important landscapes in Africa. This donation will help Rwanda manage the rising population of gorillas and create a separation from the general population.

In addition, another concern that Rwanda faces is poaching. The Encyclopedia of Earth defines poaching as “the illegal hunting, killing or capturing of animals, a practice that occurs in a variety of ways. Poaching can refer to the failure to comply with regulations for legal harvest, resulting in the illegal taking of wildlife that would otherwise be allowable.” Volcanoes Park organization in Rwanda shares three main reasons why people would commit to this crime. These reasons are: Market for gorilla meat, private collection and selling body parts.

  • Gorilla meat market: Gorilla meat is eaten in East and Central Africa. This meat is rare and therefore will come at a heavy price for the sellers. The high demand and price for gorilla meat encourages poachers in the region. This meat has also found a way to reach markets in Europe. Most of these poachers are people that may not have jobs and turn to poaching as a means of survival.
  • Private collection: Some people in the country kill gorillas to boast about it because they are the most feared in the region. After killing them, they keep the body parts as proof of their achievements.
  • Selling the body parts: Apart from selling the meat, poachers also sell gorilla body parts for income. This region is also known for the belief in traditional healers and witchcraft. People who practice such beliefs tend to buy gorilla parts and are seen as a cure to incurable diseases by modern medicine.

In addition to the concerns above, another major problem are the rebels or militia in this region. The great lakes region has always been home to numerous militias that seek refuge in the forests and volcanoes. Rwanda shares the Virunga Mountains with the Democratic Republic of Congo that has been an unstable country over the past decades. Jani Actman, a national geographic journalist shares how the park rangers are constantly in between life threatening situations. The Virunga director, Emmanuel de Merode, mentions that 16 staff members have been killed in the past 12 months by local rebels. The director says the rebels use this area as means to financial gains through extraction of natural resources which was estimated at $170 million in 2017. Therefore, if these mountains are a source of revenue for the militias, gorillas will always face a threat until this problem is solved.

Equally important, another concern that has recently taken flight is the rise in visiting costs. Some people have complained about them locally and internationally. The Rwandan government has raised prices for both local and international visitors. As shown on the Rwandan development board (RDB) website, the price for visiting gorillas per person is at $1500 since 2017. Prices for exclusive visits, special discount packages and filming are on the website.

Author Leah Feiger shares how before the increase in prices, the previous pass permits were $750 for foreign visitors and $35 for Rwandan citizens. She accounts this increase to the addition of several luxurious hotels around the country. Feiger interviewed a tour operator in the country who shared his dissatisfaction to the recent price change and how that will affect his clientele. His main concern was that it is now cheaper for tourists to go to Uganda or Congo because Rwanda is on a luxurious shift.

Likewise, several companies have also started opening offices in Uganda. One managing director mentioned how due to rising prices, clientele booking has gone down and decided to offer services in Uganda whose prices are around $600 individual permit pass.


It is without a doubt that tourism and animal conservation in Rwanda has helped boost the economy and act as the main source of revenue for the country’s budget. This paper intended to study Nielsen and Spenceley (2010) research on the success story of tourism in Rwanda after the 1994 Tutsi genocide. The authors detailed the benefits of tourism in Rwanda and the challenges that remain.

This paper also studied different authors that agreed with the success of tourism Rwanda has achieved to redefine the country. Such benefits include job creation, infrastructure development and international exports. Besides the benefits, major concerns were brought up by various authors and organizations, such as poaching and rise in gorilla trekking prices. Poaching is a big threat to the gorillas and animal conservation that is seriously taken by the government of Rwanda. The government will not tolerate illegal activities that can harm the country’s main sources of revenue. The rise in gorilla trekking was surely a major concern by the visitors but the government of Rwanda insured its citizens that it was the right decision for the country in the long run.

In conclusion, tourism has helped Rwanda reshape its image after the atrocities of 1994. Rwanda today can be known for various contributions to the world economy and not just be popular due to the genocide. Tourism contribution to Rwanda’s GDP as stated by the World Travel and Tourism Council is expected to rise to 404.8 billion in 2018 which is a 5.7% rise from 5.2% in 2017. These numbers are just proof that the country has capitalized on its resources and positioning its self as a regional main attraction and travel destination.

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