Porter’s five forces of competition framework often determine the industry’s profitability based on how the five sources of competitive pressure integrate the rate of return on capital and cost of capital. According to Grant (2022), five forces of competitiveness comprise the three “horizontal” competition sources: competition from entrants, substitutes, and established competitors. The others are two vertical competition sources: the power of buyers and suppliers (Grant, 2022). These competition sources have many key structural variables that determine the strength of each competitive force. Thus, applying this model to the food industry and oil and gas sector could help determine which of the two is more profitable.
Competition from Substitutes
Research on the food sector using Porter’s five forces to examine how substitutes affect this industry showed that the substitute threat occurs because of stiff competition. When restaurants want to sustain their average checked pricing, they will likely retain loyal customers. However, this pattern changes when customers prefer or choose an alternative fast-food restaurant or eat home-made food (Grant, 2022). Likewise, switching to low costs could motivate customers to choose other restaurants or producers. More so, a high performance-to-cost ratio could signify that substitutes may intrigue its customers with less money. Unfortunately, when more customers shift to local cafeterias, bakeries, and home food, leading fast-food restaurants will decline in their bottom line. The food sector could mitigate substitute threats by emphasizing customer preferences (Adamkasi, 2022). Either rapid technological innovation, particularly in service delivery, such as wireless charging and table service, could efficiently attract kiosk customers and optimize their value.
On the other hand, the direct substitutes for producing energy for transportation, electricity, and heating are coal, hydrogen, nuclear energy and biofuels, and many other renewable energy sources. These substitutes could replace a significant measure of hydrocarbons in the global energy mix based on their quality, price, and performance (Adamkasi, 2017). Such an approach needs vast investments in the producing procedures and R&D. As a result; substitutes have little chance of controlling the energy mix until 2040.
Competition from New Entrants
The chances of new entrants entering the fast-food industry are high. According to studies, the fast-food sector has limited entry barriers and cheaper start-up costs for potential fast-food entrants. In this regard, the start-up cost in the fast-food sector is lower than what is required in other sectors (Gregory, 2022). Likewise, experience plays a more critical role in the fast-food sector than in the food itself. Thus, the fast food sector should identify new entrants that could pose a future threat. Contrastingly, the oil and gas sector has many entry barriers for new entrants. Besides colossal capital, the sector has stiff internal competition. The national oil firms manage 90% of the known oil and gas reserves. Likewise, oil and gas have volatile prices, and most of the sector’s reserves are in war or conflict-prone zones. Many national and international regulations could negatively impact new entrants (Adamkasi, 2018). Finally, the leading oil and gas firms could optimize their R&D expenditure and gain a competitive advantage. These and many other barriers prevent new entrants from accessing this sector.
A competitive approach with strong rivals could elevate the company’s competitiveness over its peers. The fast food sector has relatively high competition. This sector’s companies increase competitiveness through price adjustments, product differentiation, and quality improvements. More so, these firms capitalize on creative distribution elements and refine their relationship with their suppliers (Gregory, 2022). Whereas competing for the same customers increase rivalry, market expansion optimizes revenue. The oil and gas sector is competitive, particularly in the upstream section. This section comprises companies with the highest revenues and market capitalization. They include Royal Dutch Shell, Exxon Mobil, BP, Total, and others. In the mainstream, large-scale oil and gas firms increase competitive rivalry over small-scale firms in this sector (Adamkasi, 2018). As a result, companies struggle to maintain their profit margins because each firm matches its price based on the rivals’ prices and government regulations. Finally, accessing the oil and gas deposits increases competition among this sector’s firms and causes high competitor rivalry.
Buyers’ Bargaining Power
Influential customers increase their bargaining authority, forcing producers and retailers to reduce prices. In most cases, price-sensitive customers bring about this phenomenon. If clients have authority in the backward integration, they will get the bargaining authority and cause the reduction of food products. Unfortunately, this trend poses a significant threat to the company (Adamkasi, 2017). Therefore, the purchase decision could increase the bargaining authority because it stimulates buying. Customers with enhanced bargaining power can demand high-quality products, reasonable pricing, and great experiences. If the company refuses to reduce prices, customers may threaten to seek alternatives.
Customers in oil and gas buy petrol, fuel, and other related products. Oil producers control the pricing of petroleum and fuel products, leaving consumers with significant bargaining power. A slight factor can alter oil and gas product prices globally. For instance, increasing the cost of crude oil structure can increase gasoline prices globally and, in turn, impact all oil and gas customers (Adamkasi, 2017). That means consumers will pay suppliers’ prices because they lack the bargaining power to control them. This pattern means the oil and gas sector’s customers have limited bargaining power, thus leaving oil producers to influence pricing decisions.
Suppliers’ Bargaining Power
Suppliers’ bargaining authority is the opposite of the buyers’ bargaining authority. According to studies, suppliers’ bargaining power is the cost of a particular product or service. This force is significant in the food sector because suppliers influence its core operations. In most cases, meat-selling restaurants obtain raw materials from outside sources such as butchers, farmers, and packing firms instead of making their own (Gregory, 2022). In such a situation, food firms would choose suppliers based on their selling prices. As a result, some industries consider this force weak but can be beneficial. Chipotle distributes organic goods and meat free from antibiotics, charging product supply prices. Besides, the oil and gas suppliers have moderate bargaining authority. They comprise companies that extract crude oil and other valuables from the oil fields. The nature of their work gives them considerable bargaining authority in the sector’s dynamics (Grant, 2022). The contracts between local government agencies and suppliers give the latter robust bargaining power. However, the government influences few corporate decisions because the oil economies depend on the corporations’ operations.
Industrial Structural Features
Analyzing the food sector’s structural features using the five forces model revealed that classifying consumers based on demographics, psychographics, and behavior helps maximize sales and profitability. This approach allows primary fast-food firms to attract target consumers from their global outlets (Thomason, 2020). That may include investing in target customer segments and community initiatives to stimulate purchases and increase profits.
Significance of Industrial Structural Features
Based on Porter’s five forces, changing industrial structural features could disrupt the food and oil sectors’ distribution networks severely. This change could increase production costs and reduce the sector’s competitiveness and revenue generation. For instance, if the oil and gas sector disrupts its structural features, such as exploration, production distribution, and storage, it will disrupt its technical development (Thomason, 2020). That could reduce the demand while increasing the supply. Simultaneously, the food sector could increase its production cost and harm its competitive advantage alongside its economies.
The food sector drives 5% of America’s total GDP and employs 11% of the country’s population. More so, this sector contributes 10% of the consumer discretionary revenue. According to studies, the food sector’s 2023 revenue is $9.43 trillion, $ 700 billion more than in 2022. This sector’s revenue market growth projection is 10.60% CAGR between 2023 and 2040. In contrast, the oil and gas industry revenue will be $ 5 trillion in 2023. Despite the sector’s recent market growth, it derails the food sector by nearly $ 4 trillion in revenue. As a result, I consider the food sector more profitable than its counterpart.
The food and oil and gas sectors drive all the global economies. While examining the sectors’ environmental forces and performance indicators, Porter’s five forces model revealed that the food sector is more profitable than the oil and gas sector. Therefore, I believe the food sector is the best investment destination.
Adamkasi (2018). Porter’s five forces of the oil industry. Porter Analysis, December 15. https://www.porteranalysis.com/porters-five-forces-of-oil-industry/
Adamkasi (2017). Porter’s five forces model on the food industry. Porter Analysis, June 1. https://www.porteranalysis.com/porters-five-forces-model-of-food-industry/
Grant, M. R. (2022). Contemporary strategy analysis (11th Edition). Wiley Library, July 12. https://www.wiley.com/en-cy/Contemporary+Strategy+Analysis,+11th+Edition-p-9781119815211
Gregory, L. (2022). McDonald’s Five forces analysis (Porter’s Model) and Recommendations. Panmore Institute, June 22. https://panmore.com/mcdonalds-five-forces-analysis-porters-model
Statista (2023). Revenue of the worldwide food market between 2014-2017. Statista, March 2.
Thomason, J. (2020). The importance of industry structure for determination of a firm’s profitability. Chron, October 5. https://smallbusiness.chron.com/importance-industrya-structure-determination-firms-profitability-33862.html
Football As A Recreational Activity Writing Sample
Football is a recreational activity millions of people enjoy worldwide, whether as players or spectators. The sport creates a sense of community and healthy rivalry, promoting togetherness and sportsmanship. With a rich history and a global reach football, the recreational activity has grown into a phenomenon that includes professional leagues such as the English premier league, international tournaments such as the world cup, and passionate fans. While football focuses on the players and their skills, fan participation is also a crucial aspect of the football experience. Positive fan energy, passion, and a sense of belonging can contribute to the overall positive impact on society. However, the negative impact of football fandom must also be considered, as football fans can exhibit violent, discriminative, and financially exploitative behaviour.
It is essential to investigate the negative effects of football fandom, including violence, hooliganism, and race and ethnic tensions (Spaaij, 2008). Furthermore, the financial aspect of football, including economic abuse and corruption, as argued by (Di Ronco & Lavorgna, 2015) in the Italian Serie A football, can lead to the exploitation of vulnerable individuals and communities. This essay explores the positives and negatives of football fandom as a recreational activity and thus argues that while it can foster community and a sense of identity, it also has its problems that must be addressed. By delving into these impacts, this essay sheds light on the complexity of football fan participation and stimulates discussion on how to promote its positives and mitigate its negatives.
Football has its advantages and disadvantages, which affect fan involvement, even though it can be a very enjoyable recreational activity for fans. Fan involvement creates a feeling of belonging, promotes community spirit, and encourages physical fitness, and it can also encourage harmful behaviours like hooliganism, racism, and aggression. So, a balance must be struck to promote football as a recreational activity while also addressing the negative effects of fan involvement.
Positive impacts of fan participation in football:
Social interaction and community building
Football fans form a community, and as a result, they engage in socialization. Football fandom plays a significant role in fostering a sense of belonging and identity, which is crucial for emotional well-being, as pointed out (Kossakowski & Besta 2018). Football games offer a platform that enables spectators to connect with the clubs they support. The communal experience of attending football games fosters joy and celebration, which can have a powerful and positive impact. Football fandom can bring together people from different backgrounds and opinions, fostering social interaction and community building. Fans can use their shared passion for football to contribute positively to their communities and bring about social change. Football teams and their fans have collaborated in the fight against poverty, homelessness, and inequality and even brought peace in war-torn countries, demonstrating how the community-building aspect of football fandom can transform lives and communities (Rookwood & Palmer, 2011).
Emotional well-being and stress relief
Football fans have been found to experience stress relief and emotional well-being. According to (Wills et al., 2023), while analyzing 1,234 champions league matches from 2009/10 to 2018/19 across 32 nations, football fans are generally happier and more satisfied than non-fans, suggesting that football fandom may have a positive effect on mental health. (Yenilmez et al., 2020) Argues that football has stress-reducing properties; hence physical exercise, such as that involved in playing and fans’ vigor in football, releases endorphins, which ultimately help reduce stress and anxiety. The authors also found that football fans can alleviate stress and anxiety simply by watching a game. One study participant stated, “When I watch football, I forget everything else. I can forget my problems and savor the moment
Increased physical activity and fitness
(Yenilmez et al., 2020) while examining the psychometric properties in the Turkish football argues that playing football recreationally has many benefits for both players and spectators’ well-being. The author goes on to argue that football is a physically demanding activity, and participating in football has been found to increase flexibility, power, endurance, and cardiovascular fitness. Football supporters as well can engage in this physical exercise and maintaining their physical fitness by doing things like ascending stadium steps, cheering and waving flags during games, and walking to and from the stadium.
Negative impacts of fan participation in football:
Aggressive and violent behavior
While Exploring the Bedouin Syndrome in the Football Fan Culture (Nepomuceno et al., 2022) noted that fan violence is a significant issue associated with football, which can have adverse effects on both individuals and society at large. Some fans may get violent and engage in acts of vandalism, which can lead to harm and destruction. Research has narrowed down to alcohol, drugs and anger as factors that contribute to fan violence. (Football hooliganism, 2017) is an article which depicts the consequences of fan violence and argues that violence from spectators can be long-lasting and affect society in various ways such as death of a young boy in 2019, in a football-related violence in brazil. It is very important to note that fan violence may not necessarily be driven by alcohol or drugs, but political tensions, economic disparities, and religious differences may also play a role in football violence.
Fanatical obsession and addiction
In the article “Cool football fever before it kills your relationship” by (Bakken, 2011) explore the love of football love and argues that it can evolve into fanaticism and hence addiction, with some fans spending excessive amounts of time and money on their team, causing interference with their daily lives. According to both (Bakken, 2011) and (Football hooliganism, 2017) football hooliganism is the best example where violent football fandom is depicted and always grows from obsession, and that fans who exhibit signs of addiction, such as obsessing over their team and overspending, can suffer from anxiety and depression if their supposedly supported team loses.
Negative impact on mental health and well-being
The journal written by (Pringle, 2004) clearly supports that football fandom can have negative impacts on mental health. The authors argue that while it can be a fun and social activity, it can also cause negative emotions and behaviors that can harm mental health. For instance, football fandom may increase stress and anxiety levels. According to research conducted by the University of Montreal, fans’ cortisol levels increase after a loss, leading to feelings of frustration, disappointment, and rage. Additionally, football fandom may lead to worry, obsessiveness, and addiction. The University of Duisburg-Essen found that passionate football fans are more likely to exhibit addictive behaviors such as neglecting duties or experiencing withdrawal symptoms when unable to watch games, which can negatively impact mental health and well-being. Moreover, football fandom can cause low self-esteem and social comparison. The University of Sussex found that football fans who closely identified with their team and lost experienced a significant drop in self-esteem, which can result in depression and worthlessness. Finally, football fandom can lead to violence. Research by Cardiff University found that domestic violence rose by 38% after Wales lost a football match, indicating that football fandom can lead to hurtful and violent behaviors.
It can be concluded that football is more than just a sport since that millions of people worldwide enjoy since it promotes community and teamwork. Spectators in any football match are very crucial since they bring out the best experience from the particular match they participate, and therefore, based on both arguments that football fandom has both positive and negative effects on people and society, it’s benefits outweigh the negatives not only to the players but also to the fans and society. Positive fan energy, enthusiasm, and a sense of belonging can boost social interaction, peace building, community growth, emotional well-being, stress reduction, and finally physical fitness. Football fans form a community that can promote good social change, community spirit, and physical activity.
Football games can be harmful, though. Participation by fans can lead to animosity, prejudice, and fan-on-fan violence. Fanatical fixation and addiction can harm relationships and mental health. Thus, promoting football as a recreational activity and addressing fan participation’s negative impacts must be balanced. By balancing them, this is possible. Football fans face violence, hooliganism, racial and ethnic tensions, money abuse, and corruption. Investigating both the good and negative aspects of football fan participation can spark discussion on how to support the positives and mitigate the negatives.
Football fans can improve their lives and societies. It’s crucial to balance fan involvement with sport’s negative effects. Football can unite diverse groups and promote unity, which can improve society. Thus, to build a better society, we must mitigate the negative effects of following a football club and capitalize on its benefits. “Football is a beautiful game,” said Pele. It makes folks happy and unites them.” Let’s keep sharing the word about how great football is and how it can unite and bring joy to people.
Kossakowski, & Besta, T. (2018). Football, Conservative Values, and a Feeling of Oneness with the Group: A Study of Polish Football Fandom. East European Politics and Societies, 32(4), 866–891. https://doi.org/10.1177/0888325418756991
Spaaij. (2008). Men like us, boys like them: violence, masculinity, and collective identity in football hooliganism. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 32(4), 369–392. https://doi.org/10.1177/0193723508324082
Di Ronco, & Lavorgna, A. (2015). Fair play? Not so much: Corruption in the Italian football. Trends in Organized Crime, 18(3), 176–195. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12117-014-9233-9
Rookwood, & Palmer, C. (2011). Invasion games in war-torn nations: can football help to build peace? Soccer and Society, 12(2), 184–200. https://doi.org/10.1080/14660970.2011.548356
Wills, Addesa, F., & Tacon, R. (2023). Stadium attendance demand in the men’s UEFA Champions League: Do fans value sporting contest or match quality? PloS One, 18(2), e0276383–e0276383. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0276383
Yenilmez, Ersöz, G., Çınarlı, S., & Sarı, İ. (2020). Examination of the psychometric properties of the sport interest inventory in a sample of Turkish football spectators. Managing Sport and Leisure, 25(4), 246–258. https://doi.org/10.1080/23750472.2019.1708208
Nepomuceno, de Carvalho, V. D. H., Silva, L. C. e, de Moura, J. A., & Costa, A. P. C. S. (2022). Exploring the Bedouin Syndrome in the Football Fan Culture: Addressing the Hooliganism Phenomena through Networks of Violent Behavior. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(15), 9711–. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159711
Football hooliganism. (2017). In Routledge Handbook of Football Studies (pp. 380–390). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203066430-40
Bakken. (2011). Cool football fever before it kills your relationship. Uloop, Inc.
Pringle, A. (2004). Can watching football be a component of developing a state of mental health for men? The journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health, 124(3), 122-128.
Smith, J., & Nairn, A. With: Raffaello Rossi University of Bristol, Elliot Jones Demos, Chris Inskip University of Sussex.
Revisionist Westerns Genre Writing Sample
Revisionist Westerns, a subgenre that first appeared in the 1960s and 1970s, are best represented by Clint Eastwood’s Unforgiven (1992). The goals of revisionist Westerns were to question and trample on the genre’s established tropes. A retired outlaw, William Munny (Eastwood), is the movie Unforgiven’s main character. He is induced to leave seclusion to exact revenge on a man who beat a prostitute brutally.
Given that it challenges many of the established Western genre’s tropes, Unforgiven is a revisionist Western. In contrast to the glorified cowboy heroism prevalent in traditional Westerns, the movie’s main character is an anti-hero. Munny has an ethically questionable personality flaw and has murdered innocuous individuals in the past (Eastwood, 1992). Because the distinction between good and evil is hazy throughout the story, the movie also questions the moral relativism typical of the Western genre.
Subversion of Western Tropes:
Unforgiven is a self-aware Western that subverts many clichés present in classic Westerns by taking a revised stance. By depicting Munny as a flawed and mentally complicated character, the movie, for instance, questions the idea of the Western hero. When Munny informs the Schofield Kid that he is “not like he heard” and confesses to having killed innocent people, it is clear that he is subverting the Western hero trope (Eastwood, 1992). This revelation challenges the notion of the Western hero as a morally upright person who consistently does the right thing.
The “white hat” hero trope, in which the hero consistently dons a white cap to signify his moral rectitude, is also challenged in Unforgiven. Instead, the movie presents Little Bill Daggett, the primary antagonist, as a sheriff who dons a white hat but is anything but a moral exemplar. He is played by Gene Hackman (Eastwood, 1992). This subversion of the white hat cliché demonstrates the film’s readiness to question and undercut established Western norms.
Good and Evil’s Boundaries are Ambiguous:
By obscuring the distinction between goodness and wickedness, Unforgiven additionally questions the Western genre is overly moralistic outlook. The movie refuses to categorize its main protagonists according to straightforward good and evil concepts, instead portraying them as nuanced and uncertainly moral individuals. For instance, English Bob (Richard Harris), first presented as an honorable and gallant character, eventually becomes a ruthless and sadistic killer (Eastwood, 1992). Similar to Little Bill, who initially seems like a good lawman but whose brutality toward the prostitutes exposes his violent and misogynistic habits. The ethical ambiguity of the movie is also demonstrated by Munny, the protagonist who originally seeks vengeance but later develops sympathy and empathy for the prostitutes. His moral development and intricacy are demonstrated when he promises to give the prostitute Delilah (Anna Levine) the funds she needs for her kids.
The Western Genre’s Evolution:
Since the era of silent film, the Western genre has considerably changed. The 1950s and 1960s saw a peak in appeal for Westerns, initially produced as low-budget B-movies. Throughout this period, Westerns were viewed as promoting American principles and beliefs like hardy exclusivity, the significance of law and order, and the victory of righteousness against wickedness (Eastwood, 1992). The uncomplicated ethical behavior and stereotyped protagonists that had come to be identified with the Western genre, nevertheless, turned audiences and filmmakers off in the 1970s, which led to the genre’s decreasing appeal.
Unforgiven and the Revisionist Western: The movie also emphasizes the harsh and violent actuality of the West, as opposed to the sentimental depiction of the Western border in classic Westerns. Unforgiven’s brutal and violent sequences, including the prostitute’s torture, the sheriff’s killing, and the decisive shootout, are realistic and graphic. The film’s critique of the Western genre’s mythologizing of the West is strengthened by this reality. The portrayal of women in the Western genre is also subverted in Unforgiven. In traditional Westerns, women frequently play love interests, prostitutes, or damsels in trouble (Eastwood, 1992). Prostitutes are not depicted in Unforgiven as subjects of desire or sympathy. Instead, they are portrayed as strong, motivated people seeking retribution and justice. By showing women as powerful, independent people, the movie subverts the gender stereotypes of the Western genre.
Unforgiven is one of the revisionist Westerns questioning the American myth of the frontier as a site of opportunity and freedom. The movie portrays the West as an unruly, violent place where brutality rules paramount. The law enforcement organizations, including the sheriff, are portrayed as corrupt and ineffective, emphasizing the instability of the West even more. This critique of the frontier myth changes the traditional Western genre’s depiction of the West as a land of chance and hope. Therefore, unforgiven is a prime illustration of a revisionist Western that defies the rules of the standard Western genre (Eastwood, 1992). Strong female characters, an anti-hero protagonist, and realistic brutality in the movie challenge the romanticized and idealized depictions of the West in traditional Westerns. Revisionist Westerns, such as Unforgiven, challenge the mythologizing of the American frontier and the West to present a more complicated and nuanced picture of the Western frontier.
What conventional Western genre conventions is Unforgiven subverting, and how?
Unforgiven challenges the conventional Western genre norms in some ways. The main character of the movie, William Munny, is an anti-hero. Unlike the idealized cowboy hero of old-fashioned Westerns, Munny is a flawed and ethically dubious figure. Having murdered unsuspecting people in the past, he is a former outlaw who is still troubled by his crimes. The movie also criticizes the oversimplified values of the Western genre. The characters’ actions are motivated by complicated motives rather than straightforward ideas of right and wrong throughout the story, and the distinction between good and evil becomes increasingly hazy (Braudy & Cohen, 2014). The movie also challenges the Western genre’s tendency to glorify bloodshed. Unforgiven features brutal and explicit violence, and the protagonists’ deeds have genuine repercussions. The movie argues that violence is destructive and should not be praised because it has long-lasting effects.
The norms of the conventional Western genre are questioned and subverted in the revisionist Western Unforgiven. The film’s depiction of William Munny, a flawed and complicated character, subverts the Western hero trope. The fuzziness of good and evil challenges the overly moralistic trope of classic Westerns. The revisionist approach of Unforgiven distinguishes it from the trite and formulaic Westerns of the past, making it a significant work in the annals of the genre. The norms of the conventional Western genre are questioned and subverted in the revisionist Western Unforgiven. The film’s depiction of William Munny, a flawed and complicated character, subverts the Western hero trope. The fuzziness of good and evil challenges the overly moralistic trope of classic Westerns. The revisionist approach of Unforgiven distinguishes it from the trite and formulaic Westerns of the past, making it a significant work in the annals of the genre.
Braudy, L., & Cohen, M. (Eds.). (2004). Film theory and criticism (6th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. (pp. 691–702).
Eastwood, C. (Director). (1992). Unforgiven. United States: Warner Bros. Pictures.