Forensic Psychology Within Criminal Justice System Free Writing Sample

Integrating mental health expertise into law practice is vital to improving the efficiency of the criminal justice system of all countries globally. Most nations rely on clinical psychiatry to evaluate the mental state of criminal offenders linked to high-degree cases like murder, which is crucial for determining sanity and deciding whether they should stand trial. Forensic psychology has provided the requisite expert witness observations to the ongoing judicial cases helping the teams unearth the cognitive and psychological trends needed to prosecute and issue judgment. Significantly, the criminal justice system relies on the knowledge and expertise of forensic psychology to alter and change various societal trends, such as teenage delinquency and crime involvement, strategically offering solutions to various community-related challenges linked to law enforcement and security. The study synthesis the role of forensic psychology in improving the efficiency of the criminal justice system, highlighting some of the challenges experienced when integrating psychiatry with law.

The judicial system is responsible for establishing if a suspect is mentally fit to stand trial. The court of law refers to assessing the competency to stand trial, seeking out any intellectual disorder that could create a barrier to the justice process in the forensic psychology unit (Mosotho et al., 2020). Criminal acts are deliberate, and perpetrators independently engage in such acts knowing the consequences if the law catches them. There are instances where criminal offenders camouflage with any mental-related issue to prevent severe punishment befitting the crime. A forensic psychologist is integral in establishing genuine cases of mental disability through an evidence-based led psychiatric evaluation process using diagnostic tools. For instance, if an offender is diagnosed with an intellectual disability, the evaluation suggests that they have severe limitations to intellectual functioning and the requisite adaptive behavior to distinguish lawful from unlawful acts (Mosotho et al., 2020). The forensic psychologist, in that instance, will have established the grounds for the trial and could offer an expert suggestion on rehabilitative measures for the court to consider when issuing a judgment. In that case, forensic psychology is integral in evaluating the mental capability of a criminal offender to stand trial.

Besides determining a person’s mental competency to stand trial, forensic psychology is vital in providing care, rehabilitation models, and expertise for criminals with mental disorders. According to Kennedy (2022). forensic psychology has evolved in the context of the criminal justice system in terms of operational structures, processes, and procedures organized into formal care models and practices. Forensic psychologists are not prosecutors, but they are tasked with caring for the offenders’ mental well-being. Other criminal justice proceedings can be carried out when an offender is declared mentally fit. However, it is not the case for an offender diagnosed with a mild or severe mental health complication. Forensic psychology is equipped to provide efficient care and treatment for individuals with severe mental disorders considered dangerous to themselves or others (Kennedy, 2022). An expert will determine a person’s dangerousness by combining the risk arising from the mental state with the seriousness of the resulting harm (Kennedy, 2022). In that case, a forensic psychologist is tasked with protecting an offender diagnosed with a severe mental complication from harming themselves or others.

Also, forensic psychology plays a role in providing an expert explanation to some mentally disturbing cases within the criminal justice system. Crimes like filicide, where a parent murder their child through decapitation, are mentally disturbed by the jury (Tiffon, 2021). In most cases, the jury or prosecuting team deems such cases as not requiring a trial as the perpetrator is considered guilty. However, the offender likely has an underlying psychotic condition crucial for explaining their actions. Under no normal circumstance that a parent will murder their child through decapitation, and if such an offender is taken to prison, they are likely to expose other inmates to severe physical torture or even death. Tiffon (2021) identified a filicide case where the perpetrator cited that an evil spirit possessed the child. Such cases have relevant community and media attention and place the court on public trial depending on how the trial is conducted and the judgment rendered. Thus, forensic psychology plays a crucial role in eliminating public psychological tension, especially if the offender has a psychotic disorder. A psychological evaluation will help explain the reasons for committing such mentally disturbing crimes by the offender.

When it comes to caring for criminal offenders with severe mental disorders, forensic psychology is vital in protecting them from self-harm or posing a danger to other people. Secure forensic facilities are designed with therapeutic security, specialist management, governance coordination, physical security, and procedural security (Kennedy, 2022). Specifically, forensic psychologist experts are ideal for designing the physical structures and environment to reinforce the desired rehabilitation process for criminals with severe mental disorders (Kennedy, 2022). As much as the law enforcement agency has the requisite personnel and resources to isolate offenders from the general population, there is a need for expert management of people with severe psychotic conditions. There is a need for a procedural routine of movement within these facilities, treatment of the identified conditions within the affected population, including other therapeutic procedures needed to care for them. Thus, forensic psychology has the expertise to manage and govern the rehabilitation of the mentally insane criminal population.

The legal and psychological fields have work-based challenges that must be identified to improve efficiency. Given that forensic psychology specializes in giving clinical services and knowledge to improve the efficiency of the criminal judicial system, experts are likely to encounter patient-based challenges. Pirelli et al. (2020) identify problems such as vicarious trauma and compassion fatigue as issues that can make forensic psychologists inefficient in an active criminal procedure (Pirelli et al., 2020). By definition, vicarious trauma entails the mental instability a psychologist suffers when a patient retells a traumatizing event (Pirelli et al., 2020). For instance, it is mentally traumatizing for a psychologist when a parent narrates how they chopped off their child’s head in filicide criminal cases. Most practitioners are parents and cannot withstand the thought of such an event happening to someone they know. On the other hand, compassion fatigue is a mental and physical symptom that develops when a psychologist is exposed to severe indirect trauma (Pirelli et al., 2020). Forensic psychologist encounters unconventional forms of mental health practices, with most of them criminally confined. Practitioners must learn the difficulties encountered to develop maladaptive behavior to counter them and improve efficiency.

Forensic psychology plays an integral role in improving the efficiency of the criminal justice system. First, forensic psychologist establishes an offender’s mental competency and cognitive efficiency to stand trial for high-degree criminal cases. Also, the unit is integral in equipping the criminal justice system with the needed expertise to rehabilitate offenders diagnosed with various psychotic conditions. Forensic psychology provides an evidence-based explanation for mentally disturbing cases to ease public tension castigated by the community and media. Still, experts in this field should be aware of the challenges like vicarious trauma and compassion fatigue that can jeopardize their expert abilities not to be biased. Forensic psychology is critical to coordinating, governing, and managing all the psychiatric needs of the criminal justice system, especially with psychotic offenders and offenses.


Kennedy, H, G. (2022). Models of care in forensic psychiatry. BJPsych Advances, 28(1), 46-59,

Pirelli, G., Formon, D, L., & Maloney, K. (2020). Preventing vicarious trauma (VT), compassion fatigue (CP), and burnout (BO) in forensic Mental Health: Forensic psychology as exemplar. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 1-15,

Mosotho, N, L., Bambo, D., Mkhombo, T., Mgidlana, C., Motsumi, N., Matlhabe, T., Joubert, G., & Roux, H, E. (2020). Demographic, clinical, and forensic profiling of alleged offenders diagnosed with an intellectual disability. Journal of Forensic Psychology Research and Practice, 20(4), 362-376,

Tiffon, B, N. (2021). Criminal and forensic psychology of a case of filicide by decapitation of a minor. Journal of Forensic Medicine, 6(3), 191-203,

Individual Report – McDonald’s UK Sample College Essay

Executive Summary

This social media marketing plan seeks to help McDonald’s UK achieve its corporate objectives by focusing greatly on its rewards app. By conducting a situation analysis, stating objectives, gathering insights into the target audience, selecting social media zones and vehicles, creating an experience strategy, establishing an action plan, and measuring performance, this plan offers a roadmap for McDonald’s UK to enhance its digital presence and growth through social media marketing over the next six months.


McDonald’s is a world fast-food chain with a strong base in the UK market. The company has an online presence but seeks practical suggestions on enhancing its digital growth in the UK through social media marketing over the next six months. This plan aims to analyze the market sector, set clear social media marketing objectives, select a target audience, offer strategies to achieve objectives, detail the action plans, and illustrate how to measure the plan’s success. This plan aims to increase brand awareness, customer engagement, and sales through effective social media strategies. The plan draws on academic theories and models to offer recommendations that will result in the continuous success of the McDonald’s My Rewards app and the company’s digital presence in the UK.

Part 1: Conduct a situation Analysis and Identify Key Opportunities

To establish a comprehensive social media marketing plan for McDonald’s My Rewards in the UK market, it is important to thoroughly analyze the company’s internal and external environment. This will foster a clear understanding of the current state of the organization and its position in the market, which will assist in identifying crucial opportunities and challenges for social media marketing (Bradley and McDonald, 2011).

Internal Environment

McDonald’s is a global fast-food chain boasting a strong brand identity and corporate culture focused on innovation, quality, consistency, and customer satisfaction. The company has a known history of embracing new technologies and has been a positive adopter of social media platforms (Rowley, 2004). The company’s corporate culture supports transparent and decentralized social media norms, which is crucial in implementing effective marketing plans (Rowley, 2004). The company has a strong online presence and uses various marketing activities that can be leveraged for social media marketing. These include an existing customer loyalty program, My McDonald’s Rewards, and email marketing that can be leveraged for social media marketing.

Additionally, the company has sufficient resources to allocate to social media activities. McDonald’s has hard-working teams for digital marketing, ready to support social media marketing activities. Furthermore, the company has already formulated policies and procedures to handle social media activities and use by its employees.

External Environment

McDonald’s boasts of its wide customer base in the UK, comprising both young and old demographics. According to a study by Alalwan et al. l. (2017), 66% of the UK are social media users. This allows the company to cover a wider audience through social media marketing. The company faces stiff competition from competitors like Burger King, Subway, and KFC. These competitors already have operational social media in their marketing and communication plans, highlighting the significance of incorporating social media marketing into the company’s overall marketing strategy (Cassidy et al. l., 2021). Regarding the macro environment, several key trends influence the company’s decisions regarding social media marketing. These key trends in the macro environment (PESTEL) include rising demand for delivery services, changing consumer behavior towards healthier food options because of the pandemic, increased environmental awareness and sustainability, and the effect of Brexit on the economy of the UK (Vrontis, and Pavlou, 2008).

SWOT Analysis


Based on the analysis, McDonald’s social media marketing strengths include its large customer base, established customer loyalty program, strong brand identity and recognition, a corporate culture that supports social media, strong online presence and established marketing activities, and dedicated digital teams that support marketing (Gascón et al. l. 2017).


The company’s weaknesses include a lack of proper engagement and experience with its clients on social media and more dependence on traditional marketing channels (Gascón et al. l., 2017).


Opportunities for the fast-food company include increasing engagement with customers through social media because of the widespread usage of social media in the UK, leveraging the rewards program and increase in customer engagement through social media, wider audience through social media marketing, and the increasing trend towards health food options, which can be promoted through social media marketing (Gascón et al. l. 2017).


Threats include negative publicity and customer feedback on social media, stiff competition from other fast-food chains, negative impacts of Brexit on the UK economy, and shifting consumer preferences towards healthier food options (Gascón et al. l., 2017).

In short, conducting a rigorous analysis of the internal and external environment has offered valuable insight into the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of McDonald’s My Rewards app in the UK market. This analysis will set out a foundation for recognizing key opportunities and challenges for social media marketing which will be detailed in the following sections of this plan (Wald, 2018).

Part 2: State Objectives

The TOWS analysis lays out a framework for analyzing the external and internal environment of the company, identifying its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. The social media marketing plan should include objectives that are Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-bound (SMART).


  1. Increase adoption of the McDonald’s Rewards app rate by 20% in the next six months through social media marketing.
  2. Increase customer engagement and loyalty by establishing and sharing valuable content on McDonald’s social media platforms, contributing to a 15% increase in customer retention over the next six months.
  3. Improve brand awareness by reaching out to new audiences through influencer marketing, leading to a 10% increase in brand reach in the next six months.

Corporate Objectives

The company has corporate objectives that must be linked to its social media marketing objectives to ensure alignment.

  1. To continue growing and expanding the brand worldwide
  2. To increase customer satisfaction and experience
  3. To become the globe’s most dominant brand
  4. To increase revenue and profitability.

Linking Corporate Objectives to Social Media Marketing Objectives

  1. The first social media marketing objective aligns with the company’s corporate objective of increasing revenues and profitability. By increasing the adoption rate of the McDonald’s Rewards app, the company can generate more revenues and increase customer loyalty, which aligns with its corporate objective (Shareef et al. l., 2019).
  2. The second social media marketing objective aligns with McDonald’s corporate objective of improving customer satisfaction and experience. By creating valuable content and engaging with customers on social media platforms, the company can improve the customer experience and increase customer retention, which aligns with the corporate objective.
  3. The third social media marketing objective aligns with McDonald’s corporate objective of becoming the world’s most dominant brand. By reaching out to new audiences through influencer marketing, the company can increase its brand awareness and reach, which aligns with the corporate objective (Coursaris, Van Osch, and Balogh, 2020).

Part 3: Gather Insights into Target Audience

Demographic Characteristics

McDonald’s target audience is diverse, combining both the young and the old, considering the brand’s popularity and its appeal to a wide range of people. The population of people who uses social media is huge and cuts across all age bracket (Chaffey et al. l., 2009). Therefore, the target audience for the company is diverse, with everyone who prefers fast food and convenience. The popular company targets families with young children seeking affordable fast-food options.

Psychographic Characteristics

The company is creating a social media marketing plan that understands its target audience’s values, interests, and lifestyles. The fast-food chain appeals to those looking for affordable and convenient food options, and who value speed and efficiency. It also appeals to persons who enjoy indulging in fast food as a treat and those who do not concern with healthy eating.

Behavioral Characteristics

McDonald’s has a high brand loyalty among its customers who visit the restaurant often and recommend it to their family and friends. The fast-food is also popular among people seeking quick and easy meal options and who are not concerned with trying new things (Miller et al. l. 2016).

Social Media Habits

Younger people in the UK are more active on social media platforms like TikTok, Instagram, and Facebook (Chaffey and Ellis-Chadwick, 2016). Families with young children are more likely to use Twitter, YouTube, and Facebook. Therefore, the social media platforms to be used for the marketing plan are Facebook, Tik Tok, Instagram, Twitter, and YouTube.

Part 4: Select Social Media Zones and Vehicles

After identifying the target audience, the next step is to select the appropriate social media zones and vehicles that will be in use to achieve the social media marketing objectives for McDonald’s My Rewards app. Social media is categorized into four zones, including owned media (rewards app), paid media (social media advertising), shared media (user-generated content), and earned media (public relations) (De Vries, Gensler, and Leeflang, 2012). Each zone has distinct characteristics, benefits, and drawbacks that should be considered when selecting the most effective mix of zones and channels to reach the target audience.

Owned Media

Owned media involves the content and channels that a company has complete control over, such as its website and social media profiles (De Vries, Gensler, and Leeflang, 2012). In this case, McDonald’s My Rewards App will use its media to promote the app and its benefits to the target audience. The channels that will be used under this zone comprise of:

Facebook Page: The Facebook page for McDonald’s My Rewards App will promote the app, engage with the target audience, and share the latest news. McDonald’s will be able to use its Facebook page to run contests, giveaways, and pictures of food and promotions to ensure that the audience is well engaged (Hutter et al. l., 2013).

Twitter: Twitter is an excellent platform for sharing quick updates and interacting with clients. McDonald’s can use Twitter to respond to inquiries from customers, drive traffic to the company website and share its promotions (Hutter et all. 2013).

Instagram; Instagram is a visually-driven platform ideal for sharing food-related content (Hutter et al. l., 2013). McDonald’s can use its Instagram to share user-generated content, display its menu items and post behind-the-scenes content.

Paid Media

Paid media involves advertising a company pays for to promote its products and services. This zone allows McDonald’s to target a specific audience with precision and achieve results in a short span (Ardiansyah and Sarwoko, 2020). The channels that will be used under this zone comprise;

Facebook; Facebook provides various advertising options, including sponsored posts, carousel ads as well as video ads (Zailskaitė-Jakštė and Kuvykaitė, 2016). The company can use Facebook ads to target specific demographics such as individuals who have indicated an interest in fast food or those who have used McDonald’s app before.

Google Ads; Google Ads presents opportunities for companies to display their ads to people actively looking for specific keywords. McDonald’s can use Google Ads to target people looking for fast food or related keywords.

Earned Media

Earned media is the publicity that a company receives through word-of-mouth or social sharing (Plidtookpai and Yoopetch, 2021). This zone can be challenging to control, but it can also be very effective. The channels that will be used under this zone include;

User-generated content: Encouraging users to create content and share their experiences with the app on social media can create public publicity and word-of-mouth promotion. McDonald’s can incentivize users to create and share content using a branded hashtag or by offering rewards (Plidtookpai and Yoopetch, 2021).

Shared Media

Shared media is the content that users on social media platforms share. According to Poulis, Rizomyliotis, and Konstantoulaki (2019), this zone can be very effective because it permits companies to reach a wider audience than they could. The channels that will be used under this zone include;

Influencer marketing: McDonald’s can collaborate with social media influencers to promote the app and create buzz among their followers. Poulis, Rizomyliotis, and Konstantoulaki (2019) argue that the company can acquire a large audience and establish credibility by partnering with influencers with a similar target audience.


To measure the success of the social media marketing plan, the company’s My Rewards App will have to track key metrics such as click-through, engagement, and conversion rates. Social media analytics tools such as Google Analytics, Hootsuite, and Sprout Social can be used to track these metrics and offer insights into the effectiveness of the social media marketing plan (Dennhardt, 2006).

Part 5: Create and Experience Strategy Encompassing Selected Zones

McDonald’s has already established a communication strategy to promote its rewards app, which gives its clients discounts, promotions, and exclusive deals. To support and extend this communication strategy, the company will establish social media activities that further promote the rewards app (Aji, Nadhila, and Sanny, 2020). This will comprise running social media campaigns highlighting the app’s features, sharing the testimonials of customers and reviews, and partnering with social media influencers to showcase and promote the app’s benefits.

In addition to promoting the McDonald’s rewards app, the company will also use social media to respond to customer inquiries and complaints. By offering prompt and needed responses to clients on social media platforms, McDonald’s can increase customer satisfaction and establish stronger brand loyalty.

The key message for McDonald’s My Rewards app will be tailored to offer value and convenience to customers. The company has established brand equity; therefore, social media activities should focus on how the app can make it easier and more rewarding for clients to engage with the brand. Therefore, the key theme will focus on rewards, exclusive offers, personalized experiences, and customer satisfaction. By continually emphasizing these themes across all the social media channels, the company can establish a cohesive brand message that augurs well with its target audience (DÜLEK and Aydin, 2020).

To ensure that the social media marketing plan is effective, the company will align the zones used and other promotional tools to support each other (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010). This explains why McDonald’s will be careful when selecting the social media zones that best align with the company objectives and harmoniously employ each zone to achieve its goals. For example, McDonald’s may use paid media to cover a large audience, owned media to engage with current customers, shared media to encourage user-generated content, and earned media to create credibility and trust.

The company will embrace social media reminders in advertising messages, in-store displays, and other venues to promote the rewards app and encourage clients to engage with the brand on social media. This could encompass showing social media handles and hashtags in store, including calls to action in advertising messages, and motivating customers to share their experiences on social media by providing exclusive discounts or promotions (Krasnova et all. 2019). McDonald’s will also use the data collected from the app to personalize the offers and rewards for each user making a more relevant and valuable experience for the clients. McDonald’s will also employ a gamification technique to motivate social media users to engage with the app on a frequent basis. This technique will encompass earning points, unlocking badges, and completing challenges.

Part 6: Establish an Action Plan, Manage and Measure

To come up with an action plan and manage and measure the success of the social media marketing plan for McDonald’s My Rewards app, the following steps will be considered.

Timing of Elements; The tactics for the six-month plan will be implemented in the following series.

  • Month 1: Research and analysis of the market sector and competition. Developing the social media marketing plan and strategy.
  • Month 2-3: Creating and designing social media content, visuals, and graphics for the Rewards app, promotions, and campaigns. Developing the social media calendar.
  • Month 4-5: Launching social media marketing campaign across the selected channels and vehicles. Here there will be a thorough engagement with clients through social media platforms.
  • Month 6: Analyzing results of the campaign and adjusting the social media marketing plan based on feedback and findings.

Responsibility: Responsibilities will be assigned to team members and clients in the following manner.

  • Project Manager: Will be responsible for overall project management, effective communications, and ensuring effective collaborations between team members and customers.
  • Social Media Specialist: Will be in charge of creating and executing the social media marketing plan, designing the contents of social media, and maintaining constant engagement with clients on social media platforms.
  • Content Writer: Will be tasked to create engaging social media content like stories, posts, and captions.
  • Client: Will be expected to give feedback and reviews on the social media marketing plan and collaborate well with the team.

Performance Measurement: To measure the actual performance of the social media marketing plan, the below metrics will be applied.

  • Reach the number of social media users who have seen the social media content.
  • Engagement rate: the number of comments, likes, shares, and clicks on social media content.
  • Conversion: the number of people who download the rewards app, sign up for the rewards program or make a buy using the rewards app.
  • Sentiment Analysis; checking and measuring the sentiment of social media mentions that relate to McDonald’s and the rewards app.
  • Return on Investment (ROI): Calculating the financial returns based on the investment in social media marketing.

Social Media Monitoring and Response: The following tools will be used to help monitor and respond to social media mentions.

  • Hootsuite: a social media management tool that permits the team to monitor and respond to mentions in social media and messages from a specific platform (Mangold and Faulds, 2019).
  • Google Alerts: This is a free tool that sends email alerts to the team whenever specific keywords related to the company or the rewards app are mentioned on the website.
  • Facebook Insights and YouTube Analytics: These tools will provide detailed metrics on social media content and campaign performance.

Key Takeaways

The key takeaways of the social media marketing plan for McDonald’s My Rewards App include:

  • Focus on customer engagement and satisfaction by having a quick responses to inquiries and complaints on social media promptly. This will improve the loyalty of customers and the reputation of the brand.
  • Establish a strong and consistent social media presence that advances the rewards app and provides special deals and discounts to clients. This will attract new clients and improve app downloads.
  • Target millennials and Gen Z through social media platforms such as Instagram, TikTok, Facebook, and Twitter because they are most active on these platforms.
  • Use social media analytics tools like YouTube analytics and Facebook Insights to measure the performance of the plan and track key performance indicators (KPIs) like app downloads, engagement rate, and ROI.
  • Create an action plan with clear timelines and responsibilities to guarantee the successful implementation of the plan.
  • Incorporate social reminders in advertising messages, in-store displays, gamification techniques, and other venues to reinforce the key message/theme of the rewards app and the satisfaction of the customer.

By implementing these key takeaways, the company, My Rewards App, can expect to realize an increase in customer engagement and loyalty, improve brand equity, more app downloads, and overall improvement in the performance of McDonald’s company.


This social media marketing plan for McDonald’s UK is a comprehensive roadmap that seeks to enhance the company’s digital presence and growth through effective social media marketing strategies. The plan is divided into six parts, each of which plays a significant role in realizing the overall goals and objectives of increasing brand awareness, customer engagement, and sales.

Part 1 provides an introduction to McDonald’s company and its goal for this social media marketing plan. McDonald’s is looking for practical suggestions on how to advance its digital growth in the UK market through social media marketing over the next six months.

Part 2 outlines the TOWS analysis framework used to analyze the internal and external environments of the company. This analysis presents valuable insight into the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of McDonald’s My Rewards App in the UK market. The smart objectives highlighted in this part are specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound.

Part 3 suggests gathering insights into the target audience for McDonald’s. By developing an understanding of the needs and preferences of this target audience, McDonald’s can tailor its social media strategies and plans to engage them effectively.

Part 4 focuses on selecting social media zones and vehicles that are best appropriate for reaching the company’s target audience. This includes platforms like Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and YouTube.

Part 5 establishes an experience strategy that highlights the manner in which the company will engage with its target audience through various social media channels. This includes creating engaging content like videos, images, polls, quizzes, and other interactive features.

Part 6 creates an action plan that details how every aspect of this social media marketing plan will be carried out over the next six months. It also highlights the measures of success using metrics like engagement rates on social media platforms.

In terms of cost, implications plan for this plan; it is key to consider that while some aspects may require additional resources of budget allocations, like hiring a competent social media team or investing in paid advertising, a good number of the strategies highlighted in this plan can be implemented with minimal costs.

Overall, McDonald’s plays a significant role in the success of this marketing plan. The company must have a proper commitment to executing every aspect of the plan through the provision of the required resources to guarantee success. By following this comprehensive roadmap to the latter, McDonald’s can advance its digital presence and growth through effective social media strategies over the next six months.


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Cavoodle Capers Pty Ltd Sample Essay


Cavoodle Capers Pty Ltd is a small enterprise located on the outskirts of Sydney. It specializes in breeding and selling cavoodles, a small dog breeds popular among dog-loving Sydneysiders. The business succeeded from early 2020 until early 2022 but experienced a decline in demand in 2022 as the pandemic subsided and people turned their attention back to their everyday lives. Josie, the owner of Cavoodle Capers Pty Ltd, is concerned about the impact of macroeconomic conditions, such as rising mortgage interest rates, on her business. In order to turn around the flagging fortunes of Cavoodle Capers Pty Ltd, Josie seeks a strategy based on a thorough environmental scan/research.


Josie, the owner of Cavoodle Capers Pty Ltd, faced several challenges in her company. There was a decline in the demand for cavoodles. Covoodles demand has decreased steadily since the end of 2022(Wilson et al.; 2021). The decline was possible because of the changing circumstance around the pandemic and rising mortgage interest rates. This affected families’ ability to afford pets.

Josie also faced a Lower average selling price. she had to sell some less popular black pups at a lower price of $1,500 each, compared to the average selling price of $3,500 for golden-brown pups (Roos, et al; 2018). This resulted in reduced revenue hence being a challenge to the company.

The unknown colour of the upcoming litter was another challenge to Josie. She had two upcoming litters with pups of unknown colour (Manakhov et al., 2021). She expects a fair percentage of them to be black, which may affect the average selling price and demand for those pups.

Key opportunities

Despite the challenges, Josie has opened key opportunities for her company. She has a good number of pups available from the upcoming litters. They can be an opportunity to boost sales and revenue. Josie also has a history of happy pet-loving clients recommending her business through word-of-mouth, which can be leveraged to generate repeat business and referrals. She also has been using Facebook for simple posts to promote her business, which can be further expanded to reach a wider audience and generate more sales.

Proposed Strategy for Turnaround

By implementing the following strategies, Josie can overcome the challenges faced by Cavoodle Capers Pty Ltd and work towards a turnaround in the business.

Josie can explore breeding and selling more diverse colours of cavoodles, including black pups, to cater to different customer preferences and increase demand. This can be achieved by selectively breeding her dogs to produce various colours in each litter.

She can also enhance her marketing and promotion efforts beyond Facebook by utilizing other social media platforms, creating a website, and implementing targeted online advertising campaigns. This can help reach a wider audience and generate more inquiries and sales.

Lastly, she can implement a customer retention and referral program to incentivize her existing happy clients to refer new customers to her business.

Environmental scan

To conduct an environmental scan for Cavoodle Capers Pty Ltd, the following methodology was employed:

Literature Review

A literature review was conducted on the pet industry, pet ownership trends, and macroeconomic factors affecting small businesses (Barnard, Arias & Thielemans, 2021). To gather information on the current state of the pet industry, consumer preferences, and economic trends, we used academic journals, industry reports, and reputable online sources for the review.

Industry Reports

Market research reports, and industry analyses from reputable sources such as IBISWorld, Statista, and American Pet Products Association (APPA) were reviewed to gather data and insights on the pet industry, including trends, growth rates, and challenges. As recorded by Applebaum, Peek, & Zsembik, B. A. (2020)

Government and Economic Data

The data used to determine macroeconomic indicators such as interest rates, consumer spending, and consumer sentiment was collected from Official government sources such as the Australian Bureau of Statistics and the Reserve Bank of Australia.

News and Media Sources

News articles, press releases, and industry news from reliable sources were reviewed to gather current information on the pet industry, consumer trends, and economic conditions.

Key findings

  1. The decline in demand for cavoodles in 2022 was attributed to multiple factors. These factors include the subsiding of the pandemic, changing consumer preferences, and macroeconomic conditions.
  2. Rising mortgage interest rates can affect the purchasing power of families, leading to decreased income for discretionary spending, including pet ownership. This could be a contributing factor to the declining demand for cavoodles.
  3. Consumer preferences for pet breeds can change over time, influenced by factors such as fashion trends, lifestyle changes, and affordability. The popularity of certain dog breeds, including cavoodles, can fluctuate, which could impact demand.
  4. The pet industry, including the market for cavoodles, could be reaching saturation, with an increasing number of breeders and sellers entering the market. This could increase competition and pricing pressures, affecting demand and profitability.
  5. The demand for puppies, including cavoodles, could be influenced by seasonal factors, such as the timing of litters and the availability of puppies. Understanding and managing the timing of litter and sales could maximize demand and profitability.

Central aim

The central aim is to revive and sustain the success of Cavoodle Capers Pty Ltd by increasing sales and profitability despite changing market conditions.

Smart Objectives:

Increasing sales by 20% in the next 12 months is a specific objective, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART). It focuses on increasing sales, the critical indicator of business success. The target of 20% is realistic and achievable within the timeframe of 12 months.

Diversify product offerings by introducing new colour variations. It is specific and relevant. It aims to address the issue of black cavoodle pups being undervalued by diversifying the product offerings with new colour variations. This will attract a broader customer base and increase sales.

Enhancing marketing and promotional efforts. It is specific, measurable, and time-bound. It aims to improve the marketing and promotional efforts of Cavoodle Capers Pty Ltd, considering that more than the previous reliance on Facebook posts and word-of-mouth recommendations may be required. Specific strategies such as social media advertising, website optimization, and targeted campaigns can be implemented.

Building customer’s customers is another specific, measurable, and relevant objective. It aims to focus on customer retention which is crucial in sustaining sales and profitability. To achieve this objective, strategies such as implementing a customer loyalty program, providing excellent customer service, and maintaining regular communication with existing customers.

Conceptual work frame

I propose a market diversification strategy and a customer-centric approach to turn around the fortunes of Cavoodle Capers Pty Ltd. This strategy will focus on several key concepts.

Market diversification

To mitigate the impact of changing market dynamics and declining demand for golden-brown cavoodle pups, Cavoodle Capers Pty Ltd needs to diversify its market. This can be achieved by targeting new customer segments and expanding geographically beyond Sydney (Kuzma & Sehnem, 2023). Josie can explore markets in other cities or regions where the demand for cavoodles may still be strong. This could involve tailoring marketing strategies and messaging to appeal to these different customer segments and offering specialized services or packages that cater to their specific needs and preferences. This can be supported by market research and analysis to identify potential markets with favourable demographics and socio-economic conditions for pet ownership.

Product Differentiation

Josie can focus on product differentiation to address the issue of black cavoodle pups being undervalued. She can promote the unique features and qualities of black cavoodles to create a niche market for them. This can be achieved through targeted marketing campaigns that highlight the distinctive traits of black cavoodles, such as their rarity, intelligence, and adaptability. Josie can also consider offering special promotions or discounts for black cavoodles to incentivize their purchase. (Hobbs, & Shanoyan, 2018). By offering unique and differentiated products or services, emphasizing value-added features or services, and showcasing social and environmental responsibility, the business can differentiate itself from competitors, attract customers, and gain a competitive advantage.

Customer Engagement and Retention

Josie needs to focus on customer engagement and retention to strengthen customer loyalty and attract new customers. She can invest in building a solid online presence through social media platforms, a dedicated website, and regular email newsletters to keep customers informed about new litter, promotions, and events. Josie can also establish a customer loyalty program that rewards repeat customers and encourages referrals. Providing excellent customer service, personalized experiences, and after-sales support can enhance customer satisfaction and retention.

Breeding Management

To optimize the breeding program and ensure a consistent supply of desirable cavoodle pups, Josie needs to manage her breeding operations carefully. This includes monitoring the pregnancy cycles of her bitches, planning the timing of litter to align with peak demand periods, and managing the colour variations in litters to meet customer preferences(Ertemel et al., 2021). Josie can also consider collaborating with veterinary experts or geneticists to selectively breed cavoodles with desired traits, including colour, size, and temperament, to cater to specific market segments.

Economic Analysis

As Josie suspects that macroeconomic conditions, such as rising mortgage interest rates, may be affecting demand for cavoodles, she needs to conduct a thorough economic analysis to understand the potential impact on her business. This may involve studying consumer spending patterns, disposable income trends, and overall economic indicators to identify any correlations or trends that may affect demand for cavoodles (Dessbesell, et al., 2019). Based on the findings, Josie can develop pricing strategies, payment plans, or financing options that align with her target customers’ economic conditions and affordability.

The conceptual drivers of this strategy are market diversification, product differentiation, customer engagement and retention, breeding management, and economic analysis. The concepts are interrelated and reinforce each other to create coherency. Customer engagement and retention are crucial for building customer loyalty and repeat business, which can be supported by effective breeding management to ensure a consistent supply of desirable cavoodle pups (Grajfoner, Ke, & Wong, 2021). The economic analysis is a foundation for understanding market conditions and making strategic decisions related to pricing, promotions, and financing options.

The proposed strategy of market diversification, product differentiation, customer engagement and retention, breeding management, and economic analysis aims to address the challenges faced by Cavoodle Capers Pty Ltd and turn around its fortunes. By implementing a customer-centric approach and leveraging critical concepts from the course and beyond, Cavoodle Capers Pty Ltd can adapt to changing market dynamics, enhance customer loyalty, and optimize its breeding operations to drive sustainable growth in the competitive market cavoodle breeding and sales.

Tactical outputs

Based on the given scenario, here are five tactics that Josie can consider to turn around the fortunes of Cavoodle Capers Pty Ltd:

Diversify the Product Offering

Josie can consider expanding her product offering beyond cavoodles of only golden-brown colour. By actively promoting and marketing the black cavoodles as unique and special, she can attract a different segment of customers who may prefer black. This can help increase sales and cater to broader customer preferences.

Strategic Advertising and Promotion

While Josie initially relied on simple Facebook posts, she can now adopt a more strategic approach to advertising and promotion. This can include targeted online advertising on social media platforms, creating engaging content such as videos and blogs, and collaborating with influencers in the pet niche to increase brand awareness and reach. Josie can also consider offering limited time promotions, discounts, or bundle deals to incentivize potential buyers and create a sense of urgency.

Improve Customer Experience

Providing an exceptional customer experience can lead to positive word-of-mouth recommendations. This can help boost sales. Josie can also focus on providing good customer service, instant responses to inquiries, and reasonable care for the puppies. She can also create a solid online presence by actively engaging with customers on social media, addressing their concerns, and sharing testimonials and success stories to build the trust of potential customers.

Build Relationships with Local Pet Communities

Josie can proactively engage with local pet communities, including pet stores, veterinarians, groomers, and dog parks, to build relationships and create partnerships. She can offer special discounts or referral programs to these partners, who can then recommend Cavoodle Capers Pty Ltd to their customers. Participating in local pet events or sponsoring pet-related activities can also increase brand visibility and reach in the community.

Provide Education and Information

Educating potential buyers about the benefits and responsibilities of owning a cavoodle can help build trust and establish Josie as an expert. She can create informative content on her website, blog, or social media platforms about topics such as cavoodle care, training, health, and nutrition. This can help potential buyers make informed decisions and create a connection with the brand, leading to increased sales and customer loyalty.

Overall, Josie should focus on diversifying her product offering, strategic advertising and promotion, improving customer experience, building relationships with local pet communities, and providing education and information to potential buyers. By implementing these tactics, Josie could turn around the declining fortunes of Cavoodle Capers Pty Ltd and boost sales in the face of changing market conditions.


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