Forever Chemicals In Water Essay Sample For College

Issue Definition

PFAS are artificial chemicals that are used in industries and consumer products worldwide. The need to develop grease-proof, waterproof, stick-proof, and stain-proof products has dramatically impacted the production of PFAS over the last decade (Wittenberg, 2022). The uncontrollable production of PFAS materials is categorized as a global threat. Some of the PFAS chemical patent, known as Teflon, was discovered in the DuPont plant in 2001, serving tens of thousands of people in the area. The water from the plant was declared unsafe for human consumption, raising concerns to the Food and Drugs Administration department. Even though the Food and Drugs department is introducing various policies to safeguard human safety, there is still mass production of PFAS chemicals.

Establishing more manufacturing or chemical production industries that either produce or use PFAS has dramatically impacted the production rate of PFAS chemicals (US EPA, 2021). The continuous growth of medical equipment, food, and textile industries has called up for more production of PFAS chemicals. Furthermore, PFAS are used by firefighters in the production of liquid foam in putting off the fire. PFAS chemicals manufacture packaging papers and bags in food industries to attain water and grease-proof products. However, the chemicals are exposed to drinking water through fire training, industrial wastes, and spillage into rivers and lakes by-products containing them. Human foods can also be contaminated through the use of PFAS in the making of packaging bags.

Wastewater treatment plants are on the frontline in polluting water bodies with PFAS chemicals (dyaniwood, 2019). Municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants pollute waterbodies from leakages, discharges from fluent, air emissions, or disposal of biosolids generated during the treatment process. PFAS contaminates most of the wastewater received by municipal wastewater treatment plants from consumer products or industrial wastes. The wastes find their way to human water storage leading to water contamination, making it vital since it is slightly noticed on time.

PFAS, known as ‘forever chemicals,’ has recently become a dangerous global health concern (Sinclair et al., 2020). The ever-present nature of PFAS in the environment, high stability, and increased toxicity in humans and animals through water contamination have troubled human health. Humans and animals suffer the risks of obesity, liver damage, fertility issues, and thyroid disease due to exposure to PFAS chemicals. Furthermore, individuals suffer the risk of contracting cancerous disease, which leads to death or permanent deformation of body organs because of PFAS exposure in the environment and human bodies.

The continuous water contamination rate by PFAS chemicals has called up for various strategies. Public members are encouraged to determine if PFAS chemicals are in their water (US EPA, 2021a). Individuals getting their drinking water from public drinking water must contact their local water utility to learn how addressing of PFAS. Furthermore, public water providers are required to conduct PFAS water tests or share information with the public about the condition of the water. However, some public water providers need PFAS information on their water, making it difficult to fight against water contamination.

The government of the United States of America initiated activated carbon treatment for PFAS removal from the environment (US EPA, 2018). Through absorption, activated carbon is made from organic materials with high carbon contents, such as coal. Absorption is a physical and chemical method for accumulating substances such as PFAS chemicals. Moreover, activated carbon can be traced in water industries in taste and odour removal and absorption of organic compounds. Activated carbon is considered the most effective method in fighting PFAS pollution in water due to its chemical and physical properties.

As the government continues to call upon our food packaging and textile industries, we must establish a more effective and dependable system of ensuring zero environmental pollution due to releasing PFAS chemicals into the environment. I call upon all citizens, leaders, and heads of state to recognize the lost time and money allocated to fighting for zero environmental pollution. Going against the recommended PFAS policies will forever put our civilians’ lives at risk, and everyone must protect and maintain our environment.

Analysis and Policy Proposal

Numerous policy proposals for reducing PFAS chemicals in the environment have been implemented over the past decade. The primary inspiration behind this proposal have been: a) the introduction of operating license in the production, packaging and distribution of cosmetics through the Voluntary Cosmetic Registration Program (VCRP) by the Food and Drugs agency; b) the restriction of class B fire fighting using foams containing a high level of PFAS; and c) reducing dietary exposure to PFAS that posses as a health concern. In addition, the U.S. EPA has established several Health Advisory levels PFOA, PFOS, GenX chemicals and PFBS. This section highlights ways to deal with the environmental threat caused by PFAS. For each option, we describe its purpose and the policy change needed and provide evidence and evaluation of the possible solution and competing policy solutions.

PFAS chemicals are ingredients in several cosmetics used in the beauty industry. The need to sort for these ingredients is a threat to the environment due to PFAS exposure to the environment as a pollutant. However, according to Risk Assessment of Fluorinated Substances in Cosmetic Products (2018), 17 of the 18 tested products contained PFAS chemicals. The highest level of PFAS concentration was recorded in a foundation which amounted to 3,340 ng/g PFHxA, while the combined concentration for the 17 cosmetics was 10,700 ng/g PFHxA. To control PFAS production, the government, through Food and Drug Agency, has introduced a Voluntary Cosmetics Registration Program. The program is intended to control the amount of PFAS produced within the manufacturing, packaging, and transporting department of cosmetics reducing PFAS production by 5%.

The government, through Indian law, restricted the use of foams in firefighting training to set out class B fires. The foams used contain a high level of PFAS chemicals which ends up in our water bodies leading to water contamination. However, the use of foams in setting out class B fires can only be used if proper measures are implemented to prevent the release of firefighting foams into the environment. According to FACT SHEET: Biden-Harris Administration Launches Plan to Combat PFAS Pollution (2021), The United States of America government awarded $1.5 million in grants to The University of Arizona to research other ways of dealing with class B fires. This is one of the methods of minimizing the release of PFAS into the environment.

The Food and Drug Administration is increasing testing of the food supply to reduce dietary exposure to PFAS. The agency has analyzed over 350 study samples for PFAS, assisting approximately seven states. For the next three years, FDA has promised to proactively engage and assist federal states in areas suspected of experiencing food contamination because of PFAS exposure and expand its development. To reduce food contamination and pollution of the environment, the FDA monitors and ensures that companies adhere to packaging requirements.

Introducing policy license cosmetics is an effective way of curbing the rising environmental threat due to the release of PFAS chemicals into the atmosphere. This policy’s shortcuts are voluntary based, making only a few people adhere to the changes. The government should make the policy mandatory and introduce new laws to ensure maximum minimization of PFAS pollution because of cosmetic production, packaging, and distribution. This move will ensure maximum cooperation, reducing the production of PFAS and the pollution of our water bodies.

To minimize diet exposure because of PFAS contamination, the government, through the FDA, should create public awareness regarding the issue by educating civilians on the dangers accompanied by food and water contamination. The government should ensure that civilians benefiting from public water are safeguarded. This can be done by regular checking of PFAS concentration levels through tests. Furthermore, the government must impose heavy legislation to discriminate pollution of water bodies by industries. The move will reduce the amount of untreated waste in water bodies from industries.


Dyaniwood. (2019, July 8). Sources of PFAS. Utah Department of Environmental Quality.

FACT SHEET: Biden-Harris Administration Launches Plan to Combat PFAS Pollution. (2021, October 18). The White House.

Risk assessment of fluorinated substances in cosmetic products. (2018).

Sinclair, G. M., Long, S. M., & Jones, O. A. H. (2020). What are the effects of PFAS exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations? Chemosphere, p. 258, 127340.

US EPA, O. (2018, August 23). Reducing PFAS in Drinking Water with Treatment Technologies.

US EPA, O. (2021b, October 15). Meaningful and Achievable Steps You Can Take to Reduce Your Risk.

US EPA. (2021, October 14). Our Current Understanding of the Human Health and Environmental Risks of PFAS.

Wittenberg, E. A. C., Ariel. (2022, March 7). Inside FDA’s “forever chemicals” catastrophe. E&E News.

Genetic And Disease – Cancer Writing Sample

Cancer is an ailment whereby parts of the body’s cells advance uncontrollably and extend to other areas of the body. Cancer might begin almost anywhere in an individual’s body, formed of many cells. Typically, human cells multiply and grow to establish other cells as the body requires them. When cells become damaged or grow old, they pass away, and others take their portion (Levine & Kroemer, 2019). Sometimes, this process might break down, and damaged or abnormal cells multiply and grow when unnecessary. The cells might create tumors which are typically tissue lumps. Tumors might be cancerous or not cancerous. There are different hereditary influences of cancer ailment.

Pathophysiology of Cancer

A similar sequence is seen for different familiar cancer types. For instance, the mean age at detection is 62 years, specifically for breast cancer, 71 years for lung cancer,66 years for prostate cancer, and 67 years for colorectal cancer (Tate et al., 2019). However, cancer can be detected at any period. There are different clinical manifestations of cancer. An area or lump thickening might be felt on the skin. Weight alters, involving unintended gain or loss. Skin alters like yellowing, redness, or darkening, sores hard to heal, or alterations to current moles.

In most cases, a biopsy is a single way to detect cancer definitively. In the lab, physicians check the cell samples using a microscope. Normal cells might look uniform, with the same orderly organization and size. Cancer cells are less orderly and have different sizes and no apparent organization. In stage 1 of cancer, the cancer is typically localized to a tiny area and does not spread to other tissues or lymph nodes. In stage 11, the cancer is grown. However, it has not been extended. In Stage III, the cancer is grown more extensive and is possibly extended to other tissues or lymph nodes. In Stage IV, the cancer is extended to other areas of the body and organs.

Cancer is the leading cause of death globally. It accounted for about 10 million demises in 2020 (Hull et al., 2020). The main types of cancer include lung, breast, rectum, prostate, and colon cancers: results, surveillance, and epidemiology approximate cancer levels in the United States. The general cancer incident level in California is among the lowest in America. It is 2 to 5 percent lower than the nation for African-Americans, Asians-Islands, and non-Hispanic whites (Tate et al., 2019). There are different risk factors for cancer. The following are the most known or suspected threat factors of the ailment. Some can be avoided, but others cannot, like growing older. They include obesity, infectious agents, age, alcohol, chronic inflammation, tobacco, sunlight, radiation, hormones, and diet, among other factors.

Prevalence of Cancer Disease

Cancer prevalence is the figure of living individuals detected with cancer. It involves individuals detected with the disease in the past and those who were currently or recently diagnosed. It does not involve individuals who might acquire the ailment in their future lives. Cancer is common among young adults. Approximately 80,000 young people of 20 to 39 are diagnosed with the disease annually in America (Hull et al., 2020). Approximately 5 percent of all cancers are detected in the above age range. Around 9000 young people die from the disease each year. The incidence levels for cancer generally climb as age advances from less than 25 instances per 100,000 individuals in age sets lower than age 20, to around 350 per 100,000 individuals among the ones aged 45-49, to above 1000 per 100,000 individuals in age sets 60 years and above (Levine & Kroemer, 2019).

Genetic and Non-Genetic Factors Implicated with Cancer

Cancer-linked genetic alterations can happen because random errors in people’s DNA occur as cells multiply. Individuals’ DNA is changed by environmental carcinogens, like chemicals found in tobacco smoke. Human papillomavirus can also be inherited from one of the parents. Although most lessons address cancer rise from a genetic concept, it is increasingly justified that cancer adaptation, progression, and initiation might be fuelled by non-genetic processes, thus suggesting that the ailment might also come from a mutation-autonomous manner (Levine & Kroemer, 2019). Non-genetic processes establish stable and metastable phenotypic conditions inherited upon cell segmentation and propagate through several cell generations. One of the best instances of these occurrences is the protozoa body, whereby one genome generates an extensive array of strong functionally specific cellular phenotypes (Prevarskaya, Skryma & Shuba, 2018). The idea should prompt people to think that the creation of cancer phenotypes does not explicitly have to be geared by a genetic concept, and the non-genetic processes might significantly contribute to the enhancement of malignant traits leading to cancer dissemination, progression, and initiation.

Familiar Factors of Occurrences of Cancer in Families

If a gene alteration that significantly escalates the cancer threat runs in a household, it is often called family or household cancer syndrome. It can also be called genetic cancer disorder or inherited cancer disorder. It is crucial to know that not all cancers that look to operate in a household are caused by a household cancer syndrome. Around 1 in 3 individuals in America will acquire cancer during their lives, so it is not unfamiliar to have several cancers in a household (Prevarskaya, Skryma & Shuba, 2018). Sometimes, the ailment may be more familiar in some families since household members share specific exposures or behaviors that escalate cancer threat, for instance, smoking, or because of other matters that can operate in some households, like obesity. However, cancer might sometimes be due to abnormal genes passed from generation to generation. Although these types of cancers are mainly called inherited cancers, what is specifically inherited is the foreign gene that might result in cancer, not the ailment itself (Levine & Kroemer, 2019). Approximately five to ten percent of all cancers are typically known to be firmly associated with gene faults called mutations rooted in the parents.

Diagnostic Results Implicated with Cancer

Primary caregivers detect approximately one cancer ailment per month. However, for every malignancy noted, physicians assess many other individuals showing potential signs of cancer. Thresholds for evaluation should balance adverse effects and resource use from incidental findings and diagnosis with the threat of delaying or missing detection of malignancy (Hull et al., 2020). A protruding of the detection interval might happen because of cognitive mistakes on the portion of the doctor’s lack of correct reach to tests and lags in an individual’s presentation impacted by beliefs, social contexts, and knowledge. If a person has a sign or a screening test outcome that suggests the ailment, the doctor should find out if kits because of cancer or another cause. No single test might detect cancer (Tate et al., 2019). In this regard, the doctor might begin by questioning an individual or household’s medical past and can also perform a physical examination. The physicians might order imaging tests, lab tests, or other procedures or tests. They may also do a biopsy which is mainly the sure way to tell if a patient has cancer.

Treatment of Cancer

Accurate cancer detection is significant for effective and appropriate therapy since every cancer type needs a specific therapy regimen. Therapy typically involves systematic treatment, which includes targeted biological treatments, hormonal therapies, and chemotherapy. Other treatments include radiotherapy and surgery (Tate et al., 2019). Determining the targets is a critical first step. The primary target is typically to cure the ailment or reasonably prolong life. Enhancing the patient’s standard of living is also a crucial goal. All these can be achieved by aid for the individual’s spiritual, psychosocial, and physical palliative care and well-being in terminal levels of cancer. Some primary cancer types, like cervical, breast, colorectal, and oral cancer, have an extended cure chance when diagnosed early and medicated with the best exercises (Hull et al., 2020). Some cancer forms like testicular seminoma and various types of lymphoma and leukemia in kids also have an extended cure level if appropriate therapy is offered even when the ailments cells are present in other parts of the body. In surgery, a doctor cuts out the tissue with the disease’s cells. At the exact times, chemotherapies are unique medicines that kill or shrink cancer cells. In radiation treatment, doctors use extended-energy rays to kill the disease cells.

Education for Cancer Patients

Doctors and nurses should educate cancer patients on correctly living with this condition. For instance, they should advise the patients to eat different foods. Doctors should advise cancer patients to take a less-fat meal containing vegetables, additive-free fruits, grains, and tony amounts of good-standard protein (Hull et al., 2020). Examples of proper-standard protein include eggs, legumes, nonfat dairy meals, lean fish and chicken, and soy. Patients should know that they should only eradicate all or more of the above nutritional-building meals if they liaise with the nurses or nutritionists to establish a personalized feeding plan. Nurses should educate cancer patients to limit alcohol, sodium, caffeine, or sugar. In this regard, these patients should reduce their intake of these substances (Tate et al., 2019). If a patient loses much weight, the patient should take sufficient calories to safeguard weight loss. They should eat additional fat and sugar as sources of calories.

Nurses Help Cancer Patients

Nurses should show respect and understanding to individuals with cancer through deep listening and accompaniment. They should empathy the feelings of the patients and their distress and determine their worries and concerns (Prevarskaya, Skryma & Shuba, 2018). Since these patients might have anger issues and emotions, the nurses should construct a bridge between themselves and the patients and ensure that the families of the patient encourage them to converse openly.

Ethical Ramifications to be Considered for Cancer Disease

Cancer custody is fraught with different ethical issues. There are controversies in detection, the extent of individual information, scheduling therapy, and follow-up. These matters mainly concern oncologists in their daily practices (Prevarskaya, Skryma & Shuba, 2018). Screening for this ailment and the chances of acquiring false positives are substantial ethical issues. Once detected, queries arise about the extent of details to be provided to the individual concerning the ailment extent and probable results. Cancer clinical tests require cancer individuals for success. Many individuals might be unwilling to use specific therapy modalities (Levine & Kroemer, 2019). Therefore, nurses should correctly advise their patients, taking the necessary consciousness to avoid fear.


A scheme for detecting and treating cancer is a critical component of any general cancer control idea. Its primary target is to cure the ailment or prolong life and embrace a standard of life. It should be established in collaboration for detection and therapy programmers to be appropriate. It should be associated with an early diagnosis program to ensure that instances are diagnosed at the initial stage when therapy is effective and a more significant opportunity for a cure exists.


Hull, R., Francies, F. Z., Oyomno, M., & Dlamini, Z. (2020). Colorectal cancer genetics, incidence, and risk factors: in search for targeted therapies: cancer management and research12, 9869.

Levine, B., & Kroemer, G. (2019). Biological functions of autophagy genes: a disease perspective. Cell176(1-2), 11-42.

Prevarskaya, N., Skryma, R., & Shuba, Y. (2018). Ion channels in cancer: are cancer hallmarks. Physiological reviews98(2), 559-621.

Tate, J. G., Bamford, S., Jubb, H. C., Sondka, Z., Beare, D. M., Bindal, N., … & Forbes, S. A. (2019). COSMIC: the catalogue of somatic mutations in cancer. Nucleic acids research47(D1), D941-D947.

Health Care Reform Sample Essay

Various healthcare reforms have been put across the country. My proposed healthcare reform includes provider network expansion, a critical constituent of any inclusive healthcare reform plan. Many underserved areas, mainly in rural and remote locations, undergo limited access to healthcare providers, leading to differences in health outcomes and higher healthcare costs. Increasing the network of healthcare providers in these areas can aid in addressing these matters by snowballing access to care and refining health outcomes for populations. Various strategies can be used to expand the provider network. These strategies include investing in training programs encouraging healthcare professionals to practice in underserved areas (King, 2020). This can comprise loan repayment programs, scholarships, and other inducements to attract and retain healthcare providers in these areas. In addition, efforts to increase the number of healthcare providers from understated communities can expand cultural competency and decrease health disparities. Additionally, the application of telehealth and other technologies to connect patients with healthcare providers remotely is another strategy to increase the provider network. This can be predominantly operative in rural or remote areas where patients may travel long distances to receive care. Telehealth can also connect patients with specialists who may not be accessible locally, improving access to expert care.

Conflicts between Existing Federal and State Policies

As stated earlier, provider network expansion is a significant aspect of healthcare reform that aims to advance access to healthcare services for underserved populations. However, conflicts between existing federal and state policies can make it hard to implement operative provider network expansion programs. At the federal level, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was developed by the Health Insurance Marketplace, which offers customers access to reasonable health insurance plans that cover important health benefits. The ACA also implemented the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation, which funds and tests ground-breaking healthcare delivery models. These national strategies have increased access to healthcare services but do not always align with state policies (Keisler-Starkey, & Bunch, 2020). At the state level, healthcare strategies are frequently fashioned by state governments’ political and economic urgencies. States have the authority to control health insurance markets, and many have selected to implement strategies that limit access to healthcare services. For instance, some states have moved out of Medicaid expansion, limiting access to healthcare services for low-income residents.

These conflicting policies can lead to challenges for provider network expansion initiatives. For instance, if a state has not expanded Medicaid, it may be hard to find a strong provider network that serves low-income residents. Moreover, if a state has applied strategies that limit access to healthcare services, it may be hard to recruit healthcare suppliers to work in underserved zones (King, 2020). There are various solutions to these challenges, including establishing federal policies that incentivise states to increase access to healthcare services. For instance, the federal government could provide money for provider network expansion initiatives that serve underserved populations. This funding could be conditional on states implementing strategies that support healthcare access, such as Medicaid enlargement and the acceptance of telehealth services. Additionally, it would be important to work with states to progressive policies that align with federal healthcare objectives. This could encompass working with state governments to recognize zones of need and advance strategies to expand access to healthcare services in those zones. It could also encompass offering technical assistance and resources to aid states in implementing strategies that support healthcare access.

Standard of Care Approach

The Standard of Care Approach (SOC) refers to an inclusive method of healthcare that includes numerous facets of a patient’s life, including family support, nutrition, and spirituality. This approach centres on treating the patient as complete rather than just treating their illness. In contrast, the current method applied in suggested provider network expansion healthcare reform primarily centres on increasing the network of healthcare providers to guarantee all and sundry has admittance to healthcare (Olson et al., 2019). The SOC approach identifies that health is swayed by numerous features, such as a patient’s family support, diet and nutrition, and spirituality. For instance, proper nutrition can aid in averting and managing lasting diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. At the same time, family support can offer emotional and practical assistance to patients during illness. Spirituality can also play a part in a patient’s general well-being, aiding them to cope with illness and advance their mental health. In contrast, the suggested provider network expansion healthcare reform principally centres on increasing access to healthcare providers, such as doctors and nurses, to guarantee everyone access to care. While this method is vital, it overlooks that healthcare is not just about offering medical treatment but also addressing the social determinants of health that can sway a patient’s health outcomes.

The SOC method identifies that healthcare is multifaceted and necessitates a multidisciplinary method beyond medical treatment. For instance, a patient with diabetes may necessitate not only medication but also education on lifestyle modifications, dietary counselling, and emotive support from their family (Olson et al., 2019). By taking an inclusive approach to care, the SOC approach can advance health outcomes and decrease the general cost of healthcare by addressing the core causes of health problems rather than just treating the signs. In contrast, the current approach applied in projected provider network expansion healthcare reform primarily centres on expanding access to medical treatment. While this is significant, it does not address the social determinants of health that can sway a patient’s health outcomes. For instance, a patient living in a food desert may not have access to healthy food selections, which can lead to long-lasting diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Increasing access to healthcare providers may not address this subject, so an inclusive method comprising nutrition education and support is indispensable.

Public Health Preparedness

There are various ways in which the reform can ensure that the public is prepared. One of the significant ways this healthcare reform plan promotes public health preparedness is by snowballing access to healthcare in underserved zones. These zones may encompass inner-city neighbourhoods, rural communities, and other places with a shortage of healthcare providers and limited access to medical services. By expanding the network of healthcare suppliers in these zones, more individuals will have admittance to routine medical care, preventative services, and expert care. This can aid in advancing health outcomes, decrease healthcare costs, and guarantee that individuals get timely treatment for illnesses. Additionally, increasing the network of healthcare suppliers can also aid in building a robust healthcare workforce, which is indispensable for public health preparedness. Healthcare workers are on the front lines of the response determination during public health emergencies, such as disease outbreaks and natural disasters. By growing the number of healthcare suppliers in underserved zones, this healthcare reform plan can aid in building a stronger, stronger healthcare workforce that is better equipped to react to emergencies.

Another imperative facet of public health preparedness is guaranteeing that healthcare systems have the necessary resources to react to emergencies (Keisler-Starkey, & Bunch, 2020). This comprises medical supplies, equipment, facilities, and an adequate number of healthcare workers. By increasing the network of healthcare providers, this healthcare reform plan can guarantee that healthcare systems have the resources they prerequisite to react to emergencies, decreasing the strain on the healthcare system and improving the overall response effort. In addition to growing access to healthcare and erecting a stronger healthcare workforce, the provider network expansion healthcare reform plan can also aid in advancing the quality of care people receive. By expanding the network of healthcare suppliers, more individuals will have access to expert medical care, such as mental health services, speciality care, and other medical services that may not be available in their local communities. This can aid in advancing health outcomes and decrease the prerequisite for costly emergency care. As a final point, the provider network expansion healthcare reform plan can aid in endorsing health equity, an indispensable facet of public health preparedness. Health equity means that everyone has an equal prospect of accomplishing good health, regardless of race, ethnicity, income and other factors. By increasing the network of healthcare suppliers in underserved zones, this healthcare reform plan can guarantee that everyone has admittance to the medical care they require to accomplish good health, irrespective of where they live or their socioeconomic status.

Proposed Gross Domestic Product for Health Care

Determining the percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) that should be set aside for healthcare can be a multifaceted matter, as it hinges on a diversity of aspects, such as the nation’s overall health needs, the accessibility of healthcare services, and the price of delivering those services. Conversely, as a general guideline, most industrialized nations allocate between 8% and 12% of their GDP to healthcare. In the United States, healthcare spending presently accounts for around 17% of GDP, meaningfully higher than most developed nations. This high level of spending is due to a diversity of influences, such as the high cost of medical services, the prevalence of chronic diseases, and the lack of a universal healthcare system (Keisler-Starkey, & Bunch, 2020). To address these matters, the country should allocate about 20% of the country’s GDP. This would offer additional funding for medical research, public health initiatives, and extended access to medical services. However, it is significant to note that simply allocating a higher percentage of GDP to healthcare is insufficient to address the healthcare system’s multifaceted matters. Other reforms, such as refining healthcare delivery systems, expanding admittance to preventative care, and addressing health disparities, are also essential to advance overall health outcomes and decrease healthcare costs. In addition, it is significant to guarantee that healthcare spending is utilized professionally and efficiently and targeted towards the areas of greatest requisite. This necessitates careful monitoring, planning, and evaluation of healthcare programs and services and ongoing determinations to advance the quality of care and reduce healthcare waste.

In conclusion, various healthcare reforms have been put across the country. My proposed healthcare reform includes provider network expansion, a critical constituent of any inclusive healthcare reform plan. While the proposed provider network expansion healthcare reform is indispensable, it should not overlook the significance of an inclusive approach to care that addresses the social determinants of health. Through swelling access to healthcare, building a stronger healthcare workforce, refining the quality of care, and promoting health equity, this healthcare reform plan can aid in guaranteeing that all and sundry have access to the medical care they prerequisite to attain good health and respond to public health emergencies. This is an imperative step in promoting public health and guaranteeing that everyone has the prospect of living a healthy, fulfilling life.


Keisler-Starkey, K., & Bunch, L. N. (2020). Health insurance coverage in the United States: 2019. Washington, DC: US Census Bureau.

King, J. S. (2020). Covid-19 and the need for health care reform. New England Journal of Medicine382(26), e104.

Olson, R., Senan, S., Harrow, S., Gaede, S., Louie, A., Haasbeek, C., … & Palma, D. (2019). Quality of life outcomes after stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) versus standard of care treatments in the oligometastatic setting: A secondary analysis of the SABR-COMET randomized trial. International Journal of Radiation Oncology* Biology* Physics105(5), 943-947.

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