Poverty is a broad issue that includes social, political, and cultural challenges in addition to economic concerns. Poor sources of financial resources, material deprivation, social alienation, exclusion, and feeling of hopelessness, as well as physical and psychological ill-health, are all characteristics of multidimensional poverty. As a result, eradicating poverty requires a broad set of well-structured policies, not only economic ones (Singh & Chudasama, 2020). But what are the factors considered when formulating the economic policies that are implemented when dealing with poverty? Understanding these factors is the underlying rationale for comprehensive poverty reduction strategies. In particular, this paper will argue that political issues such as political instability, social issues such as low incomes, and cultural issues such as cultural values should govern policymakers in eradicating poverty. My discussion will begin with the multi-dimensional approach of poverty and then progress to economic growth and inequality. But why economic growth? To achieve high and sustainable growth rates, the economy must be stable. Economic growth is the most important factor determining poverty. As a result, any plan to combat poverty should focus on increasing economic growth and ensuring that it remains stable. To achieve high and sustainable growth rates, the economy must be stable. Economic growth is the most important factor determining poverty. As a result, any plan to combat poverty should focus on increasing economic growth and ensuring that it remains stable. The underlying argument is that even Though economic growth is an essential factor affecting poverty, other such as political, social, and cultural issues are also key components in poverty reduction.
Poverty as a Multi-dimensional Problem
Rather than depending solely on income or economic growth to define poverty, some scholars have argued that it is essential to consider various factors. Poor people have a wide range of problems ranging from poor health care and education to a lack of power and living in regions that harm the environment. A multidimensional measure of poverty can integrate several indicators that capture the phenomenon’s complexity to inform national poverty reduction efforts (Singh & Chudasama, 2020). Depending on the country’s setting and the measure’s goal, several indicators can be used to reflect the needs and objectives of the country and its constituent areas.
But why use a multi-dimensional approach? Monetary measures of poverty do not encompass all aspects of poverty. In contrast, economic growth solely does not reduce poverty levels since it is not associated with reducing other deprivations such as child malnutrition (Dhaoui, 2021). People who are poor describe their poverty as multidimensional. Poor people have identified ill-being as ill-health, food, poor hygiene and clean water, social stigma, low education, poor housing conditions, and more in participatory activities. Policymakers will be better able to combat poverty if they have access to more relevant data. For example, a poverty reduction strategy for an area where most people are deprived of schooling is different from a place where most people are impoverished in housing.
The political dimension of Poverty
Poverty has taken on new meaning as time has passed. Poverty has taken on new meanings, and coping mechanisms as our understanding of society’s complexity expands. The idea has evolved from the more basic conceptions of poor health, inadequate education, and lack of income to get to this point (Rupasingha & Goetz, 2007). Being a social and political problem, the topic of poverty has taken center stage in public policy discussions. Poverty has been linked to a range of complex factors, including chronic resource exploitation, discriminatory political treatment, skewed development priorities, inequalities, frequent natural and human-caused disasters, prolonged denial and violation of human rights, and elite-controlled public policy. A new political strategy is needed to deal with multidimensional poverty. Because of this, it cannot be handled by handouts and charity packages claiming to be social security and poverty alleviation. Multidimensional poverty can’t be erased until governments implement robust plans and make long-term investments in essential service delivery, especially in rural regions, through an empowered local government structure.
Uncertainty in economic growth can lead to countries relying on foreign handouts for the rest of their lives. Cultural or ethnic groups are more prone to go to war in countries where they believe that there is a lack of economic and political equality, leading to a vicious cycle that eventually results in poverty (Khan et al., 2022). The impoverished are frequently ostracized, and their cries go unheard. More than any other demographic, the poor rely on essential government services. When poor persons participate in service reforms, these services are more effective for the poor. These services are tough to come by in areas that have recently experienced civil war. Poverty in the world is exacerbated by political instability, poor governance, and corruption. The quality of all public services in the country was lowered due to corruption and misuse of public cash. The police, the court system, and the provision of basic infrastructure are all included in this category of conventional governmental duty. Racism, gender bias, and ethnic prejudice are all intertwined and must be tackled if we are to reduce poverty and inequality around the world successfully. The role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the fight against global poverty cannot be overstated.
It is critical to promote good governance by forming an institutional system capable of providing the government with more effective and efficient instruments for more successful development plans to meet countries’ economic, social, and environmental needs (Dhaoui, 2021). However, some countries lack proper training and expertise of the technology, as well as access to it and understanding on how to employ it best. Policies on the use of digital technology must be adequately entrenched in public sector transformation to reap the benefits. Countries should foster competitive business environments, improve accountability, and update education and skills development systems (Dhaoui, 2021). The race is between skills and technology, with the winner determining whether ICT dividends are realized, and benefits are equitably distributed
Social Dimension of Poverty
A person is said to be poor if they lack the financial means to provide for themselves and their family. Additionally, there is a lack of access to fundamental amenities like education and a lack of social discrimination and isolation. The impact of poverty falls disproportionately on several different social groupings. All aspects of poverty need to be addressed to have a socially responsible approach to development. Approaches to poverty eradication that are people-centered place emphasis on empowering those who are poor by giving them a right to participate in the development and implementation of policies that directly impact the most marginalized segments of society (Meyer & Wu, 2018). To alleviate poverty, it is necessary to establish policies to distribute wealth and income equality and ensure that everyone has access to social security.
The effectiveness and limitations of present poverty reduction measures should be discussed from a social perspective, which should be included in this discussion. Social poverty analysis looks at how economic and social policies affect the poor and other socially vulnerable populations. Using Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA), policymakers can examine changes’ economic and social impact on different social and income categories. By promoting national ownership of development initiatives and aiding in the national debate on policy alternatives, PSIA can help operationalize the pledges made in Copenhagen if properly executed.
Cultural Dimension of Poverty
All people are affected by poverty. It has an impact on people of all races, religions, and cultural backgrounds. Despite recent declines in global inequality, many countries still have more advantages over others and, in many situations, are better positioned to assist others less fortunate than themselves. Foreign countries make it tough to ensure success because of their uniqueness. People and governments will act in different ways. Disparities can exist even in how people view poverty in general, and these must be taken into account. Cultural norms influence poverty’s appearance and means of escaping (Small et al., 2010). There are several reasons why single parents are more likely than their married or cohabiting counterparts to live in poverty, but it isn’t easy to pinpoint the exact causes. On a global scale, these cultural disparities persist. As a result, culture directly impacts poverty and has an indirect effect on the conditions that encourage or discourage poverty. Family structure is one of the most important considerations in many cultures.
The necessity to reexamine culture’s role in poverty is becoming more pressing. The purpose of this is to dispel common misconceptions regarding the cultural preferences of the underprivileged. Only by examining experimentally how the poor think and describe their current situations, options, decisions, and what they do to improve their chances for themselves and their children can we fully grasp what causes and perpetuates poverty (Small et al., 2010). A greater understanding of how and why individuals respond to poverty is essential to figuring out ways to get out of it. When we look at poverty from a cultural viewpoint, we can better understand why people in the same high-poverty areas make such disparate choices about parenting, education, community involvement, job hunting, and even criminality. The effectiveness of social policy can be improved by better understanding the role culture plays in poverty. Misguided policies resulting from a lack of cultural awareness might result from failing to recognize the genuine motivations of the impoverished. Scholars believe that we need to comprehend the cultural beliefs that government policy decisions towards the underprivileged.
Economic Growth, Inequalities, and Poverty.
Economic inequality and economic growth play a massive role in poverty alleviation. According to Ncube (2014), income inequality reduces economic growth and raises poverty in most regions. Other than income inequality, other factors that negatively affect economic growth are exchange rates, inflation, government consumption expenditure, previous growth rate, and per capita GDP (Ncube et al., 2014). Poverty-reducing variables include domestic investment, trade openness, education, and income per capita in the MENA region. They recommended specific policy instruments that reduce inequality, thereby reducing poverty levels. The measures are additional cash transfers, greater access to health, labor market training, and increased social investments (Ncube et al., 2014). Since poverty is a multi-dimensional problem, income inequality and economic growth alone cannot wholly eradicate rising levels. Though there are relationships between economic growth and poverty, other political, social, and cultural factors, play a significant role in eradicating poverty.
Economic stability alone does not guarantee strong economic growth rates. Main structural initiatives such as regulatory change, privatization, public service reform, enhanced governance, trade liberalization, and banking sector reform are usually necessary to maintain strong growth rates (Neaime & Gaysset, 2018). Furthermore, reducing poverty cannot be achieved solely through economic growth. Poverty will be reduced more by growth accompanied by changes in distribution than by growth with a static allocation. A country’s plan for combating poverty must include policies that help redistribute wealth among its citizens. These policies include land tenure reform, public spending that benefits the poor, and policies that help the poor access financial markets.
Poverty alleviation cannot be achieved solely by economic growth. The growth that alters the distribution of wealth more gradually has a more significant influence on poverty reduction than growth that does not. To ensure macroeconomic stability, government spending, particularly the country’s poverty-reduction programs, must be financed sustainably and noninflationary way (Singh & Chudasama, 2020). Economic policy formulation and the implementation of programs aimed at combating poverty are cyclical procedures. It is necessary first to explain specific objectives and policies for poverty reduction initiatives, cost them, and fund them within the overall budget in an inflation-resistant manner. Even though a large portion of the funding will be provided at drastically discounted rates, the total amount available is not yet set in stone. If the available resources cannot be used to fund credible solutions for reducing poverty,
Economic growth has been the most crucial factor when it comes to poverty alleviation. Dollar (2015) designed social welfare systems that are responsive to the lower quartiles, and in which wellbeing is correlated positively with income growth and negatively with income inequality. As they examined data from 151 nations, they found that income growth accounts for a majority of differences in welfare among countries. Again, changes in inequality have been relatively moderate and typically uncorrelated with economic development. As a result of these findings, it may be deduced that policies aiming at reducing inequality boost welfare when growth is not negatively affected but may diminish it if growth is adversely affected. Furthermore, according to Jones and Klenow (2016), the connection between GDP per capita and welfare in most nations is 0.98. While income inequality is a problem, researchers found that welfare disparity is considerably more important than income inequality. Accordingly, poverty and inequality are influenced by the distribution of growth between rich and disadvantaged.
Poverty levels in most regions have significantly increased over the last ten years. The SDG Fund and the WORLD Bank report show that poverty levels rose significantly even before the Covid-19 pandemic. There are a lot of inequalities in the region, exposing the vulnerable social, political, and economic systems (Roy et al., 2018). Governments have put in place several strategies in an attempt to reduce poverty. The strategies include good governance, free-market policies to promote economic growth, minimum wages, and inclusivity (Neaime & Gaysset, 2018). Though strategies have been developed, the MENA region still has high poverty levels to address to achieve the SDGs targets.
Reducing inequality is an effective strategy for reducing poverty. Before implementing this strategy, one must understand the effects of changing inequality on economic growth (Roy et al., 2018). Policymakers should also understand the impact of inequality on the mean relative incomes. Growth can be slowed or halted, depending on the policy in place. Inequality reductions can lead to significant reductions in poverty, but policymakers should be aware of the potential for inequality to have other implications on poverty through its effect on growth. There are various opposing hypotheses concerning how inequality affects growth in the theoretical literature; thus, this is a subject of empirical research.
This paper attempts to develop government and economic policies that can be used to reduce rising poverty levels by considering factors that policymakers use to eradicate poverty. The answer lies in the fact that poverty is a multi-dimensional problem. Thus, it should be approached from a political, economic, social, and cultural perspective. To solve this, I have expounded poverty in its dimensional approach and have discussed economic growth and inequality, the most critical factor influencing poverty. Effective job creation, a higher minimum wage, increased investment in places with low incomes, enhanced educational and training opportunities for all citizens are all tasks that policymakers must tackle with new and thoughtful approaches. It is critical that all government entities recognize the influence that poverty has on society and economic growth and development. Policymakers can help decrease poverty in their communities by becoming fully aware of the problem and not ignoring it any longer. Rather of condemning the individual person for his or her misfortune, it’s critical to address the issue and offer assistance and chances to the poor.
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Dollar, D., Kleineberg, T., & Kraay, A. (2015). Growth, inequality and social welfare: Cross-country evidence. Economic Policy, 30(82), 335-377.
Emara, N., & Mohieldin, M. (2020). Financial inclusion and extreme poverty in the MENA region: a gap analysis approach. Review of Economics and Political Science.
Jones, C. I., & Klenow, P. J. (2016). Beyond GDP? Welfare across countries and time. American Economic Review, 106(9), 2426-57.
Khan, R., Haque, M. I., Gupta, N., Tausif, M. R., & Kaushik, I. (2022). How do foreign aid and remittances affect poverty in MENA countries?. Plos one, 17(1), e0261510.
Meyer, B. D., & Wu, D. (2018). The poverty reduction of social security and means-tested transfers. ILR Review, 71(5), 1106-1153.
Ncube, M., Anyanwu, J. C., & Hausken, K. (2014). Inequality, economic growth, and poverty in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). African Development Review, 26(3), 435-453.
Neaime, S., & Gaysset, I. (2018). Financial inclusion and stability in MENA: Evidence from poverty and inequality. Finance Research Letters, 24, 230-237.
Roy, J., Tscharket, P., Waisman, H., Abdul Halim, S., Antwi-Agyei, P., Dasgupta, P., … & Suarez Rodriguez, A. G. (2018). Sustainable development, poverty eradication, and reducing inequalities.
Rupasingha, A., & Goetz, S. J. (2007). Social and political forces as determinants of poverty: A spatial analysis. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 36(4), 650-671.
Singh, P. K., & Chudasama, H. (2020). Evaluating poverty alleviation strategies in a developing country. PloS one, 15(1), e0227176.
Small, M. L., Harding, D. J., & Lamont, M. (2010). Reconsidering culture and poverty. The annals of the American academy of political and social science, 629(1), 6-27.
Foster Care In The USA Essay Sample For College
Foster care is an important program that includes providing temporal service for those children that are not with their parents. Children under foster care are in the protection of their relatives or with people they are not related to. Besides, foster care can involve other settings like group and residential care facilities and other areas under supervision. Cases of child maltreatment, include abuse and neglect in which victims suffers physically, sexually, and emotionally. Such maltreatment cases are a common problem in the US, and this has lifelong complications for the victims (Yi and Wildeman 38). Therefore, with the practical and ethical obligation, the state intervenes to remove such children from their homes and place them under foster care. In this case, foster care is preferable to the harmful effects of residential and kinship care and adoption. However, foster care also has some challenges, such as increased risks of criminal justice contact and substance use (45). The topic of foster care in the US is a concerning issue because of the increasing number of children entering. According to KVC Health Systems, 71% of states have reported an increasing number of young people in foster care experienced cases of parental substance abuse. Besides, there is a need for more resources as treatment programs and social workers available are not enough for the demand in foster care. While foster care is not ideal for children, it offers the least bad alternative for the victims of intentional, reckless, and negligent harm from parents.
Foster care provides supportive care for children in need in the US. According to Font and Gershoff (3), there are almost 700,000 young people that are identified as victims of abuse and neglect in the US every year while many are suspected to be at risk. Most of these children need services that will help them handle physical and mental problems, while a substantial number will need temporal or permanent care to protect them from harm. Therefore, foster care provides continued care for such children by placing them with relatives or non-relatives. Others are placed in intensive levels of care depending on their conditions and need for protection from further harm. In 2018, over 680,000 children were under foster care, most of them being victims of neglect, parental substance abuse, and physical abuse (Font and Gershoff 3). Without foster care, such children will not be safe because of risking harm from their parents.
Children get the social support they need to transition into adulthood through foster care. Prince noted that foster care presents supportive and caring relationship from adults that is significant for children to transition to adulthood. For instance, creating a bond with social workers helps them get the necessary things like information and psychological support important in their moving into adulthood. Youths in foster care with one year of established relationships with their mentors record less stress and are less likely to get into problems with the law than those who are not mentored (Prince). However, there are cases where care leavers report cases of lack of support and feelings of loneliness which affects their transition to adulthood. For instance, there are cases of reported lack of support from their family members, care providers, and other institutions (Häggman 16). Therefore, their wishes and needs are ignored, which leads to housing problems, academics, and financial instability.
Social and emotional wellbeing is among the challenges of foster care in the US. According to Nina (2), the social and psychological wellbeing of the people in foster care is affected by the aspects that contribute to their moving from their homes and the factors once in care. Cases of child malpractice can contribute to physical and mental health problems, which can last for a long especially when there are no immediate interventions. Most of the children in foster care are victims of adverse conditions that may threaten their safety and wellbeing. Also, removing the children from their homes can be a devastating experience and confusing to them. Children are sometimes forced to stay for long, including 12 months and more (Nina 2). In this case, the child can sometimes be moved from one foster to the other, putting them at the risk of negative social and emotional impacts. Besides, moving from one foster to the other exposes children to the continued disruption of their relationship with their friends and relatives. Also, frequent changes of professionals like judges and lawyers expose the children to mental problems and the inability to get a permanent home.
Child Welfare Information Gateway. Foster Care, 2022. https://www.childwelfare.gov/topics/outofhome/foster-care/. Accessed 23 March 2022.
Font, Sarah A., and Elizabeth T. Gershoff. “Foster Care: How We Can, and Should, Do More for Maltreated Children. Social Policy Report.” Society for Research in Child Development, vol. 33, no. 3, 2020.
Häggman-Laitila, Arja, Pirkko Salokekkilä, and Suyen Karki. “Transition to adult life of young people leaving foster care: A qualitative systematic review.” Children and Youth Services Review no. 95, 2018, pp. 134-143.
KVC Health Systems. Foster Care in America: Realities, Challenges and Solutions, 2018. https://www.kvc.org/blog/foster-care-in-america/. Accessed 23 March 2022.
Prince, Dana M. “Effects of individual risk and state housing factors on adverse outcomes in a national sample of youth transitioning out of foster care.” Journal of Adolescence vol. 74, 2019, pp. 33-44.
Williams, Nina. “The social and emotional well-being of children in foster care.” National Conference of State Legislatures, 2016. https://www.ncsl.org/Portals/1/Documents/cyf/Social_Emotional_WellBeing_Newsletter.pdf
Yi, Youngmin, and Christopher Wildeman. “Can foster care interventions diminish justice system inequality?” The Future of Children, vol. 28, no.1, 2018, pp. 37-58.
Frank Lloyd Wright Architecture Sample Paper
The architectural execution of a city or town is critical to its economic, social and cultural interaction. The ideal urban setting needs to be socially inclusive and cohesive to promote resilient and sustainable living. Contextually, when deliberating about Architecture in the United States, it is inevitable to mention Frank Lloyd Wright. Arguably, Frank Lloyd Wright was the best and most revered architect in the 20th century. His architectural career was characterized by developing more than 1000 designs and executing approximately half of them. This essay outlines a comprehensive analysis of how esteemed architectures define the frontiers of their field.
Frank Wright was strongly against city development, where he would constantly criticize the design for being cramped and crowded. Also, another re-known architecture Frank Gehry compliments this observation by stating, “Life is chaotic, dangerous and surprising. Buildings should reflect that.” (Rada 32). This is because city development was contrary to his design philosophy of organic architecture. The organic architecture philosophy utilized the natural environment for urban development, which he believed emphasized harmony, spirituality and geometric simplicity, just like typical Japanese art (Konovalova 16). Notably, his architectural work was versatile, spanning from hotels, museums, and places of worship. Some of his celebrated designs include; Usonian houses, prairie houses, Taliesin west, Tokyo imperial hotel, falling water, and Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum (Bystrova 112). Besides being an architect and designer, Wright was also a writer and educator. This essay focuses on two of his pieces of work, that are against modern architectural design centered around city development (Wright 101-162). According to Wright, the ideal world design needs to utilize nature by integrating beauty and functionality. This is a sharp contrast to conventional architectural planning and execution.
Throughout his profession, Frank Wright was against overcrowding in cities. Contrarily, he believed sub-urban community networks could be developed in the site and vicinity of the surrounding environment and this could be the basis of the cultural identity (Moorabbin 81-96). He offset the sub-urban planning designs in the early 20th century by revolutionizing the lot layout. The lot layout was designed in a way that it divided houses into four small-sized square blocks that are covered all around by a road network. This concept was called the quadruple block plan, intended to maximize yard space without compromising privacy.
Later on, Frank Wright reinforced his quadruple block plan to the Broadacre city concept. Broadacre City is a suburban development concept that features new designs and refinements of already existing designs. The concept was to represent a 4 square mile of the community network; however, it was clearly illustrated by a 12 by 12-foot model that was presented during the Industrial Arts Exposition in the Rockefeller center.
The broadacre city took a futuristic design since Wright had integrated innovative features that were way out of its time. Some of the building designs used in the model had never been seen or even imagined to be developed. Ideally, Wright wanted the community to be a socio-political scene; thereby, he intended to allocate at least an acre to each household of at least five individuals. This is because he had estimated the city’s population density to be 2.5 people per acre (Hwang 90-99). The land allocation was to come from the federal land reserves. Contrary to his anti-modern architecture, Wright was for the idea that the houses constructed could use products of modern architecture such as steel and glass. This is because they offer strong foundations and enable the residents to connect with nature which is the sole objective of organic architecture. However, the houses ought to portray their uniqueness since the landscape differs from place to place.
Additionally, the city had planned to have state-of-the-art airfields and roads to help curb traffic, a persistent issue. The model gave detailed landscaping and design of the transport network linking major towns. According to the concept, the road networks comprised a superhighway with at least six lanes, an arterial highway with outer lanes designed for trucks and tributary roads with at least three lanes. The pedestrian was confined to one-acre allocations of the population.
Seemingly, other essential amenities such as schools, hospitals, hotels, farm units, roadside markets, recreational centers, and industrial areas were incorporated into the plan. The hotels will be minimal and take cottage-like designs. However, food trucks will be advised for easier accessibility to the city’s people. Furthermore, the administrative functions were to be catered for by a communal centre. These amenities were designed to be easily accessible by road or air; they were situated within a radius of 150 miles. Moreover, the city was to be fitted with gas stations which were projected to grow into malls, restaurants, and distribution centers.
The broadacre concept planned on reinventing other urban elements to fit in their idealized features. The educational sector was one of the fields that Wright wanted to modify. He advocated for one university per county with small groups of students and no professors. Alternatively, the institution will be run by three elected officials, one elected by a scientist and the other two are elected by a philosopher and an artist. Comparatively, the other fields will be focused on industry-sponsored learning centres.
The principle phenomena leading to the broadacre concept was the idea of decentralization. Frank Wright was an ardent believer that cities should be decentralized in functions. This is attributed to how the typical cities faced many problems such as bureaucracy, profit-centered landlords, and expensive goods (Rada 32). Additionally, the idea of democracy and organic architecture played a vital role in the experimental inception of the broadacre city. Therefore, all residential areas should have an extension of the open countryside and harmonize with the naturally existing landscape. According to Wright, democracy is not just fixated on a government; however, that should also be incorporated into society.
According to Frank Wright’s utopian concept, democracy was interrelated with the freedom he believed the conventional cities lacked. He envisioned that through conceptualizing a scarcely populated city, the occupants could freely move and resultantly have access to their democratic values as citizens (Roulier 105-132). Symbolically, the roads and other transport networks represented freedom, while the automobile signified democracy.
Frank Wright was extremely displeased with the landlord profiting from high renting rates. Therefore, through organic architecture, the construction costs would significantly drop and consequentially lower the rent prices (Watson 1006-1029). Contextually, Wright idealizes a community inclusive of all social classes; therefore, middle and lower classes do not feel left out.
Frank wright believed that another way to a democratic lifestyle is through individual development. This is because democracy begins with adherence to the regulations in small group settings before scaling to the community. Ideally, after the independence of America, individualism is regarded as a win for democracy (Galbraith 47). Therefore, the broadacre city concept implements individualism by cutting off intermediaries between producers and consumers.
Equal Access to Urban Amenities
Freedom and democracy were at the core of the development of the broadacre concept. Therefore, it was essential for Frank Wright to ensure that justice and equality were considered in distributing services such as medical care and access to amenities. The equality is evident from the even distribution of one-acre land to all households. Additionally, the suggestion of one university per state depicts evidence of even distribution. Also, all other social amenities, such as hospitals, were strategically designed to satisfy everyone’s needs equally.
As mentioned earlier, Frank Wright was strongly against the payment of rent since he viewed it as high-level extortion. He was able to counter this menace by land issues to each household, who would later construct their desired residential area. Consequentially, land ownership eradicates the need for employment. Therefore, one has a range of professions he can choose to specialize in. With the residents of the city doing jobs they are passionate about coupled with minimal responsibilities creates financial stability for the people of the community.
The design of the broadacre city will significantly impact the freedom of movement and interaction of the residents, which complements Wright’s philosophy of freedom and democracy. The mobility features are evident from exemplary road networks and airfields that were proposed.
The fate of the concept
Upon Frank Wright’s death in 1959, that was the end of implementing the broadacre concept. However, his student formed a partnership with other individuals and then bought 95 acres of land in New York to develop a cooperative community (Bauman et al. 96-109). Unfortunately, mortgage troubles prevent the group from actualizing the concept. Seemingly, there were multiple modifications of the concept but done on a small scale. For instance, many Usonian homes in California and New York borrowed from the same concept. Also, Levittown used the same idea for the mass production of homes at an affordable rate.
Conventionally, architecture is centered around designing and planning structures focusing on aesthetics and functionality. However, eminent architects such as Frank Lloyd Wright consider their design an art that has a social, cultural and economic impact on the surrounding communities. All architects had guiding philosophies that provided the basis for their professional work. Frank Wright’s architectural designs emphasized organic architecture, decentralized integration and democracy. These philosophies are accurately fitted in his suburban development concept called Broadacre City. The broadacre concept was intended to reduce overcrowding and offer democracy and freedom to its occupants. Collectively, both philosophies of architecture are contrary to modern architectural designs.
Bauman, Whitney A., Kevin J. O’Brien, and Richard Bohannon. “The dangers of building without ambiguity: Spirituality and utopianism in Frank Lloyd Wright.” Environmental Ethics and Uncertainty. Routledge, 2019. 96-109.
Bystrova, T. Y. “Concept of Organic Architecture in the Second Half of the XXth Century in the Context of Sustainable Development.” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Vol. 481. No. 1. IOP Publishing, 2019: 113.
Galbraith, Nora. “Frank Lloyd Wright in the South: a Photographic Essay.” 2017. 47.
Hwang, Yong-Woon. “A Study on the Analysis of Design Characteristic of Works of Frank Lloyd Wright in Arizona State.” Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal 27.3 (2018): 90-99.
Konovalova, Nina. “Organic Architecture of Japan.” The 2nd International Conference on Architecture: Heritage, Traditions and Innovations (AHTI 2020). Atlantis Press, 2020: 46.
Moorabbin, Hoshiar. “Architectural identity in an era of change.” Developing Country Studies 2.10 (2012): 81-96.
Rada, Jan. “American Modernist and Postmodernist Architecture: Frank Lloyd Wright and Frank Gehry.” 2018: 32.
Roulier, Scott M. “Democracy and Individuality: Frank Lloyd Wright’s Broadacres and the Burbs.” Shaping American Democracy. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 2018. 105-132.
The City By: Frank Lloyd Wright
The Skyscraper By: Frank Lloyd Wright
Watson, Joseph M. “The Suburbanity of Frank Lloyd Wright’s Broadacre City.” Journal of Urban History 45.5 (2019): 1006-1029.