Francis Galton : Fingerprinters Sample College Essay

Francis Henry Galton published “Fingerprints” in 1892, contributing to the adoption of fingerprinting for identification purposes. This publication has greatly aided the field of forensics in the identification of criminals and unidentified victims. Mathieu Orfila, also known as “The Father of Forensic Toxicology,” published a work on poison detection and its effects on animals in 1814.

This paragraph describes how Hans Gross’s contributions in forensic science, particularly two significant ones, have improved the determination of whether poisons were involved in homicide or rape cases. In 1893, he authored the first scientific document that detailed the disciplines necessary for conducting a criminal investigation. These guidelines are now universally applied in all criminal investigations. Additionally, Gross wrote a journal that highlighted how combining expertise from various fields of criminal investigation could enhance crime detection efforts, serving as a valuable resource for experts in the field.

In the field of forensic science, various disciplines are involved such as microscopy, fingerprinting, anthropometry, botany, zoology, mineralogy, physics, and chemistry. Notably, Dr. Karl Landsteiner and Dr. Leone Lattes made significant contributions to blood detection. By combining Dr. Lattes’ technique with Dr. Landsteiner’s blood type findings, they applied these advancements to criminal investigations. Additionally, Edmond Locard was the pioneer in establishing the first working forensics lab and implementing fundamental principles.

According to Saferstein (2009), Dr. Walter C. McCrone introduced the Microscope to forensic science in the twentieth century. He also developed Locards Exchange Principle, which explains the exchange of materials when two objects come into contact with each other. Dr. McCrone played a significant role in teaching numerous forensic scientists about microscopy techniques.

Anton Chekhov Lady With The Dog

Anton Chekhov explores the pursuit of happiness in his story “The Lady with the Dog.” The plot centers on a married man who violates his marital promises by having an affair with a woman stuck in an unhappy marriage. By employing skillful language and symbolism, Chekhov captivates readers with this simple yet gripping narrative. Anton Pavlovich Chekhov was born on January 17th, 1860, in Taganrog, Ukraine, and grew up in a modest seaport town.

Anton Chekhov is now acknowledged as a prominent playwright and one of the masters in modern short storytelling. Despite his humble beginnings as the son of a grocer and grandson of a former serf who had purchased his freedom almost two decades earlier, Chekhov’s talent has endured. During his youth, he observed his father’s strong religious devotion while also working long hours at their family store. From 1867 to 1868, he studied at a school for Greek boys in his hometown before attending the local grammar school until 1876. However, due to his father’s bankruptcy, the entire family relocated to Moscow.

At the age of 16, Chekhov made the decision to stay in his hometown. He supported himself through tutoring while continuing his education for three more years. Upon completion of grammar school, he enrolled in Moscow University Medical School with the aim of becoming a doctor. His works were greatly influenced by his medical and scientific background, often featuring characters who are indifferent towards tragic events. In 1886, while practicing medicine, Chekhov started writing regularly for the St. Petersburg daily Novoe vremya. It was during this time that he developed his unique style as an author – one characterized by detachment and non-judgmentalness.

Although some critics were disappointed by his lack of social commentary, esteemed authors such as Leo Tolstoy and Nikolai Leskov praised him for it. Descriptions from this period depict the young doctor-writer as modest and serious with occasional bursts of joyfulness – maintaining a down-to-earth demeanor that resonated with his working-class upbringing. With intelligent and kind shimmering blue eyes, Chekhov exuded an unpretentious and sincere manner.

He was a tireless worker, constantly busy with both his patients and his desk. His mind was always active and filled with boundless energy. Sometimes, in the midst of joking and conversation, he would suddenly become lost in thought, his gaze becoming focused and intense as if he were pondering something significant and extraordinary. He would then ask an unexpected question, revealing the extensive wanderings of his mind. When Chekhov penned this story in 1899, he was already suffering from advanced tuberculosis, leaving him unable to breathe properly.

At his doctor’s orders, Chekhov had spent the winter of 1898-99 in the mild climate of Yalta and was on the brink of permanently relocating there. Additionally, Chekhov had developed romantic feelings for Olga Knipper, an actress whom he would eventually wed in 1901. It is tempting to interpret the affectionate bond between Gurov and Anna through the lens of Chekhov’s own blossoming love. Within each conversation between the protagonist, Dmitri, and his mistress, Anna, Chekhov specifically highlights moments of silence. In every instance, these silences between the characters intensify the already tense atmosphere.

During their initial encounter, Anna and Dmitri engage in small talk about Anna’s pet dog. Dmitri, who has been observing Anna for a few days, realizes that she is alone. Curious about her stay in Yalta, he poses the question to her. In response, Anna discloses that she has been in the city for approximately five days and is already feeling weary by the start of her second week there. Rather than addressing Anna’s boredom, Dmitri remains silent for a period of time, as noted by Chekhov.

In the text, Chekhov recounts how Chekhov responds to Dmitri’s comment and notes that thereafter, they ate together in silence, almost as if they were strangers. However, after the meal, they walked together and engaged in a lighthearted conversation. This conversation was reminiscent of carefree individuals who were content and unconcerned about their destination or topic of discussion. Surprisingly, these silences in their initial conversation not only highlighted the awkwardness that often accompanies the efforts of newly acquainted individuals to connect but also served as a precursor to a recurring pattern of tense silences that would signify a deepening complexity in their relationship.

After a week of daily meetings, the relationship between Dmitri and Anna transitions from casual to physically intimate. While standing at a jetty observing the sea and boats, Dmitri closely watches Anna as she talks aimlessly. He notices her movements and the shine in her eyes, which generates tension. This tension reaches its peak during a moment of silence when Dmitri remarks on the improved weather and suggests going for a drive. However, Anna remains silent, intensifying the tension. In response to her silence, they share a sudden embrace, followed by a passionate and romantic kiss marked by nervousness due to their public setting. Dmitri then softly proposes going to Anna’s place to consummate their relationship. They both quickly walk towards their destination.

The relationship between the two characters in the story escalates after a period of silence. Chekhov employs this device multiple times as Anna’s guilt causes the couple to fracture and go their separate ways. The prolonged silence during their separation ultimately leads Dmitri to realize his love for Anna, reigniting their affair. Chekhov’s story is narrated by both an omniscient narrator and the internal thoughts of the protagonist. In a specific passage, the musings of the omniscient narrator and the protagonist intertwine.

Chekhov employs an omniscient narrator in an intriguing way, as they offer a broader philosophical perspective on the story’s events and characters. The narrator seamlessly integrates their philosophy into the protagonist’s thoughts, effectively immersing the reader in the narrative. However, the narrator’s voice fades away once Anna reminds us that Dmitri Gurov is present, allowing Dmitri to carry on and conclude the narrator’s train of thought.

The concept of a storyteller who interrupts with philosophical insight is a captivating technique. It momentarily shifts the reader’s focus from the plot to ponder deeper matters. This technique enriches a potentially uninteresting plot and story. Chekhov presents his tale sequentially, introducing one idea after another. For instance, Gurov encounters Anna and develops romantic feelings for her.

At first, Gurov approached his relationship with Anna in the same manner as any other. However, he eventually acknowledges his past errors (focusing solely on the physical aspects without emotional depth). Eventually, they part ways and pursue their individual paths. Nonetheless, Gurov comprehends that he has discovered genuine love for the very first time in his life. This narrative follows a chronological sequence of events: Gurov encounters Anna, they develop their initial love and spend quality time together before returning to their respective homes. Following a period of separation, they reunite and establish an affair that matures into a fully-fledged relationship.

Chekhov employs a straightforward linear approach that permits no deviation, as if he were constructing a logical proof. The plot devices in “The Lady with the Little Dog” are skillfully crafted and subtle, resulting in a captivating narrative that leaves the conclusion open to interpretation. By utilizing literary techniques, Chekhov creates a vivid and fantastical imagery in the readers’ minds. What sets Chekhov apart is his ability to seamlessly merge the theme of disunity with a harmonious authorial style. Throughout the text, readers remain fixated on the central focus, which revolves around the ever-changing fortunes and emotions of the characters.

Economics Elasticity Concepts

Illustrating with examples, explain the concepts of price elasticity of demand, income elasticity of demand and cross elasticity of demand. Income elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness of demand to a change in income, ceteris paribus. It is the percentage change in demand for a good resulting from a percentage change in income, ceteris paribus. When income changes with other price or non-price factors, such as income, remaining unchanged, income elasticity of demand measures how much to which demand will change, ceteris paribus.

Income elasticity of demand that is negative refers to inferior goods which are of lower quality and are cheaper alternatives. An increase of income will result to a fall in demand of these items. As people’s incomes increase, the demand for such inferior goods will decrease as people now have the ability to purchase goods of higher quality. This will result the demand curve for the inferior goods to shift leftwards. On the other hand, the income elasticity of demand that is positive (between 0 and 1) refers to normal necessity goods. As income increases, basic necessities such as bread, will only rise a little.

The demand for these items rises less than proportionately with a change in income as we have a limited need to consume additional quantities of basic or necessary goods. Therefore, the demand curve will only shift rightwards by a little. Finally, income elasticity of demand that is positive (more than 1) implies to normal luxurious goods. When income increases, the demand for luxury goods such as cars, rises more than proportionately to a change in income as consumers have the confidence and the purchasing power to buy these goods. Hence, the demand curve will shift more significantly to the right.

However, the income level of consumers is another factor which affects the income elasticity of demand. While the income elasticity of demand for basic necessities is less than 1, the income elasticity of demand for necessities is higher for the poor as compared to the rich. Poor people’s (low-income earners) demand for basic necessity will respond differently from rich people to a rise in income. For instance, for a rise in income, the poor may purchase more vegetables than the rich. This is because the rich are already satisfied with the amount of vegetables consumed and are unlikely to buy more vegetables when their income rises.

Furthermore, the same good can be considered as a normal good at low income levels but an inferior good at higher income levels. When income level rises from a low level at first, the demand for a good rises and the good is regarded as a normal good. At low income levels, people buy second hand clothing because the more desirable substitutes, such as branded clothes, are beyond their affordability. When income rises for this group of people, demand for second-hand clothing will decrease as they will buy more branded clothes due to their higher purchasing power.

Cross price elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness of demand for one commodity to a change in the price of another commodity, ceteris paribus. It is the percentage change in the demand resulting from a percentage change in the price of another good, ceteris paribus. When the price of good A changes with other price or non-price factors such as income remaining constant, cross-price elasticity of demand will measure the extent of the change of quantity demanded for good B, ceteris paribus. Cross-price elasticity of demand values can vary from minus infinity to plus infinity.

The absolute size or value of the coefficient shows the degree of substitutability or complementarity. Goods that are close substitutes or close complements will exhibit high (magnitude) of cross-price elasticity of demand. Complements are goods in joint demand. When there is a strong complementary relationship between the two products, the cross-price elasticity will be highly negative. For example games consoles and software games. If the goods are complementary, for example bread and butter then the value of the cross-price elasticity will be negative.

This is because as the price of good A (bread) rises, quantity demanded of bread will fall. Therefore, less of good B (butter) will be demanded. This results in a negative value for cross-price elasticity of good B with respect to good A. On the other hand, with substitute goods such as different brands of cereal, an increase in the price of one good will lead to an increase in quantity demand for the rival product. This results in a positive value for the cross-price elasticity of demand. Also, if the price of good A changes, but there is no change in the quantity demanded for good B, then the goods are said to be independent goods (e. bread and hand phones). In this case, the cross-price elasticity of demand is equal to zero. The two major determinants of cross-price elasticity of demand are the closeness of substitutes or compliments and the degree of differences in prices of the related goods. The closer the relationship between the two goods, the bigger the effect of the change of price of the good on the change of demand for the respective substitute or complimentary good and hence the greater the value of the cross-price elasticity of demand – either positively or negatively respectively.

Two goods, A and B may be substitutes or complements but the cross-price elasticity for good A with respect to good B may not be the same as the cross-price elasticity of good B with respect to good A. This is due to the differences in the prices of the two goods. For example, cars and petrol are consumed together as complementary goods. However, the expenditure on the car forms a greater proportion of total expenditure as compared to the expenditure on petrol.

Hence, if there is a rise in the price of petrol, the demand for cars might fall only marginally as the amount spent on petrol is small compared to the overall cost of owning a car. This means that the cross-price elasticity of demand for cars with respect to the price of petrol is relatively low. However, if the price of cars were to increase instead, there would be a more than proportionate fall in the quantity demanded for cars and there will also be a significant fall in the demand for petrol. Therefore, the cross-price elasticity of petrol with respect to the price of cars is much higher.

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