Freedom Of Speech And Censorship Sample Paper

One of the most critical aspects of fighting against cybercrime involves a proper balancing between the preservation of people’s right to free speech and censorship. Internet is a hub for freedom of expression and thought since one can state his or her opinions without revealing his or her identity. Anonymity is important since “the Supreme Court has also ruled that the First Amendment protects the right to speak anonymously as part of the guarantee of free speech” (Reynolds, 2018, p. 188).

One of the most direct ways to fight cybercrime or online illegal activity is by disrupting the communication channel of the communicator. However, this practice comes with a baggage of potential violations of free speech, which is called internet censorship. The latter can be defined as “the control or suppression of the publishing or accessing of information on the Internet” (Reynolds, 2018, p. 195). In other words, an enforcer pressures the “upstream” information holders, such as service providers, to suppress one’s communication.

Therefore, balancing between adhering to the First Amendment and censorship is an intricate and delicate endeavor. Such an approach must be utilized by properly identifying what is not protected by the law, which includes private actors, non-governmental parties, and specific forms of expression beyond the First Amendment. The latter includes speech integral to illegal activity, child pornography, fraudulent activity, and obscenity (Reynolds, 2018). In addition, private entities can conduct censorship on their channels, which is not considered a violation of the First Amendment since they do not represent the government (Reynolds, 2018). However, such private actors need to ensure that they are not violating any other laws, such as sexual harassment laws, by taking preventative actions. Thus, the First Amendment does extend to all forms of expression, which means cybercrime needs to be fought within the defined boundaries.

Reference

Reynolds, G. W. (2018). Ethics in information technology (6th ed.). Cengage Learning.

Should College Athletes Be Paid Or Not?

College sports are a multibillion-dollar market in the United States. However, participants, who are student-athletes, are not paid. Even though collegiate sports appear to be at the pinnacle of popularity across the country, the status quo has remained constant. This essay seeks to explore the controversial issue of payments in college sports. It is crucial to explain the phenomenon concerning the risks of abuse and enormous financial gains for third parties. Given the lack of payment, the appreciation of college athletes’ effort and exhaustive training remains an open question. Based on the role of student-athletes in generating revenues for their colleges, the risks they take, and the principles of deontological ethics, college athletes should be paid as employees.

Since society has become concerned about the payment of college students, the debate has always been shunned based on claims that student-athlete expenses would have more adversities than benefits for both students and institutions. It is argued that athletes would be reluctant to commit to their respective colleges once they compare payments with different institutions (Gerardo 203). However, it would be ethical to appreciate students’ efforts rather than deny them charges by maintaining them. Concerns have been raised regarding the payments turning colleges into business premises, which could lead to essential programs significant downfall. Moreover, it is believed that the colleges must cut budgets from somewhere else to cater to the payments (Nilhas 5). Nevertheless, before such claims are made, it is reasonable to consider whether such individuals reflect on students’ efforts in college sports and the associated health-related risks. A wide range of threats, such as health deterioration, injuries, or even disabilities, that student-athletes face cannot be excluded from the discussion. Aside from the matters of health and safety, this population’s significant time investments into representing their educational institutions should receive enough attention from those involved in financial decision-making.

Student-athletes generate revenues for colleges whenever they participate in championship games. When this universal truth is taken into consideration, it becomes clear that colleges’ need to cut costs to pay athletes does not possess much argumentative power in the discussed debate. Concerns about payment based on implementation difficulties have also seen some argue against the move (Allison et al. 8). However, the amount should be based on the levels of resources and athletes’ success. Nowadays, it happens that colleges can be successful in sports due to their students’ hard work but still fail to pay athletes that represent their institutions. Instead of this scenario, it is reasonable to anticipate colleges to align the size of payments with their levels of success in terms of sports. In this case, colleges with the highest achievements in this regard will have greater financial rewards for their student-athletes compared to the less successful institutions. Since students need motivation and compensation, such changes to colleges’ approaches to rewarding athletes could result in the latter’s increased satisfaction, thus improving their determination to reach new heights even more.

To continue, within the frame of the paid sports participation debate and the involved institutions’ grounds for decision-making, it is possible to assume that colleges and universities should behave in manners directed by pure reason. The claims on which shunning payments are based are only consequences that do not make their actions accurate. Regarding deontological ethics, educational institutions’ efforts should relate duty to the morality of human activities (Knoester and Ridpath 400). It implies that despite the postulated consequences, morality in actions should value efforts, time, dedication, and risks for college athletes.

Despite the numerous compelling reasons why college athletes should be compensated, there are also some counterarguments to explain why they should not be paid. Those opposing monetary compensations for college players respond to these arguments by emphasizing schools’ and universities’ principal goal of offering students a satisfying academic opportunity that equips them for professional employment. Those who disagree with paying college athletes argue that given the financial strains college athletic departments face, scholarship money remains the most acceptable form of compensation for young players. Most colleges and universities spend more money on athletics than they make (Nilhas 5). Scholarships allow collegiate players to obtain a high-quality education that will enable them to earn more money in non-sporting careers. According to the opposers, paying student-athletes could challenge true competition that distinguishes collegiate and professional sports by making this population seen almost as employees that have to fulfill the management’s expectations (Corrada 187). Paying for team sports is limited to the cost of attending school, excluding a subset of students who profit from their college experience.

To sum up, considering the presented evidence, paying college athletes based on the value of their actions for the institutions seems to be a positive option. Regardless of the outcomes of paying student-athletes, it would be ethical to introduce payments based on deontological concepts and as a sign of respecting their engagement in effort-intensive and time-consuming activities. As college sports gain an apex population and transform into a multi-billion industry, payments would see the athletes get motivated for their actions.

Works Cited

Allison, Rachel, et al. “Public Opinions about Paying College Athletes and Athletes Protesting during the National Anthem: A Focus on Race/ethnicity and Political Identities.Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race, 2021, pp. 1-23. Web.

Corrada, Roberto L. “College Athletes in Revenue-Generating Sports as Employees: A Look into the Alt-Labor Future.” Chicago-Kent Law Review, vol. 95, 2020, pp. 187-216. Web.

Gerardo, David A. “The Blue Devil’s in the Details: How a Free Market Approach to Compensating College Athletes Would Work.” Pepperdine Law Review, vol. 46, 2018, pp. 203-276. Web.

Knoester, Chris, and David Ridpath. “Should College Athletes Be Allowed to Be Paid? A Public Opinion Analysis.Sociology of Sport Journal, vol. 38, no. 4, 2020, pp. 399-411. Web.

Nilhas, Josef. “The Fight for Pay: How the Supreme Court Ultimately May Use Antitrust Law to Allow Student-Athletes to Be Paid.” Saint Louis University Law Journal Online, vol. 68, 2021, pp. 2‑7. Web.

Construction Of Fertilizer Blending Plants In Nigeria: Cost And Schedule Impact

Summary

Research Background

The recent focus on the use of the available resources in order to produce NPK fertilizers has opened the door for Nigeria o enjoy multiple opportunities for attracting investors from overseas, thus, allowing the state to support and maintain its economic growth. Due to its recent foray into Forex trading, Nigeria has produced the premises for consistent economic improvements, which will be supported to a tremendous degree with the influx of investments from foreign partners (Ndubuisi, 2017). Specifically, the company known as OCP Africa, which is currently one of the major fertilizer producers in Nigeria, is going to play a major part in the process (OCP Africa, 2021). However, to ensure that the change occurs smoothly, the major impediments to the increase in Nigeria’s business’ attractiveness to potential investors will be needed. Due to the current sociopolitical and socioeconomic situation in Nigeria, as well as the cultural factors affecting the schedule, the focus on improving the communication channels, increasing visibility within the company, and the use of downsizing will be needed.

Problem Statement

Delving deeper into the development of the project under analysis, one will realize that a unique impediment was encountered as OCP Africa started expanding its services and seeking out foreign investors in search of financial assistance. Namely, evident problems with scheduling and time management, in general, have been observed across OCP Africa’s setting, as well as its expanding supply chain and the creation of new fertilizer blending plants.

Research Question

Will the application of downsizing techniques, the use of delegation for more effective management of tasks, the inclusion of new communication channels into the SCM network, increased visibility by means of innovative digital technology, and the reduction of costs with the help of downsizing, will OCP Africa be able to accomplish its current goals by establishing new Fertilizer Blending Plants and finding new investors overseas?

Literature Review

Given Nigeria’s recent agricultural transformation and the focus on exploring the agricultural industry as the fastest option for gaining leverage in the global economy, the development of fertilizer blending plants as the suppliers of the products that will allow Nigerian agriculture to thrive is entirely sensible. As Olaoye et al. (2020) explain, “The growth rate of the Nigerian population is expected to double 2006 estimate by the year 2030; thus, the sector will need to supply more food to a growing and increasingly urbanized population as well as for export.” Therefore, it is vital to condense the efforts produced by entrepreneurs in the agricultural industry to attract investors to the Nigerian economic setting in order to support further growth within the fertilizer sector of the Nigerian agriculture industry.

It is also noteworthy that the production of fertilizers has become significantly easier from the political perspective in Nigeria despite the ongoing concerns within its government, mainly due to the regulation that lifted the state’s monopoly on fertilizer distribution in 1996 (Olaoye et al., 2020). The specified step has led to the rise in the range of business opportunities for independent organizations producing fertilizers, which, in turn, has had a positive effect on the Nigerian economy (Michael, 2017; Oyetunde-Usman et al., 2021).

However, despite the observed opportunities, significant constraints have been observed while implementing the project. Namely, according to the existing reports, the OCP Africa Company has been dealing with significant time management issues, specifically, failing to meet the set schedule. In turn, the specified problem has caused the schedule to become unnecessarily convoluted, causing a range of errors and delays in the delivery of the required materials and products across the supply chain (OCP Africa, 2018; Wong et al., 2020). The specified errors are likely to devalue the progress that OCP Africa has made, therefore, jeopardizing the chances for Nigeria to remain within the realm of the global economy and continue to increase its GDP along with the economic opportunities and future prospects for partnership and, particularly, investments (Hayat, 2019; Epaphra and Massawe, 2017; Sothan, 2017). Therefore, it is paramount that foreign investors should be drawn to Nigeria’s economic setting, which OCP Africa will be able to implement once the company updates its current communication framework and revisits its HRM strategies along with the approach toward time management.

Specifically, the company will have to focus on the possible sources of conflict within its environment and the nature of the tasks that it has scheduled. Namely, the misalignment between the company’s current objectives, particularly its expansion into the global economic setting, and the problematic approach to scheduling and the management of costs, especially in regard to resource allocation, will need to be addressed. In regard to the budget-related issue, the concerns associated with the poor alignment of the engineering and agricultural tasks need to be addressed. Studies indicate that Nigeria’s described issue is particularly common (Folajinmi and Peter, 2020). Arguably, the problem stems from the lack of an effective communication channel through which key tasks will be assigned to each organization member (Tsado et al., 2017). Therefore, the inclusion of a framework that will guide the organization toward greater flexibility and more accurate management of the available time resources is believed to produce an immeasurably positive impact on the current state of affairs. When applied to the OCP Africa context, the suggested measure may imply that digital project management tools and video conferencing may help to maintain alignment between the actions of OCP Africa’s staff.

Similarly, problems with defining the target team clearly and ensuring that each participant is aware and constantly updated on the status of his or her tasks and performance rates appear to lie at the core of the poor budget and time management in Nigeria. According to the research performed by Bartel-Radic and Giannelloni (2017), the inclusion of cultural competence into the leadership framework and especially in project management will invite a positive change, thus, causing a shift in staff members’ perception of their role within the company and the significance of their input. Therefore, the problem at hand must be considered through a different lens, including financial, economic, and sociocultural, so that the key constraints within OCP Africa can be isolated and addressed.

Research Methodology

The nature of the question that this research seeks to answer might seem as qualitative at first since it does not involve a direct premise for the quantitative analysis by juxtaposing two variables requiring a numerical comparison. However, on further assessment of the research nature and its goals, one will notice the necessity to compare the efficacy of the current method to the outcomes of the suggested improvements, which is why the integration of a quantitative methodological foundation for the study is quite justified (Basias and Pollalis, 2018). Namely, since the study is geared toward the examination of the effects that the expectedly improved framework will have on the current attractiveness of Nigeria and, particularly, OCP Africa for overseas investments, locating the variation in the effects of the suggested method and the current one is highly desirable. Therefore, the quantitative approach should serve as the basis for conducting the research.

For this reason, when selecting the research paradigm, the Positivism philosophy should be prioritized. In conjunction with the specified reasoning, the necessity to use the deductive approach as the means of eliciting the relationships between the key variables is preferable. Namely, the key conclusions will be made based on the outcomes of testing the suggestion that the use of a communication-based strategy with the focus on opening additional channels for data management will allow enhancing the quality of OCP Africa’s performance in the Nigerian agricultural sector, thus, drawing the interest and attention of investors overseas.

To ensure that the process of testing the proposed model should be as close to the target set as possible, a case study will be conducted within the setting of OCP Africa. Namely, a mono-method with the adoption of a cross-sectional framework to ensure that not only economic but also political, sociocultural, legal, and even environmental concerns are taken into account will be utilized. Thus, the study will remain focused, leading to further elicitation of poignant and meaningful results.

Data Collection

Data Collection Methods

The information gathering process can be approached from different perspectives in this case. Specifically, the required statistical data may be obtained by analyzing the submitted reports and obtaining them directly with the help of observations. However, since observations are very time-consuming for the project in question. to collect the necessary information, data recorded from the outcomes of meetings with stakeholders and internal team meetings will be used. Namely, the reports produced by team members and provided during team meetings, including not only the keynotes but also the detailed statistics concerning the changes in OCP Africa’s economic and financial performance will be gathered during the meetings in question.

Data Collection Instrument

To gather the necessary information, a form that will be filled out based on the reports submitted by managers and staff members during meetings will be used. Specifically, the form in question will contain information concerning the performance rates within OCP Africa, in general, as well as the statistical data concerning the number of delays and failed tasks. Particularly, the number of incomplete assignments and the instances of ineffective cost management will be documented to be compared afterward with the statistical data to be collected after the experiment (see Appendix A).

Population and Sampling

To facilitate high veracity and accuracy of the research results, it is strongly recommended to increase the sample size significantly so that high levels of variation could be addressed accordingly. As a result, a highly probable outcome is expected to be obtained. For this reason, it is suggested that the sample should be represented by statistical data that will include at least 1,000 reports, of which 280 will be utilized as a sample. With the confidence level of 95% and the margin of error being located at 5%, the specified sample size will satisfy the need for accuracy in assessing the variation rates within the selected variables (Sim et al., 2018). Namely, the suggested sample will help to assess the efficacy of changes to be made to the communication channel within the organization, as well as the role that downsizing will play on OCP Africa’s performance and the further improvement in Nigeria’s overall rate within the target economic environment.

Additionally, the evaluation to be conducted will shed light on the extent to which the staff members’ motivation and readiness to develop new skills will have grown once the downsizing strategy is implemented in OCP Africa’s setting. It should be pointed out that the use of downsizing should not be treated as a scare tactic used to force staff members to comply so that they are not dismissed. Instead, it needs to be represented as a change in corporate ethics and the promotion of a more respectful attitude toward customers and other stakeholders, as well as a more responsible interpretation of employees’ workplace responsibilities and tasks.

The required sample will be collected with the help of the cluster sampling technique. The proposed technique will allow obtaining reports from experts in different fields, which will provide vital insights into the subject matter from the political, economic, environmental, financial, and sociocultural perspectives (Rahi, 2017). Namely, the cluster sampling approach will be used to disperse the data in a way that will lead to the most fruitful research.

However, it is noteworthy that the cluster sampling technique may cause one-sidedness in data collection. Therefore, reconsidering the cost management approach to minimize the financial losses for the project will be needed. Nonetheless, the application of the cluster sampling approach should be prioritized in the case at hand over other techniques due to its numerous advantages. Specifically, the cluster sampling technique is bound to cause notably lower expenses than the rest of the approaches (Etikan and Bala, 2017).

Limitations

The key limitations of the study to be conducted in the OCP Africa Company setting is inextricably connected to the selection of the sampling technique. Namely, the necessity to maintain higher levels of research at all costs will put significant strain on the participants; moreover, it will increase the likelihood of an error, which may jeopardize the outcomes of the study. Thus., a set of control tools, particularly, careful recording and further checking of the key stages of the study will need to be incorporated into the study design so that the quality of the research outcomes should not suffer (Heudtlass et al., 2018). Overall, it is assumed that the proposed sampling technique and the approach toward determining the sample size will lead to a rather precise assessment of the situation and the resulting

Data Analysis

After the key data is obtained from the analysis of the reports provided during team meetings, it will be analyzed accordingly. Since the study in question pursues the comparison of key dependent variables, namely, the impact of the suggested techniques on the efficacy of the project’s cost efficiency and the quality of the time management processes, a comprehensive assessment will be needed. For this reason, the use of ANOVA as the method of locating variance within the selected variables based on the impact of independent variables will be utilized. Additionally, the application of the ANOVA analysis tools will help in detailing the exact effects of specific powers on the development of the company’s efficacy and its performance in the target market.

Admittedly, the ANOVA tool has several limitations, one of which concerns its restricted use in quantitative assessment; according to British (2019, p. 3), ANOVA “simply compares the means of the observed DV(s) across groups.” However, the specified limits of the selected approach toward data analysis and assessment does not suggest that the application of ANOVA will lead to erroneous results; quite the contrary, the proposed analysis tool will serve its purpose perfectly and perform its main function accordingly since it is designed to isolate the presence of a system within the located data range, thus, determining whether the observed phenomenon is attributed to a random effect or whether there is a presence of a statistical influence between the variables in question.

The key information will be processed with the help of the SPSS tool. Although the SPSS software has been utilized as the tool for data analysis in research for decades, it remains the most effective framework for evaluating the data with extraordinary levels of precision and presenting the results as accurately as possible. In fact, Ong et al. (2017) point out that SPSS is “very user friendly and various statistical tests could be conducted using this software” (p. 18). Moreover, the author continues to praise SPSS for its ability to perform a meticulous evaluation of the available data, producing the outcomes of unmatched high precision: “This statistical software undertakes both comparison and correlational statistical tests in the context of univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis for both the parametric and non-parametric statistical techniques” (Ong et al., 2017, p. 19). Therefore, the application of the IBM SPSS tool to the analysis of the data and the eventual delivery of the final results is entirely justified by its high flexibility and accuracy. Although Ong et al.’s (2017) further comparison of SPSS to other devices for statistical analysis proves that other types of software can also be applied to the performance of different types of analysis, the ease of use that SPSS currently boasts and its potential for conducting complex tests such as ANOVA, MANOVA, and MANCOVA proves that the proposed software should be integrated into the data analysis process.

Finally, the results of the analysis will be represented.

Reference List

Bartel-Radic, A. and Giannelloni, J. L. (2017) ‘A renewed perspective on the measurement of cross-cultural competence: an approach through personality traits and cross-cultural knowledge’, European Management Journal, 35(5), pp. 632-644.

Basias, N. and Pollalis, Y. (2018) ‘Quantitative and qualitative research in business & technology: Justifying a suitable research methodology, Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research, 7, pp. 91-105.

Breitsohl, H. (2019) ‘Beyond ANOVA: an introduction to structural equation models for experimental designs’, Organizational Research Methods, 22(3), pp. 649-677.

Epaphra, M. and Massawe, J. (2017) ‘The effect of corruption on foreign direct investment: A panel data study, Turkish Economic Review, 4(1), pp. 19-54.

Etikan, I. and Bala, K. (2017) ‘Sampling and sampling methods, Biometrics & Biostatistics International Journal, 5(6), pp. 1-3.

Folajinmi, A. F. and Peter, A. O. (2020) ‘Financial management practices and performance of small and medium scale poultry industry in Ogun State, Nigeria’, Journal of Finance and Accounting, 8(2), 90-106.

Hayat, A. (2019) ‘Foreign direct investments, institutional quality, and economic growth, The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, 28(5), pp. 561-579.

Heudtlass, P., Guha-Sapir, D. and Speybroeck, N. (2018) ‘A Bayesian hierarchical model for mortality data from cluster-sampling household surveys in humanitarian crises, International Journal of Epidemiology, 47(4), pp. 1255-1263.

Michael, E. O. (2017) ‘Agricultural sector performance and Nigeria’s economic growth’, Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, 1-13.

Ndubuisi, P. (2017). Analysis of the impact of external debt on economic growth in an emerging economy: evidence from Nigeria. African Research Review, 11(4), pp. 156-173.

OCP Africa (2018) Sustainability report. Web.

OCP Africa (2021) Customized fertilizers. Web.

Olaoye, I. J., Ayinde, O. E., Adewumi, M. O., Alani, E. A. and Babatunde, R. O. (2020) ‘Fertilizer policy, governance, and agricultural transformation in Nigeria: a review of political economy from historical perspectives’, The Palgrave Handbook of African Political Economy, pp. 449-465.

Ong, M. H. A. and Puthe, F. (2017) ‘Quantitative data analysis: Choosing between SPSS, PLS, and AMOS in social science research’, International Interdisciplinary Journal of Scientific Research, 3(1), pp. 14-25.

Oyetunde-Usman, Z., Olagunju, K. O., and Ogunpaimo, O. R. (2021) ‘Determinants of adoption of multiple sustainable agricultural practices among smallholder farmers in Nigeria’, International Soil and Water Conservation Research, 9(2), pp. 241-248.

Rahi, S. (2017) ‘Research design and methods: A systematic review of research paradigms, sampling issues and instruments development, International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences, 6(2), pp. 1-5.

Sim, J., Saunders, B., Waterfield, J. and Kingstone, T. (2018) ‘Can sample size in qualitative research be determined a priori?’, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 21(5), pp. 619-634.

Sothan, S. (2017) ‘Causality between foreign direct investment and economic growth for Cambodia’, Cogent Economics & Finance, 5(1), pp. 1-14.

Tsado, J. H., Ajayi, O. J., Fatoki, P., Mohammed, H. U. and Mercy, O. (2017) ‘Agricultural information systems and communication networks: the case of poultry farmers in the federal capital territory Abuja, Nigeria’, Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, 10(3), pp. 276-285.

Wong, L. W., Leong, L. Y., Hew, J. J., Tan, G. W. H. and Ooi, K. B. (2020) ‘Time to seize the digital evolution: adoption of blockchain in operations and supply chain management among Malaysian SMEs’, International Journal of Information Management, 52, 1-19.

Appendix A: Data Collection Instrument

Issue Pre-test Post-test
Failed tasks
Incomplete tasks
Delays
Disruptions caused by delays
Instances of cost mismanagement
Expenses caused by delays
Expenses caused by miscommunication

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