Freudian Understanding Of “Mourning” Essay Example For College

Many people have described distressing events, such as the postponement or loss of a job, the inability to visit loved ones or changes in child care. Unexpected events have claimed some loved ones. During the past few months, weeks, or days, most people were still adjusting to unanticipated life upheavals. Their plans have changed, and they’ve lost their most important routines; major opportunities or events have been canceled, or maybe in the future. Future uncertainty will likely rise. People mourn because they are emotionally attached to a deceased loved one. When a person comes to grips with a loss and can move on, grief ends.

Every generation loses a relative or acquaintance. Melancholy can be expressed in many ways. (Aghaie & Jafari, 2021). Some people sob uncontrollably when emotional, while others weep while reciting appreciation songs. Some may see it as a chance to offer condolences to the deceased’s relatives. Others may use it to honor the deceased. Freud believed that grieving combines self-reconstruction, loneliness, and grief. Attachment also affects sorrow. Freud felt a person can move on from mourning if their libido can abandon its attachment to the lost item and form new attachments. Freud believed this was vital for a person to overcome bereavement. A person may have a hard time moving on from a lost object to a new one. Because of the move’s difficulty, the person may develop pathological sadness. As a person goes through the phases of grief, they experience loss, despair, and self-discovery. (Borgstrom & Pearce, 2022).

Freud thought that mourning represented the act of dissolving strong bonds between the living and the deceased. In this circumstance, Freud thought that a person, while still living, develops bonds with other people through a process known as social coherence or co-existence. This bringing together power keeps the group of people together until one departs the circle. The agony of losing a person comes from the fragments of memories from when he was alive, not from anything else. A person becomes destitute and bare when they are grieving. After experiencing the loss of something material or human, Freud claimed that mourning is primarily thought of as a mechanism for people to reconstruct their inner selves. The patient is in agonizing pain and suffering. The reliving of the experience renews the love once felt for the deceased. The loss of a loved one also results in a feeling of identity loss and personal loss. This loss has the effect of strengthening the grieving person’s state of clinging to what they have lost, which manifests as an antagonism. (Melgar, 2018, pp. 110-122).

To summarize Freud’s theory of mourning, grief is a type of feeling that a person goes through after losing some of his loved ones to death or an irrevocable separation from them. Long-term mourners frequently adopt an egocentric viewpoint during this challenging time in their life. After some time, a person’s ego gradually begins to accept this defeat. At first, a person’s ego is particularly hostile to the idea of losing. By doing so, you can help the person get out of that mood and get them ready to deal with their unhappiness, sorrow, or even the inevitable, irrevocable loss of that dear object or person. After some time has gone, acceptance of reality replaces the state of grief, which enables the person to leave that mental state and leave the state of mourning.


Aghaie, A., & Jafari, R. (2021). The Freezing of Melancholic Ruins: A Psychological Analysis of Themes in Iran Darroudi’s Third Period of Artworks. The Monthly Scientific Journal of Bagh-e Nazar18(102), 5-12.

Borgstrom, E., & Pearce, C. (2022). End of Life Care and Bereavement. Routledge.

Melgar, M. C. (2018). Mourning and creativity. In On Freud’s (pp. 110-122). Routledge.

Primary Functions Of Management Sample College Essay

The operation of any enterprise or business organization involves complex activities and functions for effective growth. With different actions being conducted concomitantly, management plays an essential role in ensuring adherence and achievement of the set goals or objectives. The management of an organization functions to ensure the proper utilization of resources which reduces the cost of operation. Through direct or indirect communication the goals and values of an organization are effectively understood which aligns the goals of employees with those of the company. As learned in the module studied, the different roles of management can be classified into four main functions. This paper aims to assess the most important function of management and its role in ensuring the continuity and profitability of an enterprise.


Although all the functions are co-related, the most effective and necessary role played by the management in an organization is controlling. Its importance in management is evident in every function required to be accomplished in an organization. Controlling is usually the final function of management after planning, organizing, and leading. (Sjödin, et al., 2021, p.574-587) states that one of the necessary tools in the process of controlling is the feedback loop. The different outputs of a project or operation in an organization can be used as inputs in the controlling function of a manager. Customers and employees are the major players used to provide the feedback loop with data. To acquire reliable insight, one of the necessary actions is to set the necessary standards of performance. A restaurant which is the business under study requires specified standards of operation to ensure high customer satisfaction and loyalty. Effective metrics should be applied to measure the level of performance for the manager to acquire insight into the current state of the enterprise. Customer feedback is one of the effective tools in determining the performance of a restaurant.

Analysis of the actual performance with the set standards should then be conducted by the management. Categorizing the different feedback acquired in a restaurant is important to determine any issues or inconsistencies in operations. Food/drink, marketing sales, and customer service are some of the metrics used in determining the performance of a restaurant enterprise. Different subgroups can be used by the management to determine further insight into the effectiveness of their operations in meeting the needs of the target market. The changes made in the daily operations of a restaurant enterprise are made depending on the strengths or weaknesses displayed in the feedback loop (Chathoth, et al., 2016). Through the controlling function, the management of a restaurant acquires valuable information on the current state and performance which enables smooth transitions and changes. Following up with customer feedback is also an essential part of the controlling function in a restaurant. A genuine and personal response should be created to ensure customer loyalty and interaction.

After the feedback loop is completed, the management gathers insight again from the target market to ensure high performance. The controlling function ensures the continuity of an enterprise by ensuring the management is aware of the current state and the changes required (Vovchenko., et al., 2017). Insight acquired from the feedback loop also aids in utilizing better methods in marketing functions. The integration of technology solutions in the operation of enterprises has played a major role in enabling better and more effective management. The process of data collection, analysis, and classification in the feedback loop can be easily accomplished through the use of different technology gadgets and systems. Identified by (Tan, et al., 2021, pp.14308-14321) data-collecting sensors have been effective in providing management with the real-life insight necessary for the controlling function. The use of technology functions also aids in preventing the various errors associated with human operations. This approach, therefore, increases the accuracy of the data used in the controlling function.

Without the controlling function, the managerial department in a restaurant or any other enterprise would experience major challenges. Operating an enterprise without insight into the overall performance and productivity in the daily operations can lead to many errors and inconsistencies. The lack of a controlling function in management would also make other functions of planning, organizing, and leading almost impossible due to the lack of a metric to determine the overall state of an enterprise (Kerzner, et al., 2019). One of the factors that make controlling the most important function in management is the insight collected. Through the use of the different data collected in a business enterprise, the decision-making process is efficient and ensures the accomplishment of the desired goals and objectives. The utilization of resources is another aspect contributing to the importance of the controlling function of management. As outlined by (Henttu-Aho, et al., 2016, p.31-56) the application of the assessed data in controlling enables the management to efficiently allocate funds and utilize them efficiently. The various areas of a restaurant that require change are easily identified which reduces the wastage of human and physical resources. Controlling has also been an effective tool in ensuring order and discipline in an organization. The different standards of performance set motivate employees to meet the necessary needs.


As outlined in the paper, the controlling function forms the backbone of the overall management. In the management of a restaurant, controlling is one of the necessary functions to ensure high performance and competition. Through the effective collection, assessment, and classification of data in daily operations, managers can ensure optimal performance and high profitability of an enterprise. More strategic actions in enabling the controlling function of management should be determined and implemented. The use of technology solutions has further enabled managers to efficiently accomplish the controlling function through real-time assessment of operations and performance.

Works Cited

Chathoth, Prakash K., et al. “Co-creation and higher order customer engagement in hospitality and tourism services: A critical review.” International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management (2016).

Henttu-Aho, Tiina. “Enabling characteristics of new budgeting practice and the role of controller.” Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management 13.1 (2016): 31-56.

Kerzner, Harold. Using the project management maturity model: strategic planning for project management. John Wiley & Sons, 2019.

Sjödin, David, et al. “How AI capabilities enable business model innovation: Scaling AI through co-evolutionary processes and feedback loops.” Journal of Business Research 134 (2021): 574-587.

Tan, Ee-Leng, et al. “Extracting urban sound information for residential areas in smart cities using an end-to-end IoT system.” IEEE Internet of Things Journal 8.18 (2021): 14308-14321.

Vovchenko, Natalia G., et al. “Ensuring financial stability of companies on the basis of international experience in construction of risks maps, internal control and audit.” (2017).

Fundamental Principles Of Care Coordination University Essay Example

The delicate nature of patient management and treatment requires efforts and communication among different health professionals. For effective treatment and management of patients, their information has to get shared by medical professionals. Care coordination deliberately organizes medical care activities between patients and medical professionals. It aims at patient wellness and reduction in healthcare costs. Care coordination promotes patient safety and efficiency in accessing treatment, especially for patients with adverse conditions like cancer. Care coordination improves patient outcomes by making patients aware of their conditions, enabling healthcare continuity, and eliminating medical errors in treatment. Nurses play a significant role in care coordination, but their efforts should collaborate with several other factors to make care coordination successful.

Key Factors for Nurses to Consider for Effective Care Coordination Process

Community Resources

Nurses should use community resources at their disposal to offer adequate care to patients. The resources are medical facilities, personnel, and community support groups. Patients may, at times, find it more challenging to share their health issues with nurses than with members of social support groups. Nurses should work closely with community support groups to gain information that could help better patient care. Nurses can also join community health educators in teaching patients the relevance of care coordination. Nurses could organize support groups for patients/ families with similar medical issues or advise patients on which institutions to visit for referrals. The involved parties can then discuss how they handle different medical problems.


Ethics are moral principles that nurses follow in care coordination. They help uphold professionalism and protect the patient’s rights. Patients seeking extra care are prone to suffering malpractices like exaggerated drug prices by healthcare providers. Nurses should also adhere to legal obligations like observing to avoid disciplinary action for professional misconduct. Nurses should treat patient records with confidentiality. They should avail information regarding treatment to patients and involve them in decision-making. If critical treatment decisions are imminent and the patient is not in the right mind to decide, nurses should contact the patient’s family. Therefore, nurses should uphold professionalism and respect patient rights in care coordination.


Advocacy is one policy that nurses can use to ensure care coordination suits the patients’ needs. The ANA Ethics Code supports care coordination by providing patient advocacy. Advocacy policy ensures that nurses advocate for patient rights and the provision of essential services. Nurses should be conscious of policies that govern health care. According to the government policy regarding labor, the working hours for nurses in care coordination are from 0900 to 1700 hours. Nurses should not waver the working duration unless where the management allows it. Care coordination is sometimes challenging, especially in care homes where a nurse may get assigned to fifteen patients. Nurses should withstand such challenges and environments.

Effective Strategies for Collaborating with Patients and their Families for Desired Health Outcomes

Education Intervention

Education intervention entails organizing interactive learning sessions where nurses educate patients and their families on the importance of collaborating in care coordination. It builds patient-nurse friendship, which eases the care coordination process. Nurses should educate the patient’s family on the importance of transparency. For instance, a patient’s family may shy from telling the nurse that their patient declines medications. Nurses should address factors like fear, medication, and stress obstructing sharing of patient information. Thus, education intervention teaches the patient’s family that information sharing is paramount for effective care coordination.

Cultural Competence

Cultural competence entails acknowledging that different cultural and demographic elements influence care coordination. Nurses should deliver care coordination to precisely fit different patients’ cultural and linguistic contexts. They should eliminate cultural barriers to effective care coordination by ensuring that diverse patients have equal access to care and a language-diverse workforce. Linguistic differences cause patient-nurse misunderstandings, dissatisfaction, and delivery of low-quality care. Nurses should encourage patients to obtain health insurance coverage because it removes some cultural restrictions to proper healthcare. For instance, a study explains that healthcare access differs between cultural groups like blacks and Whites in America (Georgetown University, 2018). Thus, nurses should not diminish patients’ cultural aspects but should consider and eliminate racial or ethnic disparities.

Aspects of Change Management that Affect Patient Experience


Training involves equipping nurses with the knowledge needed to improve care coordination. It enhances the patient experience because caregivers learn how to meet patient needs effectively. The training required is both technical and behavioral. For instance, when adopting new methods of care coordination, training is essential to help nurses tailor the procedures to patients’ satisfaction. Thus, training improves the patient experience by availing knowledge to handle challenges in care coordination.


Communication is either interhospital or intrahospital. Intrahospital communication involves sharing patient details within several departments of one institution while sharing patient intel between various medical care facilities is interhospital communication. Patients benefit from communication through timely access to their records and declined medical errors. Thus, effective communication saves patients from the cost of moving to different care facilities or departments to acquire information.

The rationale for Care Coordination Plans Based on Ethical Decision Making

Care coordination requires ethical decision-making for the effective administration of care. Ethical decision-making involves evaluating the prevailing alternatives and choosing the one that best fits acceptable moral standards. It is paramount to single out unethical choices in care coordination. Nurses should adhere to professional codes in making ethical decisions against the dilemmas they face in care coordination. For instance, nurses make ethical decisions when a patient gets hindered from receiving necessary treatment by their family. Care coordinators apply ethical theories in decision-making when patients’ lives are at risk, and the dilemma is not covered in the professional code of conduct. Utilitarianism requires care coordinators to consider the most significant positive consequences, while deontological nurses use universally acceptable laws in critical decision-making. Thus, ethical decision-making enhances care coordination plans because nurses make critically informed patient care decisions.

Consequences of an Ethical Approach to Care


At times, nurses encounter dilemmas in care coordination, which often conflict with the codes of ethics of the medical profession. Hence, conflicts arise between what a caregiver is supposed to do and what they decide to do. For instance, if a patient rejects medication that could cure them, a nurse should adhere to the patient’s demands (Haddad & Geiger, 2021). Thus, an ethical approach helps minimize conflicts in care coordination using ethical principles.

Improved Patient care

An ethical approach to care coordination usually has the patients’ interests at heart—for instance, the principle of non-maleficence advocates for protecting patients from harm. The beneficence principle requires nurses to provide balanced patient benefits, like assistance in task performance. Thus, an ethical approach improves patient care by protecting the patients’ rights.

The basic assumption of an ethical approach to care is responsibility acceptance. For instance, if a nurse believes a situation requires applying the utilitarian principle, they must accept their role in influencing the outcomes. Another assumption is that the chance of decision-making falls solely on the nurse, and the number of alternatives is limited.

Impacts of Health Care Policies on Patient Experience and Outcomes

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) is a policy that aims at enlarging the coverage of health insurance in America. The policy has enabled most low-income earners to gain insurance coverage and reduced the percentage of uninsured citizens (Kominski et al., 2017). Patients continue to receive free care, courtesy of the policy. ACA removes barriers o health care access through cost-sharing plans. The act enabled young adults under 26 to gain coverage from parents’ insurance plans. Thus, the outcome of the ACA on patient experience is increased patient health coverage.

Consequences of the Affordable Care Act Provisions

Some significant provisions of the ACA are the dependent coverage provision, financial incentives to rural health workers, and mandatory employer coverage. The dependent coverage provision enables the policy to insure more young adults. Hence, more people gain access to treatment. The financial incentive provision has helped rural and underserved populations access health services (French et al., 2016). Nurses and other medical personnel in underserved regions get more pay than those in urban areas. It benefits the patients more because rural patients access care services quickly. Mandatory insurance coverage helps employees gain medical insurance through their employer if their number in a workstation exceeds 100.

In summary, care coordination is the deliberate organization of medical care activities and information between patients and medical professionals. Nurses play a vital role in the care coordination process. Community resources, ethics, and policies are some key factors that nurses should consider in coordinating care. The aspects of change management that affect patient experience are communication and training. Intrahospital communication pertains sharing of patient information between different departments of the same hospital. In interhospital communication, patient information gets shared between different facilities. Communication in care coordination saves patients from movement time and records errors, while training improves the quality of care delivered to patients. An example of a health care policy is the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Mandatory employer coverage, dependent coverage, and incentive offer to nurses in underserved areas are some provisions of the ACA.


French, M. T., Homer, J., Gumus, G., & Hickling, L. (2016). Key Provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA): A Systematic Review and Presentation of Early Research Findings. Health Services Research51(5), 1735–1771.

Georgetown University. (2018). Cultural Competence in Health Care: Is it important for people with chronic conditions? – Health Policy Institute. Health Policy Institute; GeorgeTown University. ‌

Haddad, L. M., & Geiger, R. A. (2021). Nursing ethical considerations. NCBI; StatPearls Publishing.

Kominski, G. F., Nonzee, N. J., & Sorensen, A. (2017). The Affordable Care Act’s impacts on access to insurance and healthcare for low-income populations. Annual Review of Public Health38(1), 489–505.