Frontier Significance In The American History: Analysis Free Sample


Despite being published in 1893, Frederick Jackson Turner’s paper The Significance of the Frontier in the American History remains topical in academic conversations about the historical role of the West. Furthermore, the Frontier Thesis can be seen as a starting point for various discussions about the spirit and the overall values of the American people. It touches on such multi-layered subjects as the influences on national character and the role of the frontier in American history and culture. This paper aims to examine the thesis statements of this work and analyze them in detail. The final section of this paper centers on the exploration of the historical context at the time and the ways in which the Frontier Theory has influenced the writers in the following years.

The Thesis statements of “The Significance of the Frontier in the American History”

Turner begins his essay by assigning the American frontier the role of the national guiding star. According to his viewpoint, it simultaneously represents and fuels the country’s hunger for development and progress. Turner refers to the frontier as “the outer wage of the wave, the meeting point between savagery and civilization” (2). In this, the American frontier is argued to be very different from the European, which serves as a hard dividing line between separate and well-established populations. The paper states the importance of the ever-expanding frontier that lies at the very edge of the free land for the formation of the American national character. Symbolically speaking, in Turner’s eyes, this frontier represents the triumph of democracy and humanity’s yearning for freedom, and those who oppose the expansion consecutively oppose freedom.

Another important thesis outlined in the paper can be thematically related to the first and is tied to Turner’s ideas on the roles and societies of the West and the East. One is associated with exploration, independence, and a democratic ideal, whereas the other is guided by jealousy, fear, and outdated perception of the world. It is necessary to specify here that these concepts are analyzed within the context of American geography, sociology, and history and do not comment on the absolute West and East worldwide. Turner reflects on the history of the American exploration and the expansion of the border further West, which the East attempted to limit and hedge (18). Within the paper’s framework and, by extension, the particular perspective on American history, the West and the East represent opposing ideas and values. West stands for exploration, independence, and freedom, seeking contact with the wilderness and continuously expanding the frontier further into the unknown. East, on the contrary, represents conformity, caution, and the expiring systems of the Old World, that attempt to limit the freedom of the West out of jealousy but ultimately fail.

Theses Analysis

Historically, a conflict of values and attitudes between geographically opposed parts of the United States is nothing unheard of. Yet most well-known studies expectedly prioritize the emblematic divide between the North and the South. The opposition between the West and the East in America is less heard of yet can be easily observed in average behaviors of the relevant demographics even today. Namely, the frontier region of the United States has significantly higher numbers of unusual names for its newborn children (Bazzi et al., 2339). This is a small-scale example, yet an entertaining and accessible illustration of a general trend nonetheless.

The “Wild West” is a recognizable historical and cultural image for the American people and is generally associated with the strength and independence of character. As the frontier kept expanding, the people living closer to it had to deal with difficult terrain and viewed themselves as conquerors of the wilderness. Consecutively, they perceived those settled in more comfortable areas as non-deserving of authority over their affairs. Bazzi, Fiszbein, and Gebresilasse point out in their research how frontier regions exhibited more significant levels of individualism and opposition to redistribution and government intervention in general (2329). Living on the edge of the known Western world, they cultivated an increased sense of personal uniqueness and a level of contempt towards the authorities located relatively closer to the East. Whether objectively correct or not, Turner’s observations on the American West and East reflect the common perceptions within the country, at least to a certain degree.

The association between the American national character and the frontier line is, perhaps, even easier to establish. It has been observed by researchers of different fields that American people as a demographic pride on their distinct and unifying character traits. Modern historians frequently call into question the existence of national character in the ethnically diverse and racially conflicted contemporary America (Allen and McGuire, 230). Yet, there exists a general semblance of agreement on the existence of perceived natural character in the America of the past. At the end of the 19th century America in the eyes of its scholars, has been a white, ethnically consistent nation of explorers, defined by their daring and independence. There is also evidence to suggest that an opposition spirit towards the existing regime is a cultural trait of the American people (Allen and McGuire, 230), strengthening Turner’s theory. If the national character has been shaped by the ever-evolving line between civilization and the wilderness, rebellious tendencies are only natural.

Historical Context and Influence

When analyzing the social and intellectual environment that has influenced Turner’s frontier thesis, the initial writing date is crucial to keep in mind. Initially, The Significance of the Frontier in American History was written and presented in 1893 at the meeting of the American Historical Association at the World’s Columbian Expedition. At the end of the 19th century, Americanization and the expansion of the West has begun to slow down, making it appropriate to comment on the historical impact of the era. The laws, ideas, and needs, that dominated the narrative at the time of the paper’s publication have been primarily dictated by the needs of the frontier (Bazzi et al., 2335). As a pioneer of American social development, the frontier region became the most recognizable one outside of the U.S. Historically speaking, it was responsible for the promotion of American democracy and way of life overseas. Turner references the cyclical social ecosystem that has formed around the frontier every time between its expansions further to the West (238). It is no coincidence that the far Western way of life became frequently represented in cinema and literature.

Every time the frontier demographic had to settle down anew and adjust to living in yet another unfamiliar, geographically challenging region, accompanied by nearly all the dangers of the wilderness. This dynamic environment fueled not only the sense of independence and self-sufficiently of the West but its loyalty and protectiveness towards the ideas of the American democracy. In the years following the presentation of the thesis and the publication of Turner’s book in 1921, the views on the American national character have evolved. During the 20th century, the United States went through a series of radical social and cultural transformations. The existence of the national character has been called into question, as both the colonial heritage of the U.S. and its multi-layered immigrational politics became recognized in academic circles. However, it is also evident that Turner’s Frontier Thesis has made a significant impact on American national psychology and the researchers who have written about it. It fueled the process of ideological separation of the American political and cultural institutions from those of Great Britain and contributed significantly to the formation of the national image.

Turner’s Frontier Thesis is an emblematic work of historical and cultural thought that reflects the values and national spirit of the United States. Undoubtedly, its most significant philosophical and academic value can only be achieved when accounted for the circumstances and time period of its publication. The political landscape of the modern-day is, of course, drastically different from the one relevant in the late 19th century. Yet American people remain culturally known for their stubborn independence, individualism, and romanticization of the wilderness and freedom-guided lifestyle; the values heavily influenced by the Western frontier (Knudsen, 5). It is interesting how one can trace the generally recognized traits of a national spirit back to significant historical events and structures. One can argue that the Frontier Thesis simultaneously reflects the national self-perception of the days gone by and explains certain aspects of the modern American mentality.


Allen, W. B., and McGuire S. “Liberty And American National Character: A Symposium”. Perspectives On Political Science, vol 49, no. 4, 2020, pp. 230-232. Informa UK Limited. Web.

Bazzi, Samuel et al. “Frontier Culture: The Roots And Persistence Of “Rugged Individualism” In The United States”. Econometrica, vol 88, no. 6, 2020, pp. 2329-2368. The Econometric Society. Web.

Knudsen, Anne Sophie Beck. “Those Who Stayed: Individualism, Self-Selection and Cultural Change During the Age of Mass Migration”. SSRN Electronic Journal, 2019, pp. 1-71, Elsevier BV. Web.

Turner, Frederick. The Frontier in American History. Henry Holt, 1921, pp. 1-375. Web.

End-of-Life Care: Suffering And Comfort Concepts

The central concept of end-to-life care is safeguarding a dying patient from possible suffering during that period of life. In addition to pain, suffering includes many problems: the inability to take care of oneself and a feeling of helplessness, guilt, and fear associated with the expectation of impending death. Moreover, patients tend to experience bitterness and regret due to unfinished business and unfulfilled obligations.

End-of-life care is designed to provide comprehensive measures to prevent and reduce the patient’s suffering in all its forms. The main task of high-quality palliative care is the maximum reduction of all components of the patient’s suffering carried out by comprehensive care and various types of assistance with the involvement of professionals in different fields.

The second concept of end-to-life care implies that a dying person has the right to live fully, with dignity and comfort until death. The medical staff helps patients come to terms with the loss, survive the fear of the future, and treat each day of life with gratitude. End-of-life care does not accelerate or postpone the approaching death and does not exclude the possibility of recovery (Gonella et al., 2019). End-of-life care understands the patient and his family as one. This means taking care of the patient’s family during the entire time of experiencing loss. Family members become members of the palliative care team. The positive psychological state of loved ones has a beneficial effect on the patient’s condition. End-of-life care aims to maintain the patient’s desire for life while simultaneously upholding his ability to perceive death as a natural process. Providing pain reduction and mitigation of other symptoms as well as psychological and spiritual support for the patient, end-of-life care allows the patient to lead an active life for as long as possible.


Gonella, S., Basso, I., De Marinis, M. G., Campagna, S., & Di Giulio, P. (2019). Good end-of-life care in a nursing home according to the family carers’ perspective: A systematic review of qualitative findings. Palliative medicine, 33(6), 589-606.

Role Of Women In Literature And Art


The role of women in literature and art is a topic explored by various critics, creators, authors, and people throughout the years. Due to the way society has developed, some types of people have found themselves to be at a significant disadvantage in the ways others are used to treating them. Women are one such group of people. Historically, women were often regarded as less human, less valuable, and important. In works of art, women were often relegated to supporting roles, stereotyped, villainized, or otherwise unfavorably depicted. With a change in generations, more attention has come to the struggles of women and their portrayal in media, but the art scene still largely favors men. This can be most easily exemplified by the works of classic authors and works of historic significance. While some of them address the fact that women in society are treated as objects, others embrace the portrayal and use it for the purposes of furthering the plot and eliciting emotions from the reader. In the context of this essay, three works will be examined in their depiction of women and how they are used for the purposes of storytelling. The pieces that will be discussed are Hamlet by William Shakespeare, Antigone by Sophocles, and A Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen.

Subservience and Vilification of women

In all of these works, the reader can witness society’s attitudes towards women and their actions. In Shakespeare’s Hamlet, women are mostly portrayed as weak and subservient to men, who are considered to be in control of the situation at all times. Ophelia, for example, is led around and manipulated by men in her life, including the titular character of Hamlet. From the men’s perspective, women in the piece are considered to be weak, displaying a condescending attitude towards them. In Antigone, similar sentiments are explored throughout the work. The titular woman is in stark contrast with what people of her time expect from her, which earns Atigone chastising and criticism from the men present in the work. She is contrasted with Ismene, who is meek and timid, playing up the contrast between the expected actions of women and the acts that Antigone is committing.

Men are expected to be primary agents of change and any action, and when a woman tries to fulfill such a role, she is considered to be out of line and belittled for it. The piece manages to both portray the attitudes of the period and highlight the discrepancy between the treatment of men and women in society. The last piece, The Doll’s House touches on a similar array of issues in its writing. The main character, Nora, is a wife and a mother, a typical role of a woman in a family. Her husband Torvald, is the one portrayed to be the dominant one in the relationship, and can freely disregard Nora’s opinions and thoughts. Other women in the play also suffer from the lack of given agency at the hands of male characters, which further highlights the discrepancy between the genders. Women are expected to sacrifice their wishes and personal wellbeing for the sake of a bigger goal, while men think such acts are above them, fully disregarding the strife and suffering the other gender has to endure in silence.

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