Gabriel Garcia Marquezs “A Very Old Man With Enormous Wings” Literary Devices University Essay Example

In our lecture, we considered some characters in Gabriel Garcia Marquezs `A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings` as `readers` in a metaphoric sense. .They may include the couple who discovered the old man, Father Gonzaga  the woman who knows life and death ,and some people traveling from afar to see the old man. Cite one example to illustrate the relation between approaches to reading and the readers background.

We had regarded as metaphoric ‘ readers’ some characters in Marquez’s  “A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings” because they reflected or defined  their respective characters, perceptions,  and background,  when they interacted with  or, ‘read’  the old winged man.  Like us literal  readers we “read”  through who he was.

The couple Pelayo and Elisenda saw the old man as a foreign sailor on the mere supposition he was from a ship, but together the stupid couple ignored  the old man’s wings. The couple’s reaction defined  their backgrounds  and  character.  Fr Gonzaga mirrored his dogmatist character and ‘readership’ when he rejected the angelhood of the man on the sheer basis that he spoke no Latin.

A kind reader would have taken care of a wreck victim, but all these people were making unbelievable conclusions. The woman who saw the old man as a harbinger of death, was a ‘reader’ who saw the old man as a devil incarnate, out to take the life of a baby.  And so were all those who came to see the old winged man in a cage  ‘readers’, too, well who saw their object of derision as a circus curiosity.

These ‘readers’ have one thing in common—they had maximum stupidities and minimum of compassion, but as author Garcia Marquez derided them as a metaphor of the stupidity and undiscerning cruelty of mankind, they were also being defined as stupid ‘readers’ who failed to ‘ read ‘the miracles of the wings, the miracle of his patience, as well as all other miracles—well, the very presence of a kind, quiet old winged man.

In applying the various approaches to reading, a formalist approach would possibly see through the minute linguistic indicators of the various characters, analyzing their language and the  authenticity of their diction.  The meanings of what they said would be subjected to formalist inter-relationships to define the precise contextual meaning.

A historic approach would try to dissect the social backgrounds of the priest, and delineate the precision of his language and opinions, on the basis of other similarly situated priests, in terms of historical existence and details.  In contrast, a formalist critical approach to the story would elevate the interrelationships of the texts or discourse of the various characters, interpreting them into parts of an organic whole, de-emphasizing the external facts of what period this fiction could authentically be placed or situated.

As actual “true” reader in contrast with the metaphoric one, I would prefer a combination of approaches.  A reader-responsive critical theory would work best for me, because the meaning of the story is a dialectically or inter-actively arrived at:  the final meaning is  what the author and myself has made of it.  Inter-active  because, my interpretation of the work arose from my own personal experiences (for example, my own conception of an angel), other than what the author himself has originally intended. The approaches to reading would then serve as a set of tools that can make us understand this great work in many levels and from many perspectives.

The Most Important Bill Of Rights

Answers to Questions

The Most Important Bill of Rights

              Amendment I regarding freedom of speech (or expression of oneself), religion, press, and the right for assembly and petitioning the government for a redress of grievances is the bill of right, which I considered most important.  These rights are inherent to a democratic society. How can one experience true democracy if there is no freedom for self and group expressions? Freedom of speech is important so we may communicate clearly what we feel. Press freedom, one expression of the freedom of speech, should not be hindered. It is an instrument in delivering the truth to the public. It is the right of the people to voice out their grievances towards the government or to other societies. Freedom to exercise our religion is also necessary. This freedom allows us to respect the cultures and traditions of the many religious organizations.

Security and Civil Liberties in Face of External Threats

             In times of imminent danger in the society brought by terrorism, civil liberties and security are unstable. Democracy can and should maintain balance between security and civil liberties in face of external threats. It should always look after the protection and welfare of the citizens. Although in times of war and external threats, greater reports on violations of civil rights occur. With democracy, the State must be fair and reasonable, to maintain civil rights without compromising human security. Democracy is established to give freedom and limit the restrictions. Many are willing to trade off their civil liberties for the sake of security especially from terrorist attacks.

            Violation of one’s civil liberty is against democracy. These violations may include hindrance from freedom of speech, press, rights for protesting, suspension of writ of habeas corpus, racial profiling, and heightened security measures like airport checkpoints, national ID system, wire tapping, as well as unreasonable searches and seizure.

Other Known Terrorist Groups

Terrorist groups are pain to many. Aside from the infamous Al-Qaeda, there are many other terrorist groups that affect National Security. One is Al-Jihad, also known as Islamic Jihad. This first started on the late 70s in Egypt. The goal of this group was to overthrow the Egyptian government and replace it with an Islamic State. It is believed to have close affiliations with Bin Laden’s group.

Another organization is the Palestine Liberation Front from Palestine in mid-1970s. The main goal of the Palestine Liberation Front was to create a Palestinian state. This group has been receiving support from Iraq. The Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) became active in the Philippines on 1991. The main goal of which is to promote an independent Islamic state in western Mindanao.

Winston Smith

Winston Smith is the lead character in George Orwell’s novel about a Totalitarian regime. In the novel, Winston Smith represented Winston Churchill, a national leader. He has a rebellious and strong opposition to the totalitarian regime. He used his diary to narrate all his secret plans of opposing the regime headed by Big Brother (Stalin). He was not able to move forward his opposition as the regime is controlling all the people. The totalitarian regime was described to be undemocratic, dictatorial, and unjust in its laws. Aside from that people are under surveillance (telescreen) and under control. There is also wide suppression of freedom. There is also a terroristic side as the government induces fear among its people by constant bomb attacks.

Lessons from the First Trade Center Bombing

On the first Trade Center bombings the government must have learned the lesson that the security of the World Trade Center was under a serious threat. The World Trade Center was the focus of attack of big time terrorists. The country should have monitored the foreigners or the possible attacks from suspected terrorists since the World Trade is such a challenging object for massive destruction. In the 1993 attack, it was the dream of Ramzi Yousef to collapse the famous twin towers. The 9/11 attack had created global terror because America, a very powerful country, was not exempted in terrorism acts. Living in a prominent country is not a guarantee of safety in terms of terrorism. Security issues should be given keen attention so that this kind of fall out will not happen again.


Hardin, R., (2003). “Civil Liberties in the Era of Mass Terrorism.” New York University. Retrieved July 04, 2008, from

Hellman, C., and Huang, R., Compiled by. “List of Known Terrorist Organizations.” Center for Defense Information. Retrieved July 04, 2008, from

Legal Information Institute, (2006). “Bill of Rights.” Cornell University Law School. Retrieved July 04, 2008, from

Ideal Plant Manager

1.      If you were part of the selection committee for the River Woods plant manager position, based on what you’ve learned about the sources of personal power in this chapter, describe what you’d consider to be the ideal candidate’s qualification.

The following are the qualifications which the ideal plant manager should possess:

He should be good at distributing his River Woods workforce;

He should be a good communicator; and

He should be able to inspire the workers through rewards or appreciation.

2.      If you were offered the new River Woods plant manager position, based on what you’ve learned about the sources of position power, what actions would you take to insure that as the company’s first general manager you had the necessary clout to accomplish your assigned duties?

The following are the actions that I would take to insure that I had the necessary clout to accomplish my duties:

I will make sure that the workers are knowledgeable of their work or task;

I will give my workers autonomy in doing their job; and

I will see to it that incentives or opportunities are available for the workers.

3.      Using the information on influence strategies in the second chapter as your guide, strategize how you would address the challenges you are likely to encounter if you accepted the position of River Woods plant manager.

The following are my strategies to address the challenges that I would likely to encounter:

I would make sure that there is equality in the treatment of the workers;

All workers who have done their job well shall be rewarded; and

Workers who made constantly make mistakes shall undergo more training.

There is a constant forum or opportunity for the workers and top officers of the company to interact.

1.      Identify the conceptual blocks that are illustrated in this case.

      The following are the conceptual blocks illustrated in the case:

a.       There was constancy by Kimmel and his advisers in the usage of strategies or solutions even if there are new developments in the facts and situation;

b.      The facts or information that was considered was so limited or compressed;

c.       Kimmel and his advisers were firm in looking and analyzing things in a simple way or manner; and

d.      Kimmel and his advisers were too content with their decisions. As long as his decision was affirmed by any of his advisers, Kimmel would already be at ease or satisfied.

2.      Outline the problem-solving steps followed by Kimmel and his advisors. What steps in analytical problem solving were skipped or short-circuited?

      The following are the problem-solving steps followed by Kimmel and his advisers:

a.       Defining and identifying the problem;

b.      Analyzing the problem;

c.       Identifying possible solutions;

d.      Selecting the best solutions;

e.       Evaluating solutions;

f.       Developing an action plan; and

g.      Implementing the solution.

      Among the steps of problem-solving which Kimmel and his advisers short-circuited are the following:

a.       Analyzing the problem; and

b.      Identifying possible solutions.

3.      If you were Admiral Kimmel’s advisor, knowing what you know about problem solving, what would you have suggested to help his problem-solving process?

      If I were Admiral Kimmel’s advisor, I would have suggested that do the following:

a.       Consider all the information that was relayed to him in order to have a clear or  understandable idea or view of the real problem;

b.      If still unsure about certain facts make some further research, like calling the officers in the United States;

c.       Don’t just consult a few of his staff. Have a brainstorming; and

d.      Consider the development of events.

4.      What do you learn from this case that would help you advise Microsoft in its anti-competitive case with the federal government, or advise Barnes & to help it displace, or advise American Greetings to become the dominant player in the greeting card business? What practical hints, in other words, do you derive from this classic case of analytical problem solving gone awry?

      The following are the practical hints I derive from the case:

a.       Don’t under analyze facts and information;

b.      Make research if things are still vague;

c.       Don’t consult just a few, brainstorm;

d.      Look at all the sides of the problem that you may see the actual problem;

e.       Don’t be contented with the thought that your decision is satisfactory just because a person approved of it;

f.       If you have doubts look at it if the doubt has a basis and analyze it; and

g.      Evaluate constantly the strategies that you are using.

Using the behavioral guidelines and Figure 6.5 as diagnostic aids, what are the strengths and weaknesses Electro Logic (EL) from a motivational perspective?

The following are the strengths of Electro Logic:

It is compose of workers or personnel with good qualification;

The workforce is happy to work because of Steve Morgan; and

The pay is good.

The following are the weaknesses of Electro Logic:

a.       The workers and the upper management does not have a good communication system;

b.      The management does have any motivational program for the workers; and

c.       The company’s policies is too unfriendly.

What are the high-priority action items you would include in a consulting report to Steve Morgan, president of EL? Focus on specific actions that he could initiate that would better use the abilities of the staff and foster a more motivating work environment.

The following are the specific actions that Steve Morgan can initiate to better use the abilities of the staff and foster a more motivating work environment:

Provide an opportunity wherein the workers can raise their suggestions, comments or criticisms;

Make or improve the reward system for the workers;

Create opportunities were all the people of the company can socialize;

Improve the salary rate;

Give trainings; and

Give room for the workers to improve.