Gallus Anonymous And Cosmas Of Prague: Fashioning Of Dynastic Histories In Medieval Europe University Essay Example

Gallus Anonymous and Cosmas of Prague’s accounts shed light on how dynastic histories were fashioned during the medieval period. During Europe’s Middle Ages, their insights illuminated the overall moral values. The Christian societies in Bohemia and Piast Poland rely on Cosmas of Prague’s Chronicle of the Czechs and Gallus Anonymous’ Deeds of Princes as their foundational myths. Respectively. The chronicles show how rulers and chroniclers tried to build narratives supporting their legitimacy. The moral framework of their societies received affirmation from them.

A mythological or biblical occurrence in both narratives marks each kingdom’s establishment. The stories subsequently illustrate the past and rulers of each domain. Cosmas of Prague introduces the Chronicle of Czechs with the Old Testament’s biblical Flood. He connects the history of the Czech people with the biblical past by doing this.[1]. The linkage between biblical events not only gives a sense of divine authenticity but also assists in bolstering the Christian identity of the Czech people. Gallus Anonymous likewise emphasizes the ancestral lineage of the Piast dynasty. He performs such actions in The Deeds of the Princes of the Poles. His method involves tracing the bloodline to a mythical character named Piast the Wheelwright. This genetic relationship proves the dynasty’s lengthy existence and its noble origins. This enhances their assertion of power and authority.[2]

Both authors’ works also include elements of heroic mythology and epic storytelling. Cosmas of Prague depicts the establishment of Bohemia in his writing as a valiant effort carried out by honorable soldiers. The achievements of mythical characters like Czech, Lech, and Rus are described by him, who conquer challenges and establish their domination over the area. By utilizing heroic narratives, the governing class enhances its reputation and maintains essential values such as bravery, honesty, and chivalry. These principles carried great respect in medieval society. These qualities were strengthened through heroic narratives.

In The Deeds of the Princes of the Poles, Gallus Anonymous incorporates tales of heroism. To highlight the moral qualities of the Piast kings, he does this. The book’s title displays this. The book shows the courageous and heroic early Piast princes, whose military might and righteous rule are also highlighted.[3]. The author documents their history. Gallus Anonymous’ writings depict rulers who safeguard their citizens and foster justice. Despite external pressures, they defend Christianity and its teachings. These courageous characteristics assist in maintaining the moral ideals of the community. The Piast dynasty’s power and reign are legitimized by them also.

Additionally, both accounts stress the significance of religion and the involvement of divine intervention in determining the destiny of the medieval societies being analyzed. That period witnessed faith as a fundamental aspect of people’s lives. The Christian religion greatly influenced both of these works. Religious concepts are ubiquitous. The Czech monarchy’s founding and continued existence were associated with saints and miraculous events, as referenced by Cosmas of Prague.[4]. Similarly, Gallus Anonymous recognizes that the Piast kings’ success can be credited to their devotion and commitment to God. Their religious beliefs have significantly influenced their success. Adding religious concepts to these narratives assists in preserving the Christian aspect of societies. It also emphasizes the idea of God’s providence and the ethical duty of leaders to administer pretty and safeguard their populace. These books stand for the ethical standards of medieval Europe. These standards were significantly affected by the principles espoused in Christianity.[5]. The chronicles celebrate and praise values such as honor, chivalry, loyalty, and piety. These novels showcase virtuous rulers and heroes as moral role models for readers. Encouraging ideal behaviors and values once present in medieval culture.

In conclusion, the works of Gallus Anonymous and Cosmas of Prague give unique insights into the process of dynastic history in medieval Europe being re-created by their respective families. These foundation myths that legitimize the power and authority of the ruling elites are constructed through various narrative methods, such as referencing biblical events, adding heroic mythology, and stressing religious themes.[6]. These narrative strategies are present in these works. In addition, the chronicles highlight the moral principles widespread in Europe throughout the Middle Ages. More specifically, they show the centrality of honor, chivalry, loyalty, and piety. By studying these books, we can better comprehend the historical and ethical foundations that formed the societies of medieval Europe.


Cosmas of Prague. (2012). The Chronicle of the Czechs.

KNOLL, PAUL W., FRANK SCHAER, THOMAS N. BISSON, JÁNOS M. BAK, URSZULA BORKOWSKA, GILES CONSTABLE, GERHARD JARITZ, and GÁBOR KLANICZAY. Gesta Principum Polonorum: The Deeds of the Princes of the Poles. NED-New edition, 1. Vol. 3. Central European University Press, 2003.

[1] Cosmas of Prague. (2012). The Chronicle of the Czechs.

[2] KNOLL, PAUL W., FRANK SCHAER, THOMAS N. BISSON, JÁNOS M. BAK, URSZULA BORKOWSKA, GILES CONSTABLE, GERHARD JARITZ, and GÁBOR KLANICZAY. Gesta Principum Polonorum: The Deeds of the Princes of the Poles. NED-New edition, 1. Vol. 3. Central European University Press, 2003.

[3] KNOLL, PAUL W., FRANK SCHAER, THOMAS N. BISSON, JÁNOS M. BAK, URSZULA BORKOWSKA, GILES CONSTABLE, GERHARD JARITZ, and GÁBOR KLANICZAY. Gesta Principum Polonorum: The Deeds of the Princes of the Poles. NED-New edition, 1. Vol. 3. Central European University Press, 2003.

[4] Cosmas of Prague. (2012). The Chronicle of the Czechs.

[5] Cosmas of Prague. (2012). The Chronicle of the Czechs.

[6] KNOLL, PAUL W., FRANK SCHAER, THOMAS N. BISSON, JÁNOS M. BAK, URSZULA BORKOWSKA, GILES CONSTABLE, GERHARD JARITZ, and GÁBOR KLANICZAY. Gesta Principum Polonorum: The Deeds of the Princes of the Poles. NED-New edition, 1. Vol. 3. Central European University Press, 2003.

Great Depression And Its Impact On The Canadian Economy Sample Essay


The effects of collapsed international trade and banking failures on Canada’s Economy during the Great Depression are analyzed in this research paper with a primary focus on understanding governmental response strategies. From an extensive review of the Literature, it is apparent that the Great Depression severely impacted Canada. The sharp reduction of demand for Canadian goods and services due to international trade’s collapse has led to job loss and reduced the earnings of households, especially those engaged in exporting sectors such as forestry, mining, and agriculture. Following the banking failures and subsequent credit crunch leading to liquidity shortages along with increased nonperforming loans for Canadian banks further deteriorated the economic crisis. The Government’s action plans played an essential role in dealing with the consequences of the Depression, including expansionary monetary policy, fiscal policies aimed at reducing unemployment rates, and several relief programs addressing poverty. Even though those actions provided some comfort but could not restore the prior economic status, this research has provided valuable insights into how the Canadian Economy was affected by the Great Depression by analyzing essential factors such as global economic conditions and domestic issues while examining government responses. Our understanding of economic crises may be improved by leveraging the knowledge attained by these insights.


The Global Economy bore a deep and enduring mark from one of history’s most severe economic crises – the Great Depression and the broad involvement of Canada within international markets indicated that it had no protection against such severe consequences. The aftereffects of the Great Depression resonated throughout Canada’s Economy, creating significant declines in output and employment and income rates (Lamb, 2015). This research paper seeks to delve into Canada’s economic history during The Great Depression era and analyze its Impact. To fully comprehend this critical era in Canadian history, we will consider the Impact of global economic factors as well as local issues and governmental decisions.

Research Question:

What Impact did The Great Depression Have on Canada’s Economy? This is what this paper aims to find out. The objective is to identify specific mechanisms that connect with how Canada’s Economy and society were affected during an economic downturn by analyzing multiple facets of this question. Using this research question as a framework for our analysis allows us to uncover how specific factors shaped Canada’s experience during this challenging period.

Thesis Statement:

Significant declines in output coupled with a drop in employment rates and income levels illustrate just how much the Great Depression impacted Canada’s Economy. Moreover, domestic frailties and international financial factors led to an unmitigated economic disaster (Amaral & MacGee, 2002). Although they were limited in their Impact, the Impact of the Great Depression on the Canadian Economy is analyzed comprehensively through this research paper which examines interdependent International Economic Factors. Furthermore, risks within the Canadian Economy are being evaluated alongside Governmental Responses.

Literature Review:

Just like many other nations at the time of The Great Depression period, Canada was also afflicted by financial difficulties. A comprehensive appraisal of academic articles and books that focus on how Canada’s Economy was affected by the Great Depression is reviewed in this section (Siklos, 2003). The diverse array of sources selected offers comprehensive insights into how both domestic and international factors have contributed to this period of economic decline

International Economic Factors:

The Great Depression was a catastrophic recession that began in the United States and quickly impacted several countries, including Canada. International economic influences played a considerable role in instigating and aggravating the economic downturn. By examining existing Literature on the subject matter in greater detail within this section, we aim to understand better how international factors shaped Canada’s Economy during the Great Depression.

Global trade collapse contributed critically to the severity of Canada’s Great Depression. However, Canada’s economic growth was primarily driven by exporting primary commodities before the Great Depression. Nonetheless, the contraction of foreign trade caused extensive damage to Canadian businesses (Lamb, 2015). The verdict is out: Harold James’ study concludes that Canadian industries reliant on exports are facing substantial drops in product demand, which translates into significant losses in production and jobs.

Canada’s finance industry faced significant consequences as it witnessed US-originated economic malaise spreading northwards during The Great Depression. The Literature states vulnerabilities in the Canadian banking sector and spillover impacts from American banks’ failure. As per Bryce’s 1996 studies, the severe Credit Crunch & Banking Crisis in America resulted from the collapse in banks & withdrawal of US Capital, which impacted the Canadian Economy severely. Challenges, including limited liquidity and increased nonperforming loans, confronted Canadian banks. Bryce (1996) pointed out significant shortcomings of the Canadian banking system, such as inadequate capitalization and insufficient regulatory supervision, that had exacerbated the financial crisis. The economic downturn was fueled by Canadian financial institution failures that reduced access to investment credit.

To mitigate The Great Depression’s economic Impact, governments all over formulated various policies. The exploration of international collaboration and policies enacted are evident in these works. The Ottawa Agreement in 1932 demonstrated how countries could collaborate by reducing tariff barriers to invigorate global trade. An agreement was made between Canada and four other countries The UK, Australia & South Africa. The analysis conducted by Kehoe & Prescott (2007) indicates that through enacting the Ottawa Agreement, countries made a united attempt to address global trade collapse and promote economic recuperation.

Additionally, the Literature emphasizes the importance of domestic policy responses to control the Impact of international economic factors. Governments have taken measures like currency devaluation and exchange rate adjustment to improve the nation’s export competition. Also, expansionary monetary and fiscal measures target higher domestic demand to reduce the Impact of the declining Economy.

Domestic Factors:

Although international factors are often cited as significant causes of Canada’s experience with the Great Depression, Experts say that one of the leading causes of Canada’s recent economic downturn is its dependence on a narrow range of exports and falling commodity prices.

The decreased price of staple commodities, including wheat and timber, significantly affected Canada’s Economy. The severe Impact of unemployment and lowered incomes highlighted by Eigner & Umlauft (2015) is attributed to the over-abundance of primary goods, which caused prices to fall, ultimately affecting Canada’s export-oriented zones.

Scholars, including Eigner & Umlauft (2015), explore how structural weaknesses within Canada’s Economy exacerbated outcomes during The Great Depression. Talking about the overreliance on a small range of exports reveals how vulnerable Canada was to shifts in international competitiveness. The limited number of industries that this country depended upon -agriculture & mining-hurt them even more during their economic crisis since they could not expand into other fields. The literature review revealed the significance of examining weaknesses in Canada’s financial system by looking into Canadian banks’ failures during The Great Depression and their consequences for Canada’s Economy; in general, authors such as Bryce (1986) provide important insights.

Government Responses:

Canada’s response during the Great Depression was instrumental in mitigating its Impact on society and helping those who suffered. The utilization of expansionary monetary and fiscal policies is a common practice by the Canadian Government, according to various sources in Literature. In order to mitigate the economic downturn Bryce (1986) investigated how significant these policies are in enhancing government spending to encourage demand stimulation for reducing poverty levels and addressing issues caused by unemployment.

The Literature sheds light on establishing relief programs and their integration into governmental responses. Initiatives like the Dominion Relief Commission and Unemployment relief act were designed to extend direct assistance to those who needed it. Relief programs were developed to lessen the immediate hardships that unemployed individuals and affected families underwent due to the economic crisis.

Despite this fact that there is still an ongoing debate about how effective were the government responses at tackling The Great Depression, scholars are of the view that though some benefits were attained from several policies and relief programs aimed at re-establishing the Economy during the Depression era, these measures could not achieve complete restoration of pre-depression status. Struthers (2002) suggests that despite attempts made by the Government towards recovery from Depression was unsuccessful in attaining complete achievement. Thus, its Impact persevered over an extended duration—however, the challenges and complexities associated with implementing successful policies during an economic crisis.


The Impact of The Great Depression on Canada’s Economy becomes clear after reviewing relevant Literature, as the severe Impact of the collapse in international trade was seen through a decline in demand for Canadian goods and services, specifically those from export-oriented sectors. As a consequence of this downturn, the mining industry, along with others like farming and logging, witnessed considerable setbacks contributing to increased rates of unemployment & decreased household incomes. Canadian Industries, which relied heavily upon exportation, faced a catastrophic outcome due to collapsed global commerce, as highlighted by Boivin’s works in 2011. Canada’s heavy reliance on the commodity and raw material sectors proved detrimental as their decline directly impacted the already struggling Economy

What is more, the crash in stocks and banking meltdowns exacerbated a dire situation in the Economy. An analysis of the Literature shows that the exposure of Canada’s financial system and the spillover effect from the US banking failure is significant. Significant challenges like liquidity shortages and mounting nonperforming loans confronted Canadian banks, and the Economy shrunk due to limited credit availability caused by the failures of Canadian financial institutions that hindered investments.

The Canadian Government successfully responded to lessen the Impact of The Great Depression on its Economy by tackling widespread unemployment and poverty-related issues. A combination approach was taken, including expansionary monetary and fiscal policies and the establishment of relief programs. Kehoe & Prescott (2007) explore mitigating an economic downturn as significant. The objective of raising Government expenditure while boosting consumer demand was to increase economic activity and lessen the painful effects of poverty and joblessness. Also worth noting is that the initiation of relief efforts such as The Unemployment Relief Act and Dominion Relief Commission furnished direct support to those requesting help (Bagliano & Morana (2012); these relief programs were implemented to relieve unemployed individuals and affected families from immediate hardships caused by the economic crisis.


The trajectory of the Canadian Economy got established post-The Great Depression. Era Economic crisis gravely impacted the employment rate and productivity, leading to severe difficulties for numerous Canadian residents. The complex interplay between domestic and international factors that brought about this crisis is underscored in the reviewed Literature. Additionally, it is essential to note that the efforts from the Government in addressing Depression played a crucial role in lessening its effects though complete recuperation remained sluggish. Understanding how the Great Depression affected society is essential for policymakers and economists because discoveries made during this time have affected economic policies and led to the implementation of safety measures to shield against upcoming financial setbacks. Examining this historical event provides us with insightful information about challenges faced by economies during times of crisis which can be used to prevent similar consequences in future.


Amaral, P. S., & MacGee, J. C. (2002). The Great Depression in Canada and the United States: A neoclassical perspective. Review of Economic Dynamics5(1), 45–72.

Bagliano, F. C., & Morana, C. (2012). The Great Recession: US dynamics and spillovers to the world economy. Journal of Banking & Finance36(1), 1-13.

Boivin, J. (2011). The ‘Great’Recession in Canada: Perception vs. Reality. Speech from March28, 2011.

Bryce, R. B. (1986). Maturing in Hard Times: Canada’s Department of Finance through the Great Depression. McGill-Queen’s Press-MQUP.

Eigner, P., & Umlauft, T. S. (2015). The Great Depression (s) of 1929-1933 and 2007-2009? Parallels, differences and policy lessons. Parallels, Differences and Policy Lessons (July 1, 2015). Hungarian Academy of Science MTA-ELTE Crisis History Working Paper, (2).

Kehoe, T. J., & Prescott, E. C. (2007). The Great Depression of the twentieth century. Minneapolis: Research Department, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.

Lamb, D. (2015). The economic Impact of the great recession on Aboriginal People living off Reserve in Canada. Relations industrielles70(3), 457-485.

Siklos, P. L. (2003). Understanding the Great Depression in the United States versus Canada. The World Economy and National Economies in the Interwar Slump, 27-57.

Heineken Advertising Strategy Free Essay

Advert Message

The advert’s key message, repeated throughout the video, is that people who don’t take alcohol get isolated in most social events since they are not taking alcohol. Other than being isolated, these people feel out of place since they cannot take alcohol like the people around them. The advert shows how people who take alcohol feel superior to those who do not take alcohol.

One of the external influences being used to reinforce the message passed in the Heineken advert is culture and cross-cultural variation. In the advert, there is great cultural diversity showcased in all scenarios. The advert starts with showing a group of youths comprise of all races drinking and having fun at the club (Tam, 2022, p.101474). It later moves back in time, where it shows the ancient people drinking on a mountain dressed in fur clothes. Another scenario that shows cultural diversity is the royals drinking, and the African America seated in a room drinking. These entire scenarios include people from different communities coming together. These people have different cultures, and they are from different communities. However, they live with each other and have drinks. The advert ensured that it showed cultural diversity.

Humor in an advert is the most effective way of communicating the message to the audience. Laughter is really important in human life at the moment. Most people are facing tough situations, and when an advert brings smiles to their faces, they tend to remember the product more since they are likely to watch the advert more (Eisend, 2022, p.962-973). Humor also catches the attention of the audience. When an advert has humor in it, the consumer enjoys the advert hence catching the attention of the consumer.

Target Market

The audience that is most likely targeted by the advert is the non-alcoholic group. The advert is mainly marketing Heineken, which has no alcohol content. The company has realized that there are people who would like to have fun but not drink alcohol. The best audience for the advert is the youths aged 18-35 who are not taking alcohol. The advert would be appealing to them because first they are addressing the fact that those who don’t drink alcohol always feel left behind, and they get teased for not taking alcohol (Ramsak, 2022, p.43-50). Secondly, the advert would be appealing to the youths who don’t take alcohol because they will now have an alternative. The 0.0% Heineken drink has the same package as the known alcoholic Heineken, and it would be hard for anyone to notice the difference from afar. Hence, the audience will find this drink efficient for them.

The internal influence that has been used to influence the advert is the perception. Most people perceive those who take alcohol as superior, or they are in a different social class. This perception has made people take alcohol just to fit in, in those groups, or to feel in place. The advert is changing the whole perception of alcohol. In the advert, those who are not taking alcohol are either sad, alone, or secluded for not taking alcohol. However, the new 0.0% Heineken is changing the perception (Wildfeuer and Coffie, N/A). The company is creating a drink that is similar to the common alcoholic drink but has no alcohol content. This means that people who don’t take alcohol do not have to take it to have fun and fit in; they can fit in and have fun with other people while drinking Heineken, which has no alcohol.

Beer for Women

Alcohol has always been classified as a man’s drink since its invention, and since then, things have been changing as time passed. Women are currently taking alcohol as much as men are doing it. Most women avoid alcohol due to its adverse effect on human health, and this reason has made most of them left out when it comes to having fun. Heineken 0.0 is a great drink which will solve the problem of women who wants to have fun but not take alcohol. Women aged 18-30 are still young, and they need to be part of the fun world without being addicted to alcohol (Vicente, 2021). The fear of being an addict has made many women avoid parties and other social gatherings which serve alcohol. Nevertheless, Heineken 0.0 is solving this major issue by providing an alternative to these women in such social events. Heineken 0.0 is packaged as the other Heineken, which has alcohol. The two drinks look similar, although one is alcohol-free. It would be easier for anyone who wants to stay sober not to be judged by others since the branding is the same, and it is hard for anyone to notice the difference.

Heineken 0.0 is changing the perception that people can only drink alcoholic beer. Most women avoid alcohol when they are pregnant because it is not safe for the baby; Heineken is solving this problem by manufacturing the Heineken0.0. This alcohol-free beer is safe to drink when one is pregnant. It also increases breast milk production in women who are lactating. The view that beer only has a negative effect on the human body is greatly being challenged since Heineken0.0 has adverse health benefits for women (Maan et al, 2020, p. 660-664). First, it has a great fruity taste and malt flavor. Heineken0.0 gives the beer taste but has no alcohol. It also improves cardiovascular health. The beer has polyphenols which reduce blood pressure. It also reduces the risk of osteoporosis, a disease associated with bones. Lastly, Heineken0.0 promotes better sleep. Beer has a sedative effect which facilitates a better sleep.

In the advert, I will engage young women by championing inclusivity. Most women are left out when they are expectant or when they are breastfeeding; the advert will ensure to emphasize inclusivity and equitability. The advert will explain how the Heineken0.0 is great for production of milk and has no effect on the baby. Other women want to reduce their alcohol intake, and they need to stop gradually (Maani et al., 2020, p. 660-664). Heineken0.0 ensures that these women have the taste of the beer and, at the same time, they are reducing their alcohol intake. To engage the young women, I will use young women in the advert to show inclusivity. I will also show them in the advert how Heineken0.0 is beneficial to the body and has no harm on mothers.

The preferred advertising medium for Heineken 0.0 is social media. The world is moving fast in the technology world, and young women are embracing social media. 80% of women aged 18-30 own a smartphone which they use to access nearly all the social media platforms. Social media will reach out to these women, and since they are the targeted group, it will reach out to nearly all the targeted audience. Social media advertising costs lesser compared to other mediums of advertisement (Jacobson et al., 2020, p.101774). It also reaches out to many people at once. Women are using their phones, and many of them access this social media platform. Therefore, the advert would reach them easily through social media. Social media also allow the company to understand their audience better and meet their needs.


Eisend, M., 2022. The influence of humor in advertising: Explaining the effects of humor in two‐sided messages. Psychology & Marketing39(5), pp.962-973.

Jacobson, J., Gruzd, A. and Hernández-García, Á., 2020. Social media marketing: Who is watching the watchers? Journal of retailing and consumer services53, p.101774.

Maani, N., Collin, J., Friel, S., Gilmore, A.B., McCambridge, J., Robertson, L. and Petticrew, M.P., 2020. Bringing the commercial determinants of health out of the shadows: a review of how the commercial determinants are represented in conceptual frameworks. European Journal of Public Health30(4), pp.660-664.

Ramšak, M., 2022. Children and Adolescents as a Marketing Target. In Social Impact of Wine Marketing: The Challenge of Digital Technologies to Regulation (pp. 43-50). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Tam, K.P. and Milfont, T.L., 2020. Towards cross-cultural environmental psychology: A state-of-the-art review and recommendations. Journal of Environmental Psychology71, p.101474.

Vicente, B.M.W., 2021. Heineken NV Equity Research:“Brewing” New Worlds (Doctoral dissertation, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa (Portugal)).

Wildfeuer, J. and Coffie, J.A., Rhetorical Structure of Heineken TV Commercials During the Pandemic.