Gantt Charts In Project Management Essay Example


Geraldi. and Lechter (2012) define a Gantt chart as a key tool in project management that is used to illustrate work finished within a certain range of time relative to the planned time for the project. Gantt charts are mainly used to visualize projects since they graphically represent activities done against time and are thus useful in monitoring progress (Geraldi. and Lechter, 2012).

What do color codes represent?

Color codes are key essentials used to represent several things like task status, resource allocation, and task dependencies in project scheduling (Wilkens, 2006). From the given example, four color codes are used, representing different things. They easily indicate whether the schedule is slipping or improving. The yellow bars show the progress of the task from the former update cycle. The blue bars represent the completed tasks; for instance, activities A and B have been completed, with activity A completed after the planned date and B completed before the set date. The green bars show resource allocation, and the red bars represent the critical paths for the planned activities.

How would you handle an actual schedule and plan schedule deviation?

The actual schedule refers to the task’s timeline as they are finished in the actual period during the execution phase of the project (Maylor, 2010). In other words, it shows the real start and finish dates of activities as well as the present status of every activity. On the other hand, a planned schedule refers to the activity’s timeline as primarily planned and arranged in the planning phase (Maylor, 2010). Therefore, plan schedule deviation is experienced when the actual schedule differs from the planned schedule. At this point, activities are not completed as scheduled (Maylor, 2010). In order to handle the actual and planned schedule deviation, continuous tracking and monitoring of the project progress is needed. In cases where the actual schedule diverges from the planned schedule, the following factors should be considered. First, the project manager should identify what caused the deviation, and this could be due to poor planning or the occurrence of unexpected events (Maylor, 2010). The manager should then measure the effect of deviation on the timeline, scope, and budget.

Further, a corrective plan is required to return the project to its correct schedule. This may include the reallocation of resources, replan project schedule or involve stakeholders in a collective plan (Maylor, 2010). Finally, the project manager should update all members about the deviation and the corrective measures taken (Maylor, 2010). Keeping each member informed of every step in the project will keep the project moving on the right path.

How would you solve this if activities require different resources?

Project resources refer to the necessities needed for a project to be executed, and they include equipment, materials, and labor (Wilkens, 2006). Resources are available and limited at the same time. Thus, critical utilization of these resources is required. In cases where activities might require different resources, the following tasks are key areas to consider. First, the project manager should consider the availability of the resources needed (Wilkens, 2006). That is, these resources should be available for use when required. Allocation of the needed resources is another essential factor. The manager should ensure the resources are allocated based on the activity’s necessities. Further, the manager should ensure resources are levelled to avoid underutilization as well as overloading (Atan and Eren, 2018). Resources should be shared across all activities to fully maximize their effectiveness and efficiency. Finally, and most importantly, the manager should identify probable resource constraints during the scheduling stage to avoid cost overruns and delays.


From the above discussion, A Gantt chart is a key tool in project scheduling that gives project stakeholders a visual analysis of their project. Different color codes are used to show various tasks like completion level, resource allocation, and task dependencies. Any project can experience a deviation from its planned schedule. Thus, managers should identify any possible resource constraints and establish ways to curb them in case they occur during their project execution phase. These ways include proper planning, team collaboration, resource levelling, resource sharing, and resource availability.


Atan, T. and Eren, E. (2018) ‘Optimal project duration for resource leveling,’ European Journal of Operational Research, 266(2), pp. 508–520.

Geraldi, J. and Lechter, T. (2012) ‘Gantt charts revisited: A critical analysis of its roots and implications to the management of projects today,’ International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 5(4), pp. 578–594.

Maylor, H. (2010) ‘Chapter 5: Initial Planning’, in Project Management. Harlow, UNITED KINGDOM: Pearson Education, Limited, pp. 96–128.

Maylor, H. (2010) ‘Chapter 6.1: Deconstruction of a project’, in Project Management. Harlow, UNITED KINGDOM: Pearson Education, Limited, pp. 132.

Wilkens, T. T. (2006). Fundamentals of scheduling & resource leveling. Paper presented at PMI® Global Congress 2006—North America, Seattle, WA. Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute.

Governance & Strategy In A Technology Context Sample Paper


Multinational and local corporations increasingly integrate technology to achieve their strategic goals and vision to guarantee a competitive advantage over rival firms. According to Elazhary et al. (2022), the information technology landscape has undergone a paradigm shift as firms seek to maximize the value of their asset base, shifting to intangible from intangible properties, thus prompting firms to concentrate on capacity building in terms of generating, managing and utilizing their IT assets. The intensity of the competition in the business environment has made it necessary for the organization’s management to have sufficient control over their IT resources as they seek viable approaches to integrate them into their strategy and processes. Lee and Lee (2008) argued that managing firms’ IT resources has seen firms adopt comprehensive IT governance frameworks to meet their strategic goals and visions. The concept of IT governance is substantiated, according to the IT Governance Institute, as the ability of the firm to channel resources towards regulating the use of information technology infrastructure in alignment will the strategic objectives and goals while at the same time ensuring the management of risk, delivery of value and performance optimization (Cuenca et al., 2011). IT governance allows the firm to navigate different alternatives of information technology capabilities, allowing it to monitor and control the improvements from one IT capability to the next.

The concept of business strategy and IT governance has gained traction over the years leading to a wide array of research in the field. However, there is a lack of systematic research on the topic to generate in-depth perspectives on the alignment between governance and strategy in the technological context. According to Bardhan (2010), strategy and IT governance should align to facilitate business operations to increase operational efficiency, reduce costs, optimize business processes and allow for improved control of risks. Additionally, the alignment of the two is vital for streamlined workflow interactions to allow the management of the enterprise to execute new business strategies ensuring they attain a competitive advantage in the industry. The achievement of long-term business objectives and goals is predicated on the viability and alignment of the business strategy and the IT corporate governance framework. Romero and Romero (2018) noted that the success of the long-term business strategy requires both the IT governance structure and strategy to function towards business-oriented goals. Lee and Lee (2008) further highlighted the repercussions of the lack of harmonization of the two constructs since one of the major concerns of IT infrastructure is the lack of management efficiency in handling emerging IT capabilities. The literature review ascertains the importance of integrating IT governance into business level strategy. However, limited research delves into expounding on the specifics of IT governance mechanisms and the alignment approach. Furthermore, there is a lack of consensus on viable information technology frameworks and mechanisms.

Variables Associated with IT Governance and Strategy

The formulation of comprehensive ITG mechanisms allows the firms to make prompt viable decisions to address emerging uncertainty in the business environment. According to Lee and Lee (2008), the mechanism provides invaluable knowledge regarding IT frameworks, the underlying risks and whether the existing IT is properly being utilized as intended. The effectiveness of IT governance is harnessed in situations where there is a shared understanding of the business goals and objectives, streamlined channels of communication of the policies and strategies and active involvement of the IT committee (Gordon, 2013). The impact of IT governance on the performance of the firm is only evident where the organization makes sufficient investments in improving its IT capabilities and resources. Apart from IT governance, management is also equipped to formulate the business strategy. Khan and Woods (2015) define a business strategy as the proposed long-term course of action that dictates how a firm will achieve its strategic vision. The harmonization of the business strategy with the IT governance structure allows the business to optimize its IT investment to accrue its intended value while conforming to its risk boundaries. The proliferation of digital technologies (communication, computing, information and connectivity) has necessitated management to rethink their extensive networks to counter the competition intensity in the external environment. A study by Acquaah (2011) on formulating business-level strategies, such as differentiation and cost leadership strategies and their influence on competitive advantage, highlighted the need to integrate IT governance to optimize the firm’s performance. Wagner et al. (2014) further argued that the alignment between IT strategy and business-level strategy enhances the value of relationships between the decision makers and their subordinates, optimal utilization of resources and seamless flow of business operations.

Critical Success Factors for the Success of IT Governance and Strategy

The development of effective IT governance and business level strategies requires the organization’s management to consider five critical areas to guarantee long-term success. According to Lluch (2011), the factors include establishing viable partnerships, recruiting the right personnel, adopting strategic approaches and business models as well as leveraging on IT-centric opportunities. In most contemporary organizations, the Chief Information Officer (CIO) is actively involved in formulating a business strategy that allows for agility in IT framework implementation. Gordon (2013) further emphasized that the organization’s competitiveness can only be achieved when IT investments and IT strategy remain consistent with the overall business strategy. Lee and Lee (2018) referred to this alignment as strategic business IT alignment that ensures continuity in terms of business and IT strategies while allowing the exploitation of IT functionality to achieve the strategic vision. A lack of alignment will hinder the firm from achieving its goals. By accessing the probable fit for emerging digital technology infrastructure, IT department executives can leverage this information to formulate a comprehensive IT strategy within the specified business context. Technical performance is another critical factor of consideration owing to the degree to which technology becomes obsolete, thus requiring adaptability.

IT Governance & Strategy in the Corporate Sector

Information technology has become a critical tool in the healthcare sector as private and public institutions formulate new strategies to optimize their performance in improving their patients’ health outcomes. Consequently, IT has altered the business landscape, resulting in new models presenting new challenges that need addressing through IT governance mechanisms (Lluch, 2011). However, despite the resources directed towards improving IT capabilities, IT governance and strategy implementation face several hindrances from bureaucracy associated with funding approvals and limited knowledge in terms of implementation, especially in public healthcare institutions. In this section, we will demonstrate how St Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne uses the concept of IT governance and strategy to attain synergy and meet their subsequent goals and objectives.

St. Vincent Hospital Melbourne is a public health facility offering a wide range of surgical, emergency, rehabilitation, diagnostics and acute medical care amongst other services. The hospital endeavors to provide improved high quality care that is cost effective while guaranteeing patients get access to medical information. The hospital has leveraged on IT infrastructure to meet these objectives by integrating IT application across various departments and organizational functions (Bradley et al., 2012). The healthcare institutions integrates the two concepts of governance and strategy using three approaches namely, organizational IT governance, the decentralization of IT governance and centralization of management models.

The centralized model of IT governance is concerned with the structural roles and responsibilities associated with subsequent project management and underlying infrastructure. According to reference, this model mainly dwells on the business level strategy majority of the healthcare institutions lack a comprehensive IT strategy. The intense daily demands of the public healthcare institutions requires the management to provide leadership through the setting up of IT steering subcommittees and committees to provide support in the implementation of the business strategy. Some of the approaches used by St Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne hospital include providing technical infrastructure, access to research and efficient administrative staffing. The size of St Vincent Hospital Melbourne in terms of operations and staff necessitates the IT department to implement an advanced project portfolio management framework to address the complex and diverse needs. According to Aarons et al. (2014), a project portfolio management tool allows the leadership to prioritize, choose and monitor the diverse portfolio of IT-oriented projects. In most cases, the role is tasked to a project manager who evaluates the risk-reward and the expected outcomes.

The decentralization of IT governance model is concerned with localization of roles and rights while channeling budgets and other resources towards implementing business strategies on a departmental level. St Vincent Hospital Melbourne has implemented the decentralized IT governance structure through the setting up of an IT steering committee incorporating representatives from senior management from different operational departments. The rationale behind selecting the interdisciplinary team is to provide a holistic perspective of how IT can be integrated in the implementation of business level strategy. The organizations objectives and goals are properly met when the committees meet regularly to evaluate the progress for both minor and major initiatives. Additionally, representatives from the IT department should also be featured in both the operational and clinical departments of the institution. In the case of St Vincent Hospital Melbourne, the management has set up a subcommittee of clinical technology to guarantee that the IT strategies are in tandem with medical and clinical practices implemented on a daily basis.

The IT governance model related to the organization structure emphasizes synergy of the corporate structure and business units in the execution of IT oriented activities (Bradley et al., 2012). The framework is pegged on the functionality of a multidisciplinary team with clearly stipulated roles of a liaison across different functional departments. Karahanna and Preston (2013) argued that composing such a team allows for process fluidity in terms of formulation, assessment and implementation of the business strategy. This approach ensures that diversity is attained owing to the diverse nature of healthcare institutions. The success of the model is predicated on the adherence to underlying processes and processes of IT governance. For instance, St Vincent Hospital Melbourne stipulated a project prioritization guideline to ensure that all department are at sync in the implementation of subsequent IT initiatives through cross-organizational input. The rationale behind this approach is to ensure key IT projects are given priority in line with their competing demands and resource needs.


The definition of IT governance and its connection to the concept of strategy highlights the importance of the firm’s structure, stipulated roles and processes as well as strategic leadership in the achievement of the overall strategic vision. IT governance in the healthcare sector provides the leadership with the a roadmap that highlight how the management will channel resources towards regulating the use of information technology infrastructure in alignment will the strategic objectives and the goals while at the same time ensuring management of risks, delivery of value and performance optimization. Compared to other industries, the healthcare sector elicits a given level of complexity requiring an in depth perspective in terms of IT governance. A misalignment of the strategy and IT governance is likely to result in underperformance of the firm within the industry thus it is paramount the firm adopts the best practices in terms of processes, guidelines and principles. In adhering to best practices on IT governance, the management has to ensure that the initiatives, processes and strategies are in harmony with the enterprise overarching strategies. Emphasis should be placed on implementation of governance structures that reduce the overall exposure to risks and lower the cost. The intense daily demands of the public healthcare institutions requires the management to provide leadership through the setting up of IT steering subcommittees and committees to provide support in the implementation of the business strategy. The subcommittee and committee structure allows the different units to concentrate on their core areas of operations thus enhancing the competitiveness of the firm. Lastly, centralization of the IT management process allows the leadership to maintain cost controls while maximizing the underlying IT capabilities.


Aarons, G.A., Ehrhart, M.G., Farahnak, L.R. and Sklar, M., 2014. Aligning leadership across systems and organizations to develop a strategic climate for evidence-based practice implementation. Annual review of public health35, pp.255-274.

Acquaah, M., 2011. Business strategy and competitive advantage in family businesses in Ghana: The role of social networking relationships. Journal of developmental entrepreneurship16(01), pp.103-126.

Bardhan, I.R., Demirkan, H., Kannan, P.K., Kauffman, R.J. and Sougstad, R., 2010. An interdisciplinary perspective on IT services management and service science. Journal of Management Information Systems26(4), pp.13-64.

Bradley, R.V., Pratt, R.M., Byrd, T.A., Outlay, CN and Wynn, Jr, DE, 2012. Enterprise architecture, IT effectiveness and the mediating role of IT alignment in US hospitals. Information Systems Journal22(2), pp.97-127.

Cuenca, L., Boza, A. and Ortiz, A., 2011. An enterprise engineering approach for the alignment of business and information technology strategy. International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing24(11), pp.974-992.

Elazhary, M., Popovič, A., Henrique de Souza Bermejo, P. and Oliveira, T., 2022. How information technology governance influences organizational agility: the role of market turbulence. Information Systems Management, pp.1-21.

Gordon, F.R., 2013. Impact of information technology governance structures on strategic alignment. Capella University.

Karahanna, E. and Preston, D.S., 2013. The effect of social capital of the relationship between the CIO and top management team on firm performance. Journal of management information systems30(1), pp.15-56.

Khan, G.F. and Wood, J., 2015. Information technology management domain: emerging themes and keyword analysis. Scientometrics105, pp.959-972.

Lee, J. and Lee, C., 2008. IT Governance-Based IT Strategy and Management. Information Technology Governance and Service Management: Frameworks and Adaptations: Frameworks and Adaptations, p.44.

Lluch, M., 2011. Healthcare professionals’ organisational barriers to health information technologies—A literature review. International journal of medical informatics80(12), pp.849-862.

Romero, E.F. and Romero, E.F., 2018. Strategic project management: a methodology for sustainable competitive advantage. Rev. EAN, pp.15-31.

Wagner, H.T., Beimborn, D. and Weitzel, T., 2014. How social capital among information technology and business units drives operational alignment and IT business value. Journal of Management Information Systems31(1), pp.241-272.

Love And Passion Essay Example

Love is a complicated, multifaceted emotion that takes on many different guises. Physical love, frequently associated with passion and intimacy, has long been considered essential in romantic relationships or marriages. But it’s crucial to recognize the various viewpoints authors, thinkers, and philosophers put forth throughout history when analyzing the connection between sensual love and more ideal or spiritual love.

In Plato’s “Symposium,” Pausanias offers an intriguing viewpoint on the connection between actual or material love and ideal or spiritual love. He makes the case that there are two different kinds of love: heavenly love, which is based on a connection of souls and transcends the physical, and common love, which is focused on the physical aspects of attraction. Pausanias places a higher value on heavenly love because he believes it to be a higher kind of love that transcends merely material desires (Yap, C. R. (2021).

Pausanias asserts that a person’s physical characteristics, such as beauty or attractiveness, are the focus of common love. It can be brief and frequently motivated by sensual desires. On the other hand, Heavenly love is a more intense and profound type of love based on the union of souls. It is not restricted to outward appearances but aims to comprehend and value a person’s inner virtues and qualities. In contrast to common love, which can be superficial and fleeting, Pausanias contends that heavenly love is more robust and meaningful.

In contrast to Pausanias, Aristophanes, a character in Aristophanes’ play “Symposium,” offers a different viewpoint on love. Actstophanes strongly emphasizes the physical union of bodies as the pinnacle of love, using it to bring two halves that the gods had split apart back together. In a romantic relationship, this viewpoint emphasizes the value of physical intimacy to achieve emotional and spiritual fulfillment (Adams, D. 2021).

Actstophanes believed humans were initially created with two heads, four arms, and four legs. The gods, however, felt threatened by their strength and decided to split them in half, producing two distinct beings. Since then, people have yearned to meet their soulmate or another half in order to feel whole once more. Actstophanes contends that since physical intimacy is the most profound manifestation of love and fulfillment, reuniting with one’s other half represents love’s ultimate goal.

In Plato’s “Symposium,” Socrates describes a hierarchy of love in which one moves from loving material things to loving ideas, which he believes to be the highest form of love. According to Socrates, a relationship based on physical love can be a prelude to a more ideal or spiritual love based on philosophical and intellectual compatibility. This implies that a more profound connection on a mental and emotional level should be present to balance out the importance of physical love in romantic relationships (Papaleontiou-Louca, E., Esmailnia, S., & Thoma, N. (2023).

Beethoven, through his musical works, and St. Paul, in his letters found in the New Testament, both stress the value of ideal love and human brotherhood. They support an ideal of selfless, unconditional love founded on empathy, compassion, and understanding and transcends material desires. This implies that physical love should be secondary to a more ideal or spiritual love, which should be the basis of any romantic relationship.

While it’s important to acknowledge that physical attraction can be a big part of romantic relationships, it shouldn’t be the only factor in a relationship’s success. Physical intimacy can express emotional closeness and love, but other types of love that go beyond physical intimacy should be used to balance it out. A healthy and happy romantic relationship must have the following qualities: emotional closeness, intellectual compatibility, shared values, and mutual respect.

Furthermore, a loving relationship between partners or spouses should be more fulfilling if physical love is present due to an injury or illness. Love can be expressed in various ways, including emotional support, companionship, and understanding, and it can transcend physical boundaries. Lack of physical intimacy can be made up for by a strong emotional and spiritual connection, which can still lead to a meaningful and fulfilling relationship (Bonifacio, R., Hair, L., & Wohn, D. Y. 2021).

Even when the physical attraction is present, one of these deeper connections can result in a relationship that lacks substance and fulfillment. It is crucial to understand that physical love alone may not support a long-lasting, meaningful relationship.

Age, health, and outside circumstances are just a few variables affecting physical attraction and intimacy, which can also naturally change over time. A relationship built solely on physical attraction risks needing more emotional and intellectual depth for a robust and long-lasting bond. Prioritizing physical love over other types of love can also result in relationships that are superficial and lack the emotional intimacy, understanding, and empathy necessary to forge a solid bond with a partner (Remme, R ., et al., 2021)

On the other hand, a stronger spiritual and emotional bond within a relationship can promote closeness, trust, and understanding. It entails giving of oneself, empathetic behavior, and a desire to truly comprehend and support one another on both an intellectual and emotional level. According to Pausanias in Plato’s “Symposium,” this kind of love is based on a genuine connection of souls and transcends the physical realm. It entails a greater appreciation and understanding of one another’s values, beliefs, emotions, and desires, which can result in a more satisfying and meaningful relationship.

In conclusion, there are many dimensions and a complex relationship between ideal or spiritual love and physical love in romantic relationships or marriages. Although physical love is essential, it can also be transient and might not lay the groundwork for a long-lasting and meaningful relationship. A deeper and more satisfying relationship may result from adding an emotional, intellectual, and spiritual connection to physical love. Building a solid and fulfilling relationship with a partner requires prioritizing a holistic view of love that includes all aspects of connection, including the physical, emotional, and spiritual.


Adams, D. (2021). Aristophanes’s Hiccups and Erotic Impotence. Philosophy and Literature45(1), 17-33.

Yap, C. R. (2021). Honesty and Love in Plato’s Symposium.

Papaleontiou-Louca, E., Esmailnia, S., & Thoma, N. (2023). Spirituality of the developing person, according to Maslow. New Ideas in Psychology69, 100994.

Bonifacio, R., Hair, L., & Wohn, D. Y. (2021). Beyond fans: The relational labor and communication practices of creators on Patreon. New Media & Society, 14614448211027961.

Remme, R. P., Frumkin, H., Guerry, A. D., King, A. C., Mandle, L., Sarabu, C., … & Daily, G. C. (2021). An ecosystem service perspective on urban nature, physical activity, and health. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences118(22), e2018472118.