Gender And The Rights Of Women In Morocco And Saudi Arabia Essay Example For College


For many years, women in the Middle East and the Arab world have been forced to live in societies that are dominated by males. Men have been observed to have absolute control over the experiences and life outcomes of women. Most of the cultural values and traditions established in the region only encouraged them to perform the roles of housewives and take good care of the children.

Several decades ago, some courageous individuals began to find new ways of coping and pursuing their objectives. In order to have a clear understanding of the current status of female citizens in the Middle East, this research paper uses different researches and articles to examine the issue of gender and women’s rights in Morocco and Saudi Arabia. It goes further to describe the significance of these malpractices for promoting and sustaining the current discourse on gender and marginalization of women from a global perspective.

Background Information

From the 1900s, many countries in the Middle East began to embrace the concepts of modernization and Westernization. However, the leaders in such societies mainly focused on various areas that needed transformation, such as economic domains, administrative roles, and technological advancements (İlkkaracan 2008). This is a clear indication that the issues to do with cultural values and societal norms remained constant or largely unchanged.

Many people in the region viewed any Western practice as a force that was capable of disorienting the existing social order and values. Consequently, it took long for this region to start embracing new ideas and concepts that could transform the lifestyles of women in their respective societies.

Originally, women in different countries across the region were not allowed to engage in economic activities. The male-dominated model only forced them to stay at home and play the roles of housewives. They had very little said in the issues affecting the family or the wider society. They were required to follow their husbands’ instructions and obey them unconditionally (İlkkaracan 2008). Any woman could be divorced or be forced to marry a stranger.

These trends or social norms made it impossible for more female citizens to engage in superior activities that had the potential to transform their experiences and opportunities as members of the community.

Fortunately, some personal goals and social movements have been instrumental in creating new opportunities for a small percentage of Arab women and empowering them to become respectable members of their societies. Firstly, some courageous women have managed to rise up and find new ways to become free and create space for themselves (Pappé 2010). This kind of achievement is what many scholars in the fields of feminism and Arab history call the “Third Space” (Pappé 2010, p. 226).

Within the past century, some women have been keen to identify emerging opportunities and overcome the challenges associated with their male-dominated societies. Consequently, they have managed to promote the debate and encourage different stakeholders to engage in superior actions and decisions that can change the outcomes of this gender.

Secondly, legal frameworks and reforms implemented within the past century have been focusing on the social position and status of females. However, women have not been part of such advocacies in different societies, thereby making it impossible for them to achieve desirable results. Thirdly, some powerful women managed to work tirelessly in an attempt to break the established walls of exclusion and marginalization in their respective societies (Pappé 2010). Some did so by writing widely about the unique challenges many women were going through in their respective societies and countries.

Fourthly, some modern leaders have been keen to engage in debates and conversations aimed at addressing the issues different people encounter in their societies. Coupled with the notions of Marxism, different stakeholders have been keen to present new opportunities and strategies that can deliver economic opportunities and change the fortunes for more women in tier respective communities (Pappé 2010). These initiatives have continued to transform the experiences and outcomes of female Arabs in their families, societies, and regions. Similarly, the increased access to legal opportunities and education have become powerful tools for taking the debate to the next level.

Despite these efforts from legal professionals, government-sponsored frameworks, and individual acts of heroism, the position of more women in the selected region remains wanting. This is true since most of the feminist ideas and movements have only benefited a small percentage of these individuals. According to the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), it is evident that the Middle East has lower rankings in comparison with various countries in sub-Saharan Africa (Pınar İlkkaracan 2). This has been the case since very few women have been empowered to lead high-quality lives, get representations in different parliaments, or engage in rewarding economic activities.

Key Questions

With the above understanding or background information, it is important to appreciate the changes that have been recorded in the region and consider new ways to improve the fate of the greatest number of women. These two questions were essential since they guided this research study:

  • What is the current status of gender and women’s rights in Saudi Arabia and Morocco?
  • How do the identified issues have global and regional significance?

Gender and the Rights of Women: Morocco vs. Saudi Arabia

The issue of gender discrimination has remained an outstanding problem that affects the experiences and outcomes of many women in both Saudi Arabia and Morocco. However, positive strides or achievements have been made that continue to make it possible for many individuals in the Middle East to pursue their social and economic goals. In Morocco, the first movement aimed at supporting and pursuing the rights of women was launched in 1946 by the famous Sisters of Purity Association (Ennaji 2016).

The members of this union wanted to develop a new country that provided equal rights to women, such as voting and empowerment to make personal decisions. They also demanded the end of polygamy in the country and ensure that they had adequate political representation.

However, the promotion of Islamic jurisprudence in the 1950s made it impossible for some of the demands to be realized. This was the case since many regions continued to promote civil discrimination against females. This initiative created a scenario whereby all women were treated as inferior citizens under the established laws and before their fathers and husbands. They managed to vote for the first time in the year 1956 (Ennaji 2016).

During the same period, a number of opportunities emerged whereby women were encouraged and permitted to access free education. From the year 1980, new changes emerged whereby the Islamic movement began to promote the established feminist ideologies (Ennaji 2016). The religion continued to promote new practices whereby the rights of both women and children had to be taken seriously.

With minimum legal empowerment and protection, many female Moroccans continued to encounter a wide range of challenges. The media was instrumental in portraying and depicting some of the challenges that the majority of the people had to go through. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, cases of divorce and domestic violence increased in different parts of the country. More women suffered at the hands of their husbands and even relatives (Ennaji 2016).

In 1999, the government of Morocco proposed some key reforms that would result in the abolishment of different family practices, such as polygamy (Ennaji 2016). It was also aimed at empowering these members of society to pursue their goals and become successful. Unfortunately, such reforms failed since different conservative Islamist groups opposed them. This was a clear message that the fight for equal liberties and increased representation was not going to end any time soon.

From 2004-2009, new ideas and debates emerged that were aimed at improving the statuses and opportunities for women. However, the resistance to such movements was noticeable in many regions across the country. From these issues, many women in Morocco have managed to realize notable progress in these areas: education, legal presentation, and politics (Ennaji 2016). This is a clear indication that the existing gender disparity has reduced by a small margin in this country.

Considerable improvements are evident whereby some women are able to attain education and pursue their career opportunities. Jobs are also available to women in this country. The level of personal freedom is on the rise whereby some women can decide to engage in economic activities and even make decisions regarding the number of children to have. They can debate with their husbands in an attempt to find the best solutions to their common challenges. Others are able to travel freely and pursue their goals in life.

The collaborations between women’s rights groups and government agencies have continued to transform the situation for women. Additional reforms are promoting or supporting a more democratic position or image for women. These benefits are essential and capable of transforming the experiences and outcomes of more women in their respective societies. However, a large percentage of female Moroccans face different forms of abuse in their families or lack adequate resources (Ennaji 2016). Some find it hard to make independent decisions or pursue their objectives in life. Despite the protections against gender-based violence or discrimination, positive results are yet to be realized.

It is evident that many women in Morocco have managed to benefit from the relentless efforts of different activists within the past six decades. In Saudi Arabia, things have been quite different since many female citizens have not recorded similar achievements within the same period. Throughout the better part of the 20th century, the issue of gender in this country was not given much attention. For many decades, women were required to take care of their children and meet the demands of their relatives and husbands (Al-bakr et al. 2017). Due to the pronounced level of gender inequality, a small percentage of women were empowered to receive high-quality education or engage in various economic activities.

The established policies and laws have reshaped the issue of gender and women’s rights in this country. For instance, earlier policies prevented women from driving or pursuing their personal goals in life. The sharia law continues to determine the position of this gender group in Saudi Arabia. Before the year 2011, women were not allowed to engage in political activities. They could not contest for any elective position or vote in this country’s general elections (Al-bakr et al. 2017). However, King Abdullah made an unanticipated decision that saw women vote for the first time in the year 2015.

From the early 21st century, women have been encouraged to attend schools and get degrees. This kind of development explains why more female students are graduating from various universities in comparison with their male counterparts (Al-bakr et al. 2017). Some women were divorced by their husbands without even being informed about the development. Consequently, they had to experience numerous confusions and hardships, thus being unable to achieve their goals. This kind of malpractice made many women homeless and incapable of realizing their potential.

In 2019, the government of Saudi Arabia was part of the G20 summit that was aimed at promoting new ideas to minimize the wage gap between men and women. The meeting was seen as a new opportunity for member states to consider evidence-based approaches to guide and empower more women to start their small businesses. However, more Saudi Arabian women have been unable to engage in such activities.

The established frameworks and social arrangements continue to make it impossible for these individuals to close the gender disparity gap (Al-bakr et al. 2017). In 2018, the government lifted one of the most controversial bans whereby women were not being allowed to drive (Sen 2019). This kind of policy is a clear revelation of the experiences many female citizens have gone through in this country over the decades.

Despite these obstacles, some significant achievements have been recorded in the 21st century whereby more women are able to contest and win elections. The level of educational attainment has increased significantly within the past decade. Women can now become members of different boards or chambers that make critical economic decisions (Sen 2019). In 2005, new laws and religious decisions created a new opportunity for women whereby they could not be forced into marriages.

From these observations, it is agreeable that there are significant achievements and developments that have been made in the recent past to improve the social statuses, rights, and liberties of Saudi Arabian women. These opportunities are making it possible for more individuals to engage in a wide range of economic activities, thereby becoming empowered and freer (Al-bakr et al. 2017). However, advocacy is still needed to close the current gap and ensure that more women are empowered to pursue their aims. The end result is that their rights will increase and eventually become successful members of their respective societies.

Regional and Global Significance

The above findings show that many women are still finding it hard to pursue their economic and personal aims in life. This happens to be the case since most of the established or existing policies fail to support their social goals. Gender disparity is a major challenge that affects the experiences of female citizens both at their homes and working environments (Welchman 2010). While some female citizens have access to basic education, the majority of them in these two countries still lack the right resources, opportunities, and legal protections that can make it easier for them to succeed. The current cultural practices create a situation whereby many women are unable to make independent decisions in life.

Despite the nature of these issues, some outstanding developments have emerged whereby more women are capable of pursuing their economic aims and being involved in various decision-making processes. In Saudi Arabia, female citizens have eventually found a new reason to follow their career dreams. These achievements can be attributed to the courage and willingness of different activists and outstanding female figures who stood up to find a new space for women (Al-bakr et al. 2017).

They dedicated their resources, time, and skills to change the situation and make it possible for young girls to eventually live in free and equal societies. These aspects go further to explain why more women are yet to achieve their potential and be empowered to lead high-quality lives.

The above observations, achievements, and gaps can become powerful lessons for taking this debate of gender parity and women’s rights to the next phase. In this region, it is evident that more females are still oppressed and discouraged from pursuing their goals. Some women in the Middle East have been able to receive high-quality or basic education. This is a clear indication that a few female citizens are able to lead their lives freely, make independent decisions, and consider investing in their respective countries (Ennaji 2016). Such challenges should inform evidence-based approaches and decisions that can promote equality.

The promotion of abusive practices and disempowerment of the female gender makes it impossible for many people to lead high-quality lives and realize their potential. This knowledge should guide more governments in the entire region to consider the best legal changes or amendments in an attempt to promote the principle of equality. This strategy will ensure that more men and women are empowered and capable of experiencing their liberties as part of God’s creation.

In these two countries, women face social persecution for giving birth out of wedlock. The same challenge is available to individuals in marriages since they have to go through marital rape. They are also unable to make desirable personal decisions in their respective homes. These gaps explain why there is a need for those in leadership positions to consider superior laws that have the potential to protect women against these vices (Ennaji 2016). Such a move will empower and make it easier for the greatest number of beneficiaries to achieve their aims.

Education remains an essential need that many women in the Middle East lack. Although specific milestones have been recorded in several countries, all governments can consider the issues described above and implement powerful mechanisms to ensure that more women get a basic education. This acquisition will become a new opportunity for them to understand their liberties and be willing to be part of the ongoing gender disparity and empowerment debate.

The governments in this region can go further to create additional opportunities for women and make it easier for them to appreciate their positions in society (Sen 2019). The current culture in this region that permits criminal acts against women should be abolished. Such an approach will support the establishment of a new society whereby every person will have autonomy, freedom, and security.

Similarly, this discourse is essential for the wider global community since many countries are characterized by issues of gender disparity and discrimination. The United Nations (UN) and other stakeholders can consider the nature of this problem and encourage all global citizens to appreciate the challenges many women have to experience in their daily lives (Ennaji 2016). Specifically, additional efforts will be essential in the developing world to get rid of certain malpractices that make it impossible for more women to become recognizable and respectable members of the society, such as female genital mutilation (FGM), forced or arranged marriages, and wife inheritance (Sen 2019).

After these problems are eliminated, those involved can go further to support the establishment of proper systems that secure quality education and job opportunities for more women. They should also be promoted to have a say in their respective families and marriages. Stringent measures or policies can also be introduced to address the current gaps and ensure that those who violate women’s rights are punished accordingly.

With these strategies in place, more female citizens in the Middle East and across the world will be able to enjoy their liberties, make personal or informed decisions, and be empowered to solve the major predicaments they face. Societies that have balanced gender rights and opportunities tend to have increased chances of recording positive economic growth and minimizing most of the issues affecting the underdeveloped world (Al-bakr et al. 2017).

This achievement will increase the level of family revenues, empower more women to engage in economic activities, improve innovation practices, and eventually make the world a better place for all (Sen 2019). The approach will make it easier for more women to take good care of their young girls and empower them to succeed in life. A new culture will eventually become a reality that meets the needs of the greatest number of people in different parts of the world.


The above research paper has presented meaningful observations and thoughts regarding the issue of gender and the rights of women in the selected countries. Throughout the first half of the 20th century, different activist groups launched new campaigns that were aimed at transforming the experiences of more women in their respective communities. Despite such efforts, both Morocco and Saudi Arabia failed to introduce superior practices and policies that were capable of changing the conversation and empowering more female citizens to succeed in their lives.

Fortunately, some of the recent achievements have made it easier for these people to acquire adequate education and establish their personal spaces. Emerging laws and policies have made it possible for them to engage in a wide range of social and economic activities, including finding jobs, starting new businesses, and engaging in political decision-making processes. Although these realizations have made it possible for a significant percentage of women in the two countries to realize their aims, there is a need for the region and the entire world to consider the importance of promoting the rights, freedoms, and liberties of these people.

This kind of practice is essential since these individuals have encountered diverse challenges in the past. It would be fair to present additional laws that can support and make it easier for them to become empowered. Consequently, the global society will be characterized by more people who are willing to fight the unique challenges affecting them, such as inequality, poverty, and insecurity. The end result is that the world will eventually become a good place for all human beings.


Al-bakr, Fawziah, Elizabeth R. Bruce, Petrina M. Davidson, Edit Schlaffer, and Ulrich Kropiunigg. 2017. “Empowered But Not Equal: Challenging the Traditional Gender Roles as Seen by University Students in Saudi Arabia.” Forum for International Research in Education 4 (1): 52-66.

Ennaji, Moha. 2016. “Women, Gender, and Politics in Morocco.” Social Sciences 5 (4): 75-82.

İlkkaracan, Pınar. 2008. “Introduction: Sexuality as a Contested Political Domain in the Middle East.” In Deconstructing Sexuality in the Middle East: Challenges and Discourses, edited by Pınar İlkkaracan, 1-16. New York: Routledge.

Pappé, Ilan. 2010. The Modern Middle East. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge.

Sen, Gita. 2019. “Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment: Feminist Mobilization for the SDGs.” Global Policy 10 (S1): 28-38.

Welchman, Lynn. 2010. “Women, Family and the Law: The Muslim Personal Status Law Debate in Arab States.” In The New Cambridge History of Islam: Muslims and Modernity: Culture and Society since 1800, edited by Robert W. Hefner, 411-437. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

American Revolutionary Crisis: History Of Events

The second half of the eighteenth century will always be among the most eventful periods in the history of the United States. In particular, these fifty years will be best remembered for the American Revolution, which contributed to the formation of the country. In this letter to my dear descendants, I would like to shed light upon the origins of the revolutionary crisis of the eighteenth century, analyze it, and reflect on political forces trying to challenge British domination.

The history of any country presents a series of changes that can impact people’s life both negatively and positively. This difference in the points of view and life values often acts as the reason why there are numerous forks in the road of human history. The American Revolution can be justifiably called the key event that allowed the population of the United States to make more informed and self-interested choices. Its importance lies in the fact that it has helped the United States to gain independence from Great Britain, one of the most economically powerful countries of the time. The significance of these events for future generations cannot be overstated because they have helped to establish a new form of government, placing emphasis on equality and the opportunity to elect official representatives. History should be regarded as the greatest teacher as it prevents the repetition of past mistakes, and this is why the origins of the Revolutionary Crisis deserve close attention.

Prior to the outbreak of the American Revolution, the asymmetrical relationships between the British government and colonists in Northern America manifested themselves in different ways, contributing to the growth of revolutionary sentiments. The core reason why colonial Americans became ready to resist British control is inextricably connected with the key function of all colonies ever created, social conflict, and the inability of Great Britain to take settlers’ interests into account when making laws (Specht and Stockland 10). In the world of politics, every decision made by a strong country to protect its interests can involve significant financial expenses that sometimes undermine its dominance. As for the British government, it faced this situation after the Seven Years War and other armed conflicts. In this case, having power over colonies was used as an opportunity to improve the financial position and pay off the national debt. The Stamp Act of 1765 proposed by Townshend was among the key decisions contributing to the growth of protests since it introduced new requirements to transactions and new stamp taxes (Duffy). Obviously, the adoption of the above-mentioned act caused a series of street protests that were regarded as the only opportunity for colonists to voice their concerns (Duffy). Therefore, the origins of the Revolutionary Crisis can be attributed to the social and economic situation in colonies right after the Seven Years War. The impact of the Enlightenment with its ideas of individualism also remains important, but it was this unfair policy that became the last straw.

The groups that contested British rule present another question to be discussed. The population of colonies included the representatives of various social groups whose economic positions were extremely different. Due to the existence of social stratification, the consequences of British policy towards colonies were diverse, and the quality of life of the most economically disadvantaged people decreased even more. Numerous protests initiated by farmers led to the creation of a number of political organizations whose activity was illegal. Among them were the Sons of Liberty, founded by Samuel Adams, the Daughters of Liberty, Vox Populi, and other organizations (Snodgrass 280). Some groups of patriots were created with regard to professional segregation and aimed at protecting the rights of particular specialists. Importantly, the existence of such groups gave rise to trade unions.

The methods used by illegal organizations to change the situation with the distribution of power ranged from non-threatening such as filing petitions to the organization of protest events and assaults on public authorities (Snodgrass 287). In addition to that, many illegal organizations were involved in the information struggle and criticized the British government in newspapers and other printed materials for attaining the commitment of common people living in colonies. In this connection, it is necessary to note that the activity of groups opposing the authorities of Great Britain included numerous violent acts aimed at intimidation. However, despite the concerted efforts of activists from different social and ethnic groups (many enslaved people also supported the anti-British movement), New York City remained in the hands of Great Britain until the end of the war.

The military power of the British Army helped it to do its best during the armed conflict that seemed to predetermine the results of the war. Having won the Battle of Long Island in 1776, the British made the Continental Army retreat to distant locations (Klay 12). New York City was regarded as one of the key strategic centers, and Great Britain paid close attention to protecting its newly acquired territories from American separatists. Despite the military advantage of the British Army over the Continental Army, the intervention of other countries helped the latter to change the balance of power.

In addition to unequal military strength, the fact that New York City was under the rule of Great Britain right until the end of the war is related to its role as an important seaport. Being a center of trade, New York City was full of merchants who did not support the ideas of independence from Great Britain due to their own economic interests. Such individuals remained loyal to the British authorities. They primarily included the representatives of upper castes whose financial success heavily depended on the preservation of the colonial social structure. In fact, the willingness to make the colonies independent was not met by all citizens with enthusiasm; instead, the reaction primarily depended on a person’s social position, as is clear from the example with tradesmen. Obviously, the split of the society was detrimental to the health of our nation. This tendency has impacted my life as well because the majority of my friends became revolutionaries, and being civilly disobedient always involves threats to life.

To conclude, the end of the war is expected to become the first step on the path to real freedom and democracy. It is now 1783, and the remaining British troops have been forced to leave New York a few days ago. The next decades are going to be hard times for us because maintaining social order in new circumstances requires a lot of work. Personally, I will continue working as a teacher to help future generations to learn the world and prevent them from making mistakes that lead to war.

Works Cited

Duffy, Shannon E. “Revolutionary Crisis (American Revolution).” The Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia, 2015.

Klay, Phil. The Citizen-Soldier: Moral Risk and the Modern Military. Brookings Institution Press, 2016.

Snodgrass, Mary Ellen. Civil Disobedience: An Encyclopedic History of Dissidence in the United States. Routledge, 2015.

Specht, Joshua, and Etienne Stockland. An Analysis of Bernard Bailyn’s The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Routledge, 2017.

National Guidance During Hurricane Katrina


Emergency management, both on state and local levels, demands coordinated actions from a diversity of agencies involved in this process. To meet the needs of communities and individuals affected by disasters and avoid unlawful discrimination, the US state departments developed “Guidance to state and local governments and other federally assisted recipients engaged in emergency preparedness, response, mitigation, and recovery activities on compliance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964” (The United States Department of Justice, 2016). The mentioned guidance was prompted by the experience of emergency management activities during Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. This paper analyzes the connection between the National Guidance and Hurricane Katrina.

The Necessity of the National Guidance

Actions of state authorities and agencies during natural disasters such as hurricanes demand thoughtful coordination and careful application of emergency management interventions. One of the important aspects of Guidance is the provision of equal services in an emergency situation to all community members disregarding their national origin, race, or color (The United States Department of Justice, 2016). A devastating hurricane Katrina struck Louisiana and Mississippi in 2005, and it was not a unique disaster for the American coastline. Therefore, there is a huge probability that a similar disaster repeats.

Usually, a severe natural disaster causes much destruction, which leads to confusion of authorities and the population. In the case of hurricane Katrina, partially due to broken communication, there was much confusion in emergency and law enforcement reactions from different ranges of officials. The lack of centralized support lead, in its turn, to panic and chaos, which made the rescue interventions more complicated and even caused the necessity to involve active military forces (Tkacz, 2006). Thus, the experience of Hurricane Katrina and similar disasters prompted the creation of Guidance, which is a product of cooperation among the United States Departments of Justice, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Health and Human Services, and Transportation.

The Execution of the Guidance during Hurricane

The events after Hurricane Katrina revealed many cases of discrimination. For example, African American citizens of New Orleans who did not have cars had problems with evacuation because the local authorities did not provide enough public transportation, thus failing to consider the needs of this population group (The United States Department of Justice, 2016). The issue of housing after the hurricane also became a problem for racial and ethnic minorities. Thus, they faced discrimination during their attempts to rent a place to live.

The Guidance under consideration promises the implementation of practices that guarantee Title IV compliance in the process of emergency and disaster management (The United States Department of Justice, 2016). First of all, it reaffirms commitment to nondiscrimination protections. It means that more people can be rescued irrespective of their race or nationality. In case this strategy had been used during the rescue interventions after Hurricane Katrine, the number of victims could have been significantly reduced.

Another point of the Guidance involves engagement and inclusion of diverse populations, including those with limited knowledge of English (The United States Department of Justice, 2016). This aspect should include activities to inform all population groups about the coming disaster considering their poor knowledge of English. Thus, different tools have to be applied. Informing about emergency management interventions is a crucial component of the rescue process. In the case of Hurricane Katrina, the information and communication aspect was one of those that failed.

One more aspect of the Guidance is the inclusion of immigrant communities in all the efforts related to preparation, mitigation, and recovery after a disaster (The United States Department of Justice, 2016). During rescue interventions that followed Hurricane Katrina, this aspect was neglected and led to more victims among immigrants. Thus, there is a need for more services providing life protection and safety without any restrictions on the basis of the immigrant status. Also, disaster legal or crisis counseling services should be available for all the population groups, including immigrants.

Another significant issue to consider is data collection and analysis. The Guidance claims that the needs of diverse racial and ethnic groups will be assessed to ensure that all the concepts of Title IV are followed, and these populations are included in preparation, mitigation, and recovery interventions after a hurricane. These interventions should be provided on both state and local levels.


On the whole, Hurricane Katrina provided a lesson for the authorities of different levels. It was an example of inefficient disaster management and thus led to the development of the Guidance aimed at future avoidance of mistakes. The Guidance is a result of a common effort of departments involved in emergency management and is a guarantee that in case of emergency, every American citizen receives the necessary help. Consequently, emergency management interventions should consider the needs of ethnic and racial minorities, immigrants, and people who do not speak English well. Therefore, this Guidance is a significant document that is expected to provide better outcomes for people living in the districts that suffer from hurricanes or other natural disasters.


The United States Department of Justice. (2016). Guidance to state and local governments and other federally assisted recipients engaged in emergency preparedness, response, mitigation, and recovery activities on compliance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Washington, DC: The United States Department of Justice.

Tkacz, S. R. (2006). In Katrina’s wake: Rethinking the military’s role in domestic emergencies. William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal, 15(1), 301-334.

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