Gender Discrimination In The Catholic Church Essay Example

The article examines one of Pope Francis’ recent decrees on formalizing women’s leadership in the Catholic church. The decree amends the Code of Canon Law that governs the administration of the church’s operations and allows women to serve in minor leadership roles such as Bible reading during mass, altar service, and the distribution of communion (Povoledo, 2021). Proponents of this decree consider it a positive step in the right direction toward equality of the sexes within the church. However, its critics note that the Pope shut the door on women ascending to ordained and diaconate roles which would represent true equality. The Catholic church’s restrictions on women’s leadership remain contentious, demonstrating the deep-rooted gender inequality within the institution (Haskins, 2003). Although the individuals within the hierarchy change from generation to generation, the ideology persists and permeates throughout the institution.

It is essential to note that the Pope’s decree did not break any new ground. Women have already been reading Bible during mass, serving at the altar, and distributing communion in many Catholic churches. This is a result of necessity in communities where the church was understaffed as well as progression in developed societies (Povoledo, 2021). Thus, the decree represents the Catholic hierarchy catching up with the rest of the faithful in handing women a more prominent role in the administration of the church’s activities. However, the decree makes it legal that women cannot be barred from the specified roles. It also indicates the church’s willingness to acknowledge the invaluable contribution of women to the institution.

The Catholic church’s complicated relationship with women is far from resolution. The Pope is on record stating that ordaining women as priests is out of the question. Pope Francis notes that women’s service in the church must still reflect their womanhood (Povoledo, 2021). This distinction is at the heart of this complicated relationship with female leadership in the church. The proponents of the status quo anchor their arguments on the early church’s lack of women in leadership positions (Maher, Sever, and Pichler, 2007). It is important to remember that this historical period was marred with sexist discrimination against women. This period laid the foundation for the belief that women were not suited for leadership. The Pope’s concession about needing to retain one’s womanhood implies that leadership is at odds with femininity. The implication herein is that men cannot be under women’s leadership in the church.

Feminist theory notes that women continue to be discriminated against because of their gender even when there is no logical basis for this unfortunate state of affairs (Disch & Hawkesworth, 2016). There is no rationale for thinking that men make better leaders than women. Examples from other social institutions and corporations demonstrate that women are equally capable of leading. It is sexist to think that one loses their womanhood if they ascend to the top of any leadership hierarchy. In this regard, womanhood is a social construct designed to limit women to the roles reserved for them by the patriarchal hierarchy.

The discrimination against women within the Catholic church is based on religious doctrine and dogma. Therefore, although it is discriminatory, it is not illegal. The state has no authority over any religion’s doctrine and dogma (Haskins, 2003). Most countries have legal provisions that protect religion from state interference. Thus, there is no legal redress for women who desire to serve in leadership roles but are barred from doing it by the Catholic church’s doctrine because this practice breaks no laws. Consequently, most change arises from activist minds within the church that continue to agitate for expanded roles for women in leadership. Circumstances such as understaffing in far-flung regions of the world have also proven to be catalysts for radical change in the church.

The Pope has appointed commissions in the past to examine the role of women in the formative years of the church’s operations which serve as the basis for most of its doctrines. However, these commissions failed to find the consensus that would inform greater radical shifts in ordaining women as priests and deacons (Povoledo, 2021). Decrees such as the one issued by Pope Francis are baby steps that may not amount to much in the long run without the goodwill of the hierarchy and a drastic change in doctrine. Nonetheless, such decrees codify the progress made thus far and ensure that there will be no rollback of these gains made through painstaking effort and continued involvement of women in unofficial capacities.

The path forward for the Catholic church is clear. The only way to acknowledge that women are equal to men is through tangible policy changes to reflect this radical shift in doctrine. Until women can be ordained to serve as priests and deacons, gender discrimination will remain entrenched within the organization. This is because the underlying message of this policy is the superiority of men over women. However, the Catholic hierarchy’s commitment to the status quo means that this will take decades, if not centuries.

References

Disch, L. J., & Hawkesworth, M. E. (Eds.). (2016). The Oxford handbook of feminist theory. Oxford University Press.

Haskins, C. Y. (2003). Gender bias in the Roman Catholic Church: Why can’t women be priests. Margins3, 99.

Maher, M. J., Sever, L. M., & Pichler, S. (2007). Is the Roman Catholic prohibition of female priests sexist? How Catholic college students think about women’s ordination and sexism.

Povoledo, E. (2021). Pope Formalizes Women’s Roles, but Priesthood Stays Out of Reach (Published 2021). Nytimes.com. Retrieved 22 September 2022, from https://www.nytimes.com/2021/01/11/world/europe/pope-women.html.

Gender Equality In Work Place Sample Paper

To fully comprehend and examine society’s patriarchal rule and oppression, the concept of gender equality must be considered. There are many different ways to understand the concept of gender equality, but the majority of them are through the perspective of feminism (Radio). In the modern age, progress has been achieved in several sectors of society, including gender equality. Even while progress has been achieved, more has to be done to ensure equal pay and opportunity in the workplace. Gender norms, gender roles, and gender inequities must be eliminated from society to achieve equality. Given that gender parity seems to be focused on what should be completed in the community, it is probable that gender parity will not be realized in some circumstances due to intrinsic differences between men and women, for example.

The wage disparity between men and women has been a source of contention for many years, and it is still being debated today. A job evaluation method was established to reduce the wage discrepancy between men and women. Its purpose was to organize a list of vocations according to their characteristics or content. One of the job evaluation’s shortcomings was the use of the phrase “equal remuneration for equal work,” which reflects cultural beliefs. They arose from the concept that men were entitled to the family income and that women were second-class citizens who depended on their husbands, fathers, or brothers for financial support at home, among other things (Figart).

In many cases, men and women in the same position are paid differently and have different perks (Tomaskovic-Devey et al.). Even if women have shown themselves to be the most effective workers in the office, the issue of pay remains a key problem for the female gender (Tomaskovic-Devey et al.). Men may be paid more than women for the same work for various reasons. One of the causes is that males are the primary breadwinners in their households and shoulder more of the burden of providing for them. As a result, men will get higher wages than women because of the greater weight of their responsibilities.

On the other hand, while performing the same labor as men, women are nonetheless paid less than they were in most cases. The salary disparity between men and women is founded on the generally held idea that women cannot support themselves and their families solely on their abilities. Not every family is in the best of circumstances; for example, there are some families where there is no male role in supporting them and just a woman in the family. Therefore, the woman would be working equally as hard as a male, but she would only be bringing home a fraction of what he does in pay and benefits.

Both men and women have advantages and disadvantages, but they are not always on an equal basis. In the United States, the number of female faculty members in science and engineering has lagged behind the increase in the number of students enrolled in graduate programs. The areas of biology, chemistry, and physics saw a reduction in the proportion of job offers made to female candidates from 34 percent to 29 percent to 20 percent, respectively (Shen). Women discouraged are one of the primary causes of the low number of job openings. Scientists are working hard to level the playing field to encourage more women to pursue careers in science in the future. When smart women are unable to overcome their lack of self-confidence, they are forced out of the scientific field due to subtle prejudices in the scientific sector.

Another kind of prejudice is depriving women of privileges such as paternal leave and flexible work schedules that enable them to tend to their children. Organizations must recognize that women’s contributions to their families are just as important as their participation in the profession. As such, they ought to consider granting them family time. Additionally, they should be compensated well since they contribute to family obligations (Tomaskovic-Devey et al.).

Organizations may also have a gender bias in the roles held by their employees. Increasing numbers of women obtain advanced degrees, such as masters and doctorates. Consequently, they have become fierce competitors with males, sometimes surpassing them altogether. Women are now better able to compete for higher-level jobs in their employment due to this advancement in their educational attainment. Sadly, despite these advances, women continue to face discrimination in the workplace, particularly at the executive level. Despite their lack of formal education, they are nonetheless given lower-level roles like clerks, assistants, and supervisors to work in. To get to the top, women have to work their way up from the lowest levels of leadership, which may be a lengthy and arduous process. It is sexist since their male colleagues with identical educational degrees are more frequently and quickly promoted to senior positions (Graham).

Women often find themselves in situations and places detrimental to their well-being, both at home and at work. Sexism in the workplace, especially towards women, is prevalent and pervasive. The moral rot that has occurred in society has resulted in women being seen as mere persons expected to provide for their families. In addition, women are paid less than men for doing the same tasks; they do not get the same benefits as men; they are assigned to lower-paying positions regardless of their qualifications, and they have faced sexual harassment in their places of employment. Women are the principal victims of discrimination at work, and it is thus critical that the fight for workplace equality be waged aggressively. As a consequence of equality, they should be able to enjoy fulfilling lives both at home and at work.

Work Cited

Abendroth, Anja, Melzer, Silvia Maja, Kalev, Alexandra, and Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald. “Women at Work: Women’s Access to Power and the Gender Earning Gap”. ILR Review 70.1 (2017): 190-222

EQUALITY”1.” Journal of Community Positive Practices, vol. 12, no. 1, 2012, pp. 5-17.

Graham, Mary E., et al. “The View at the Top or Signing at the Bottom? Workplace Diversity Responsibility and Women’s Representation in Management.” ILR Review, vol. 70, no. 1, Jan. 2017, pp. 223–258, doi:10.1177/0019793916668879.

Radoi, Cristina. “THEORETICAL DEBATES ON THE CONCEPT OF “GENDER

Shen, Helen. “Mind the gender gap.” Nature 495.7439 (2013): 22.

Gender Revolution Right Here, Right Now, For Free! Essay Example

Introduction

Two-hour special Gender Revolution: A Journey with Katie Couric explores the changing landscape of gender. It’s a sensitive topic, but the people featured in this article agreed to share their stories.

Educators and parents can benefit from a new resource created by Journeys in Film: a discussion guide on the topic of gender. Gender Revolution is a documentary that aims to change people’s attitudes towards the idea of gender. The contents of the video have been assembled and have been put in motion by a group of people from various walks of life who have come together to create awareness about this issue. one can find the documentary on YouTube and other authorized online platforms. The documentary talks about how gender roles are enforced and how this impacts society and individuals. It also talks about how these roles are imposed on children from an early age and what can be done to change this.

Katie Couric is trying to bring together people with different opinions and perspectives who want to take up the responsibility of changing mindsets toward gender equality. The video offers interactive, informative, and supportive resources for transgender, non-binary, and questioning people. It also offers resources for partners of transgender people, parents of transgender children, co-workers of transgender people, etc. A person can select from the different topics on the homepage to explore more about their gender identity. Women are not the only ones who want to be treated equally. Men are also joining this movement as they want their voices heard and their rights respected. The gender revolution documentary has impacted our society, including how we dress, work, and think about our future goals.

 Literature Review

Gender Revolution

Katie Couric’s documentary Gender Revolution was an opportunity to explore the complex and evolving experiences of gender. It was a phenomenal chance to share the voices of pioneers in the transgender community, who redefine what it means to be a man or woman. This article provides an overview of academic literature on transgender studies, gender identity, and feminism in Western societies, including how relations with other global cultures have shaped all three. The literature and research on transgender studies and the feminist movement have provided a platform to explore the multifaceted and complicated trans community.

Couric’s film stood out in its effort to bring recognition to transgender people, who seem to be on a path to mainstream legitimacy. Gender Revolution has also been a means through which trans people’s critiques of feminism and gender identity politics can be further analyzed by the public, challenging the mainstream media’s efforts to limit their movement towards inclusion in American culture (Elizabeth,2013). Although there is a greater acceptance of transgender people than ever before, Couric’s film exemplified how trans communities are still seeking validation from cultural institutions for their identities. Despite their struggles and achievements in the fight for acceptance, transgender people are still left frustrated by the pervasive challenges of gender norms.

Transgender community

Transgender studies and feminism have existed for decades, with each movement competing for legitimacy to explain modern gender identity. The two movements have become entwined over time and reflect how contemporary culture has evolved around gender identity. The trans community has also been affected by globalization, colonialism, and third-world nationalism. Gender Revolution helped shed light on gender fluidity and the role of larger cultural narratives in defining what it means to be a man or woman across different cultures.

Transgender studies are a relatively new field that only started gaining critical mass in the late 1990s. The term “transgender” was coined in the 1950s by Harry Benjamin’s sexologist. Before the modern transgender movement, crossdressing was often explained through frameworks of mental illness instead of sexual identity. Transgender studies began in academic writing with transgender people and issues gaining visibility in feminist texts for their similarities with feminist dilemmas concerning gender and sexuality. The transgender community has historically shared interest with feminism as both movements seek greater equality for women and men. Gender Revolution brought these two communities together to share experiences and build mutual understanding to help individuals feel validated within their community (Cotter et al.,2011).

Over several decades, the topic of gender has emerged as a central concern in psychology and a hotly debated topic in general. There are two different approaches to studying this field that have been proposed: naturalistic observation and laboratory experimentation. With both methods in play, a great deal of research is carried out to discover new ways for people to understand one another and identify trends in their development over time.

A transgender activist named Autumn Elizabeth describes what it is like to be a transgender individual and her struggle to break the binary. Autumn Elizabeth claims that not everybody feels they identify with one gender alone but instead identifies as both or neither. According to an article on the New Yorker website, “Couric quotes studies showing that only about three per cent of people can’t be classified as either male or female. “In this argument, Autumn Elizabeth says that just ignoring or discrediting these studies because only three percent of people cannot be categorized as either male or female does not mean that transgender identities do not exist. Furthermore, the article says that “In fact, many experts think that the figure may be higher than three per cent—for example, some research suggests that at least one in twenty-five hundred people are born with ambiguous genitalia.” Suppose there is even a chance of somebody being born in a body different from what they identify with it, then more and more people will have to start rethinking and accepting the transgender identity. It is not that people believe that transgender identities don’t exist; it is just that they haven’t fully grasped or thought about the concept (Kolker et al.,2019).

This article by Autumn Elizabeth is important because it brings attention to a subject many people have never thought about or heard of. It also brings up an argument by saying why some people may be concerned about gender reassignment surgery. For one reason, most people do not understand how genders are socially constructed and how this affects them daily. Also, most individuals who claim to be transgender do not feel limited to one gender but are gender fluid which means they feel like they may identify as both or neither at different times in their life (Kade). Most people don’t want to think about this because it messes with their minds. It is hard to imagine how one can be both male and female or neither of the two. I agree with this article because it brings up a very important subject in our world that many people do not have much knowledge or understanding of.

As non-binary, trans people, the experience of being yourself in a world that insists on categorizing you into boxes can be difficult. A study led by Abbie Goldberg indicated that college-aged non-binary and transgender students feel increasingly out of place when they cannot fit neatly into an established gender category. Even more surprisingly, we find that college-aged non-binary and transgender students’ lack of belonging is nearly entirely due to the discomfort they experience when they wish to engage in a public and other activities while feeling unsure of their gender identity. We conclude by suggesting that non-binary and transgender students may benefit from community-based interventions aimed at helping them understand the importance of their own experiences based on communication with others who share the same struggles (Goldberg et al.,2018).

Sexual Identity

The binary gender system is commonly accepted and reinforced in Western societies. It is structured around the idea that there are only two genders: male and female, with a vague third option of “intersex” (Barbee et al., 2019). The labels don’t work very well, but the consensus is that sexual orientation is who you are attracted to. Sexual identity is who you are naturally and who you feel comfortable identifying. If a transwoman is attracted to other transwomen and identifies as female, they would be described as a lesbian. In this article, Paz Galupo and her colleagues would like to know if transgender individuals perceive their sexual orientation and sexual identities in the same way that psychology has traditionally described these. They interviewed seven transgender individuals about their sexual orientation and their sexual identity. They found that people referred to “sexual orientation” as having different but similar feelings toward different genders, while “sexual identity” was described as a sense of who one is (or feels inside) (Galupo et al.,2016). The authors conclude that the traditional sexual orientation and sexual identity models do not apply to all people. The findings in this article go hand in hand with what Katie Couric delivers in her documentary. Both the two works try to define sexual identity to their audience.

When a child is born intersex, diagnostic workups and surgery are necessary for the person to follow a socially and medically defined gender binary. Georgiann’s clinical research explores the complex social, medical, and political implications of early surgical intervention on children whose bodies do not fit conventional standards of male or female. She argues that young children are forced into genital surgeries based on their assigned sex (usually based on appearance) without fully understanding these procedures. This can result in severe mutilation, loss of sexual sensation, lifelong depression, and self-loathing. Georgiann also writes about the professional politics surrounding intersex, particularly on the subject of intersex advocacy groups. She argues that these groups are often ineffective and even harmful because they perpetuate the idea that surgeries are an answer to intersex situations. She argues that intersex conditions should be seen as natural variations and not something shameful or broken that needs to be fixed (Davis,2017).

For nearly a century and a half, National Geographic has been a leading source for cultural and scholarly content. Gender science and the evolution of our society’s conception of gender are not exceptions to this rule. It’s all around us, and we can’t escape it. A growing number of celebrities are speaking out about the issue. Gender-based issues affect everyone in our society daily, including our children, parents, teachers, doctors, and elected officials. Everywhere we looked, people and organizations were attempting to reshape traditional gender roles. In Sweden, fathers can take advantage of a generous paternity leave policy after the birth of their child, and some men reject binary gender roles and discover their true selves on the gender spectrum.

Media analysis

In all of its guises, every form of media is constantly bombarding us with information. We consume a staggering amount of media, ranging from movies and television shows to books. We may not be aware of it, but we are forming our identities and defining our values due to the messages we receive from the media. Even before LGBTQ+ people started making bigger waves in the entertainment industry, accepting their identities, and coming out publicly, the media has always provided a narrative for sexual orientation and gender identity; it was not intentional until recently. And now that there is more representation on television, in movies, and books/literature, there is finally a message that portrays LGBTQ+ people as all-around normal human beings with no flaws, which is a welcome development.

However, this is not the only thing the media has been up to. In addition, the media has been promoting a narrative that portrays sexual orientation and gender identity as the “correct” way to be while publicly shaming those who do not conform to its expectations

(Kade,2021). This message is so pervasive in Hollywood films that when a film featuring LGBTQ+ people does not fit within what Hollywood considers “good,” it either fails to make money at the box office or receives negative reviews. For example, Jennifer Lopez’s film The Wedding Planner, which was released in 2006, received negative reviews because it featured characters who were openly gay.

“I don’t see how the film will be able to draw in a large audience. It’s a little too edgy. Adding that The Wedding Planner includes a gay character who died due to AIDS, Noel stated he was “not interested in that material.” The film grossed only $59 million at the box office and received a negative rating of 27 percent on the Rotten Tomatoes website, which tracks critical reception.

It was nominated for a 2007 GayVN Award and advanced to the semi-finals because of its portrayal of homosexuality, which gained mainstream acceptance in society due to the film.

This is a must-see!! Even though this occurred several years ago, it is extremely relevant to Hollywood’s current place!

The representation of the LGBTQ+ community in television shows has been met with a similar level of criticism because it does not fall within what Hollywood considers to be “good.”

Ellen DeGeneres’ show, which recently aired a controversial segment many viewers felt was homophobic, ignited controversy. One of the most popular daytime talk shows, the show, which has been nominated for several Emmy awards and is one of the most-watched, featured two men talking about overcoming their attraction to [other] men. In this segment, Ellen DeGeneres, who was hosting the show, laughed along with the two men, who explained that they would prefer to be straight if they could and that their attraction to other men was similar to that of being transgender.

DISCUSSION/RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS

Katie Couric was one of the first to take on the taboo subject of gender discrimination in America, and she has just come out with a new documentary entitled Gender Revolution. In her documentary, Katie speaks with experts from all ends of the spectrum about gender identity and shares her personal experience. From learning to be who you are at any age to rebelling against expectations and assumptions, she challenges preconceptions head-on. Katie’s people all have different stories to tell about gender identity. Caroline Cossey was born with male anatomy and had to go through a series of operations as a child until she could come to terms with her identity. Her story is especially emotional because she grew up when being open about her sexuality was taboo, making her desire to be who she truly was even harder for her. The documentary does an excellent job of taking you inside the mind of someone who had to deal with much discrimination for simply being different than what society wanted them to be.

We have witnessed a dramatic change in gender equality for the longest time (Goldberg et al.,2018). Many people describe this event as a gender revolution. Women can now compete favorably with men in the workplace despite the notion that was there in the past that women should stick to their household responsibilities. As a result of the numerous psychologists who have expressed their displeasure with the gender-based movement, much investigation has been conducted to determine why these studies are so controversial. An article explaining both sides of the psychology-gender debate will help us plan our future studies better. A significant portion of the film is devoted to Couric’s interviews with individuals who do not fit neatly into the male or female gender binary and their parents. People of all ages, including 4-year-old Ellie and a senior citizen named Kate Rohr, were open about their struggles to live authentic lives following who they truly are rather than what their bodies were designed for. Aside from learning new terms like “bi sexual,” “non-binary,” and the like, anyone who watches the documentary will see Couric experiment with a slew of other terms. She discovers that “transgender” is a derogatory term and not a quest for identity and that gender fluidity means that one’s identity can shift from day to day, week to week, or even over time. Couric was told by Sam Killermann, the creator of the “gingerbread person” meme: “Gender is just who you go to sleep as, sexual preference is just who you go to sleep with” in Gender 101.

We need to end this toxic cycle by creating policies that encourage people who feel left out because of the gender definitions to rise and become who they want in society.

The film by Couric inspires and educates its audience why treating everyone with the utmost respect is very important.

CONCLUSION

We will never resolve the problem of Gender inequities as long as we continue holding the notion that there is a gender that is superior to the other. It has been reported that many cases of gender violence are recorded in low-income families. We can only resolve this as a society by eradicating political and economic imbalances between the two genders. Even though this film is heavily slanted toward Americans, other cultures accept unconventional gender identities more readily. Men were raised “in the manner of a woman” and had a feminine appearance. Their role in the family of origin is said to be significant. Both India and Mexico have a third gender. According to a Talmudic scholar I had never heard of, there were six genders in ancient Jewish texts.

Finally, Renee Richards and Hari Neff have a one-on-one conversation about their transgender journeys. Generational divides emerge quickly. Richards sees men and women as two distinct categories. She used to be a man. Women now exist. According to her, boys could wear blue, and girls must wear pink. Pink is her golf tees. To her, chromosomes define gender and are the only way to describe human life. Even though we continue to live in a binary world, Neff believes this is the cause of our problems rather than the solution. “The world has a hard-on” for the binary, for pink/blue for man/woman, argues Neff. In her “gender chill” future, we should “chill out more about the freaking gender thing.” Renee Richards says it’s a learning experience, but a gender-free society is a pipe dream. Back to Couric’s original question: Where is the gender revolution? Gender equality is still a hot topic in our society. Identifying as transgender, intersex, or genderqueer is okay, or is the gender revolution about ending discrimination? Is Hari Nef right when he says it’s about gender erasure? Couric says we’ll need time to adjust to a new world awaits us. There’s a lot to talk about in this film, so it’s perfect for a sociology class. The uplifting stories of caring parents, doctors, and families will always require a healthy dose of reality. The film’s provocative themes will benefit gender courses, presenting a greater pedagogical challenge. Sociology of gender courses should focus on how gender inequality is embedded in society beyond individual identities. According to the film’s meta-message, the existence of a gender spectrum is explained by abnormally high or low levels of testosterone and estrogen in utero. These aren’t your average sociology meta-messages.

In Couric’s view, the gender revolution should be accepted as a natural expression of human diversity. Your idea is fantastic, and I wholeheartedly support it. But I challenge my sociology colleagues to use this film to spark difficult gender discussions in their classes. What happens now that we’ve established that everyone has the right to choose their gender? Doesn’t gender still legitimize inequality? Males are expected to be athletic and excel in science, while females excel in the arts and humanities. Unemployed men aren’t seen as valuable family members and don’t have to bear the brunt of childcare responsibilities. Gender structures exist and have an impact on millennials’ lives, according to the millennials I interviewed for my new book. According to sociologist Kathleen Gerson’s research, women would rather go it alone than become economically dependent, while men would settle for wives who revert to more traditional wifely roles if equality proves difficult to achieve. The gender revolution has stalled, according to sociologist Paula England. This film can be used to teach students about gender diversity and civil rights for those who cross or reject the gender binary. But it’s difficult for sociologists to engage students in a theoretically complex discussion of gender as a social structure that legitimizes inequality.

References

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Kade, T. (2021). “Hey, by the Way, I’m Transgender”: Transgender Disclosures as Coming Out Stories in Social Contexts among Trans Men. Socius7, 23780231211039389.

Kolker, Z. M., Taylor, P. C., & Galupo, M. P. (2020). “As a Sort of Blanket Term”: Qualitative Analysis of Queer Sexual Identity Marking. Sexuality & Culture24(5), 1337-1357.

Goldberg, A. E., & Kuvalanka, K. A. (2018). Navigating identity development and community belonging when “there are only two boxes to check”: An exploratory study of nonbinary trans college students. Journal of LGBT Youth15(2), 106-131.

Monro, S. (2019). Non-binary and genderqueer: An overview of the field. International Journal of Transgenderism20(2-3), 126-131.

Miller, S. D., Taylor, V., & Rupp, L. J. (2016). Social movements and the construction of queer identity. New directions in identity theory and research, 443-469.

Barbee, H., & Schrock, D. (2019, September). Un/gendering social selves: How nonbinary people navigate and experience a binarily gendered world. In Sociological Forum (Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 572-593).

Lev, A. I. (2013). Transgender emergence: Therapeutic guidelines for working with gender-variant people and their families. Routledge.

Pollock, L., Silva-Santisteban, A., Sevelius, J., & Salazar, X. (2016). ‘You should build yourself up as a whole product’: Transgender female identity in Lima, Peru. Global public health11(7-8), 981-993.

England, P. (2010). The gender revolution: Uneven and stalled. Gender & society24(2), 149-166.

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Goldscheider, F., Bernhardt, E., & Lappegård, T. (2015). The gender revolution: A framework for understanding changing family and demographic behavior. Population and development review41(2), 207-239.

Cotter, D., Hermsen, J. M., & Vanneman, R. (2011). The end of the gender revolution? Gender role attitudes from 1977 to 2008. American journal of sociology117(1), 259-89.

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Galupo, M. P., Henise, S. B., & Mercer, N. L. (2016). “The labels don’t work very well”: Transgender individuals’ conceptualizations of sexual orientation and sexual identity. International Journal of Transgenderism17(2), 93-104.

Hegarty, P., Ansara, Y. G., & Barker, M. J. (2018). Nonbinary gender identities. Gender, sex, and sexualities: Psychological perspectives, 53-76.