General Notion Of Sample Or Sample Population Sample Assignment

A sample or sample set is a part of the general set of elements that is covered by an experiment (observation, survey). Sample characteristics:

  • Qualitative characteristics of the sample – what exactly we choose and what methods of sampling we use for this.
  • The quantitative characteristic of the sample is how many cases we select, in other words, the sample size.

Sample size is the number of cases included in the sample. Samples can be conditionally divided into large and small ones, since different approaches are used in mathematical statistics depending on the sample size. It is believed that samples larger than 30 can be classified as large.

The sample may be considered representative or non-representative. The sample will be representative when examining a large group of people, if within this group there are representatives of different subgroups, only in this way can correct conclusions be drawn.

An example of a non-representative sample

In the United States, one of the most famous historical examples of non-representative sampling is the case that occurred during the presidential election in 1936 . The Litrery Digest, which had successfully predicted the events of several previous elections, miscalculated by sending out ten million test ballots to its subscribers, as well as to people selected from countrywide phone books and people from car registration lists. In 25% of the returned ballots (nearly 2.5 million), the votes were distributed as follows:

  • 57% preferred Republican candidate Alf Landon
  • 40% chose then-Democratic President Franklin Roosevelt

As is well known, Roosevelt won the actual elections with more than 60% of the votes. The Litreary Digest’s mistake was this: wanting to increase the representativeness of the sample—because they knew that most of their subscribers considered themselves Republicans—they expanded the sample with people chosen from phone books and registration lists. However, they did not take into account contemporary realities and in fact recruited even more Republicans: during the Great Depression, it was mostly the middle and upper class (that is, most Republicans, not Democrats) who could afford to own phones and cars.

A Look Into The Fundss Of Major College Sports Programs

Student-athletes at major Division I-A colleges and universities do more than attend categories, patterns, and vie against other squads. They generate gross. Intercollegiate athleticss have developed into a extremely specialised, multi-million dollar amusement industry that rides on the shoulders of student-athletes. This industry has in bend resulted in significant wagess for large clip athletic plans and the NCAA. Harmonizing to an NCAA study conducted in 1998, 67 per centum of Division I-A football plans showed an mean net income of $ 3.9 million with many of the largest plans far transcending that figure ( Netzley ) . Add in gross from other athleticss and the NCAA took in $ 267 million in 1997-1998 ( NCAA ) .

Universities do non conceal the importance they place on successful athleticss plans. In 1997, Steve Spurrier, caput football manager at the University of Florida, signed a six-year contract that averaged $ 2 million per twelvemonth. In add-on to his $ 2 million one-year wage, Spurrier was given two new autos, a generous vesture allowance and 24 premier tickets for each Gators place game. The trade besides included inducements that would take consequence when specific ends set Forth in the contract are achieved ( Martinez ) .

He can gain $ 99,000 for winning another national title. He can gain the equivalent of one month of his base wage for acquiring to the SEC title game, two months tantamount for any bowl game, two-and-a-half months for an Alliance bowl game, and in conclusion, $ 50,000 for winning a 3rd national title ( Martinez ) . Jeremy Foley, University of Florida Athletic Director, said after the sign language, ? Obviously, people are traveling to speak about the sum of money he’s devising, but he adds enormous value to this university? ( Martinez ) .

While universities are eager to counterbalance managers for the feats of their participants they are steadfast in their conformity of the NCAA Manual. Article 12 of the NCAA bylaws provides that? a student-athlete loses recreational position along with the right to take part in intercollegiate sports when he is found to hold received financess, awards, or other impermissible benefits established under NCAA statute law? ( NCAA ) . These prohibitions on payment include direct compensation for athletic engagement and reception of fiscal assistance above the cost of tuition, fees, room, board, and books ( NCAA ) .

While student-athletes straight contribute 1000000s of dollars in gross to establishments they receive nil but the bare minimal cost to maintain them in school. Most of these immature work forces and adult females come from lower-middle category and low-class households that are unable to direct them passing money during the twelvemonth or wage for a plane ticket place for the vacations ( Martinez ) . The NCAA forbids student-athletes from working for rewards during the school twelvemonth ( NCAA ) . If parents are unable to direct their boy or girl money for anything non covered by their scholarship they are hard up.

The solution to the money job is simple: pay them. I am non speaking about 1000000s or even 1000s of dollars. Give each student-athlete the same sum of wage based on the entire gross dollars their several athletics generates countrywide. The pay would be the same for every jock based on division withi

n the same athletics. For illustration, Division I-A, the largest and most competitory division in college sports, might pay each football participant $ 2500 per season. Every football participant in that division would have the same sum regardless of on field part. Having every school abide by equal wage would extinguish larger, more profitable schools from offering bigger paydays to recruits as inducement to go to their establishment over another. This would maintain enrolling just across the state for every school.

Student-athletes endure countless hours of pattern and athletic competition to gain pride, regard, and most significantly, money for their several schools. Unfortunately, these jocks are taken out of the equation when it comes clip to administer the gross generated by their athletic plans. Of the $ 267 million in gross made by the NCAA in 1998, over 85 per centum, or $ 228 million, were returned in dollars to the athletic plans yet none of this money goes to the jocks themselves ( NCAA ) . The clip has come for these pupils to be compensated.

Paying participants would make more than let the underprivileged pupils to take part in basic college activities like dating or telling a pizza with friends. It would relieve many other jobs as good. Gambling and corruptness on campuses is endangering the unity of college sports. Illegal traffics with agents, as in the extremely publicised instance of South Carolina based agent William? Tank? Black, charged with fraud, money laundering, and supplying illegal incentives to college jocks, has increased every bit good ( Blum ) . Marcus Camby, now of the Toronto Raptors, admits to accepting 1000s of dollars in gifts while playing college hoops at Massachusetts from athletics agents trusting to win him as a client ( Tarver ) . Paying a stipend to jocks will decrease the control bookmakers and agents can put on participants by cut downing their demand for money.

Oppositions of the wage for drama construct site college tuition as payment sufficiency and reiterate the clich? ? you can? t put a monetary value ticket on a college education. ? I think you can. At most major colleges the norm for a resident pupil is between $ 12,000 to $ 14,000 per twelvemonth ( Tarver ) . When university athletic sections are profiting from these participants, to the melody of 1000000s of dollars, and the student-athletes are having merely an instruction that they may or may non desire, it merely isn? t plenty. A scholarship is nice, but it doesn? t pay the measures for many of these participants.

If colleges and universities made money entirely from ticket gross revenues as a agency of perpetuating athleticss plans, there would be no statement over whether college jocks should be paid. The larceny occurs when colleges negotiate billion dollar telecasting and multi-million dollar indorsement contracts yearly. Those contracts and indorsements are the Acts of the Apostless of concerns looking to do money, non non-profit establishments. Colleges and universities are in the concern of doing money whether they admit to it or non, and they use student-athletes to make it. Paying them would non merely be just, but good to both the student-athletes and the schools they represent.

  • Blum, Deborah. ? Learning the Agents? Game: New Rules set to Protect Athletes Still in School. ?
  • USA Today 28 September 2000: C3
  • Martinez, Mark. ? Show Them the Money! ? Student.Com. 26 Sept. 1997. 15 Nov. 2000

School’s Winter Break

I was in Brownwood during my school’s winter break. I’d gone with my dad to tie up a few loose ends from our previous excursions. After crossing most of the “things to do” off our list, we decided to hit the road early, just ahead of some pretty bad weather that was coming in from the north. We spent the first night of our homeward trek in Odessa.

Having shaved a few hours off the trip, the next day we decided to stop in Old El Paso. It was nearing lunchtime, and I could think of nothing better to do than track down “The Aztec Bar” and have a cold one. Why, you ask? In a lengthy letter to Lovecraft, circa July 1934, Howard describes a trip west that he took with Truett Vinson. After visiting the Carlsbad Caverns, Howard and Vinson head for El Paso where they “saw pictures of the Baer-Carnera fight” from June 14, 1934 (below), and then “primed” themselves at, you guessed it, The Aztec Bar.

We were still a half hour or so from the city, so Pop suggested that I put my cell phone to use. I pulled out the AAA tour book, found the correct phone number, and called the El Paso Visitors’ Center. “No,” the voice on the other end of the line said, “we don’t have a genealogy library, but there is a Heritage section in the public library.” I got the number and made another call. We were good to go.

We found the library with little trouble; finding a parking spot was another matter. We put an hour’s worth of coins in the closest meter we could find and walked the two blocks to the El Paso Public Library. Once inside, we found our way to the Heritage section. I immediately asked the gentleman at the help desk if they had a city directory from 1934. He asked what I was looking for and, after I explained, he went looking in a cabinet that contained an old-school card system. A few minutes later, he hadn’t found anything, and I repeated my request for a city directory. This time, he led me to a locked section of the library and went inside. A minute later, he returned with the book I’d requested.

In a matter of moments we found what we were looking for, listed not under “bars” or “taverns”—Prohibition had been repealed in December of ’33—but under “beverages”: 100 San Antonio E. We double checked the address in the street listings (left) and then asked for a 1934 map.

Lucky for us, the library had electronic copies of Sanborn maps. We pulled up the appropriate El Paso map (below) and printed the page that showed 100 E. San Antonio (corner building pictured at the top and bottom of this post). We were going to leave so that we could consult our modern map, but when we stopped at the counter to pick up our copy, the gentleman behind the desk gave us directions. It was just a few blocks away. You can type the address into Google Earth and it’ll get you in the right building.

We got back to the car with a couple of minutes left on the parking meter. We checked our modern map anyway, of course, and then followed the librarian’s directions downtown. After navigating the one-way streets, we found a parking spot right in front of 110 E. San Antonio. From there, it was a very short walk back to “The Aztec Bar.” Of course, it’s not a bar anymore. Today, it’s “Sunny’s Accessories” and, man, is it colorful inside.

Anyway, we took a few pictures of the place, and the old Plaza Hotel that towers nearby, and then hit the road again. We weren’t going to get anything cold to drink there. The downtown area has plenty of old buildings to look at, but I’d recommend visiting in the spring instead of the winter. And it’s always nice to knock another REH location off the list.

Or so I thought. It’s never that easy.

Back home, I started sorting through the pile of memorabilia that I’d scored while in Brownwood and, as usual, for every new item that answered one question, it created one or two new questions. Of course, it all started with my dad.

He was browsing around in a newspaper archive and found this:

SHOPPING PLEASURES come with a pleasant lunch or relaxing afternoon drink at the popular AZTEC CAFE, 102 E. San Antonio St. This week there are some special Chinese lunches by a fine Chinese chef for only 35c, besides the good American menus at the same prices. The ever-attractive bar is a popular meeting place for the business men of El Paso.

Aztec Cafe at 102 E. San Antonio? Great. The article above appeared in the El Paso Herald-Post on December 6, 1935, and not sometime in ’34. So, what happened? In 1934 the only listing for “Aztec” is the 100 San Antonio address. 102 is listed as an art shop. I’m guessing that sometime after the 1934 city directory was printed and before the above article was published, The Aztec expanded their business into the adjacent section of the building. This supposition caused me to reexamine the Sanborn map and my photos.

While Sunny’s Accessories is indeed located at 100 E. San Antonio today, based on a comparison of the Sanborn map, my modern pictures, and Google Earth’s satellite images, I’m now pretty sure that in 1934 Sunny’s would be in 102 E. San Antonio. So, the colorful shop I poked my head into was the Aztec Cafe. Oh well, at least I stood in front of The Aztec Bar.

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