Genetic Engineering: Humankind Future Or Doom? Essay Example

With the help of biotechnology techniques like gene editing or transfer and cloning, genetic engineering aims at deliberately modifying the genetic information contained within an organism’s cells. The purpose here is to harness specific traits or properties of interest by manipulating the genetic code. This technology holds transformative potential for improving outcomes in many areas, including medical science, the agricultural sector, and environmental conservation efforts. Yet critical reflections on social ramifications and ethics remain undeniable. As science continues to advance technologically, there has been a marked improvement in the ability to manipulate genes effectively. Discoveries such as CRISPR-Cas9 have facilitated rapid-paced research while providing novel opportunities for exploration. Though this progress holds immense potential for improving life quality for individuals and society, it does bear an equal chance of causing harm.

The transforming power of genetic engineering lies in its capacity to generate new life forms with sought-after characteristics that have practical uses in fields such as healthcare and agriculture. Gene editing has potential applications in correcting genetic disorders and preventing illnesses, while genetically modified crops offer agricultural benefits by producing higher yields and being resistant to pests or diseases (Karavolias et al., 2021). However, extensive research is needed regarding the moral implications surrounding this technology. Genetic engineering holds immense potential for misuse, including selective breeding and creating GMOs without proper environmental analysis; hence, an extensive examination of this technology’s application is necessary

Evolution of Genetic Engineering

Technology and molecular biology developments have pushed genetic engineering standards forward over the last several decades. Researchers couldn’t manipulate genes until the 1970s when recombinant DNA technology was created. This metamorphosis prompted research into genetically altered microbes and other life forms (Hanneman et al., 2021). In the late 1990s, transgenic animals and plants opened up new possibilities for genome implants, including medicinal uses like human insulin, which was approved for use in 1982. Genetic engineering helps make therapeutic proteins and vaccines. In the early 2010s, CRISPR-Cas9 technology gave scientists remarkable precision and efficiency when modifying genes. CRISPR-Cas9 has shown promise for human gene therapy by fixing animal models’ genetic abnormalities and preventing illnesses. Gene-engineered units spread a unique genetic trait over a whole population, regardless of adverse effects. This idea might control disease-spreading mosquitoes like malaria carriers.

Examples Of Breakthroughs And Advancements

CRISPR-Cas9 technology revolutionized genetic engineering. Scientists may now accurately modify genes using this method. In animal models, CRISPR-Cas9 has corrected congenital abnormalities and prevented sickness. With this technology, scientists can change DNA and create creatures with desired properties, which might revolutionize medicine and agriculture. Transgenic animals and plants have advanced genetic engineering. Inserting foreign DNA into an animal’s genome creates a transgenic animal with new or improved features. Transgenic mice are used to investigate human illnesses and test treatments. Unique DNA is inserted into transgenic plants to make them pest-resistant, disease-resistant, or more nutritious. Gene therapy is another genetic engineering advance. Gene therapy delivers genetic material to cells or tissues to cure congenital abnormalities or illnesses. Cystic fibrosis and haemophilia have responded well to this medication. Gene therapy might heal many ailments. However, ethical and social issues regarding modifying human DNA are raised.

Benefits of Genetic Engineering

Genetic engineering aids agriculture and healthcare. Genetically engineered crops withstand pests, disease, and environmental challenges. It enhanced food security, pesticide usage, and productivity. Bt cotton carries a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis that creates a protein harmful to insect pests. Bt cotton reduces pesticide use and boosts farmer yields. Genetic engineering has enhanced agricultural characteristics and nutrition. “Golden rice,” a genetically altered type of rice, has more beta-carotene, which the body turns into vitamin A. It might minimize vitamin A deficiency, a critical public health issue in underdeveloped nations. Genetic engineering has produced therapeutic proteins and gene treatments for hereditary illnesses. GM microorganisms produce human insulin. Before this method, insulin was expensively extracted from the animal pancreas and was sometimes impure. Genetically engineered bacteria can manufacture pure, inexpensive insulin for diabetics. SCID gene treatments are another example. The rare genetic condition SCID weakens the immune system and may kill infants. SCID gene therapy inserts a working gene into the patient’s cells. Several clinical investigations showed enhanced immune function in SCID patients.

Utilizing Genetic Engineering in the Prevention of Emerging Infectious Diseases

Preventing emerging infectious diseases represents a significant challenge in healthcare. Genetic engineering offers exciting possibilities as it allows for producing vaccines that target specific viruses or bacteria genes or proteins. The advantage of utilizing this technology lies in its capacity to generate novel vaccines with increased safety profiles and higher efficacy rates than conventional types. Pfizer and Moderna’s recent mRNA vaccine designed for COVID-19 showcases how genetically engineered components within the body trigger an immune response against the pathogen. Highly effective and safe clinical outcomes resulted from vaccine testing produced by researchers. Scientists utilize genetic engineering to generate better treatment options as an alternative method for tackling infectious diseases. Creating genetically-engineered antibodies designed to eradicate the Ebola virus is one example that could potentially save many patients’ lives.

Moreover, with advancements in this field, new strategies like CRISPR-based diagnostics are at our disposal —this opens doors towards faster detection rates of COVID-19 cases. The genetic engineering technique develops a system to identify and eliminate targeted genetic sequences of viruses in the patient sample. In this way, it allows for accurate and prompt diagnosis.

Abuses of Genetic Engineering

Genetic engineering offers an array of possibilities that could revolutionize society; however, it must be handled cautiously; otherwise, the consequences will outweigh any perceived benefits. One potentially harmful pathway is creating genetically modified organisms (GMOs) that are issued into the environment untested for safety protocols. Such GMOs may introduce unintended harm, causing both social and ecological consequences with long-lasting impacts, including irreversible losses in species diversity due to their deployment patterns regarding unexpected side-effects on ecosystems around them. An illustrative example would be how some countries dealing with malaria have approached this issue by generating GM mosquitoes yet raising apprehensions about possible secondary effects in local ecologies. Misusing genetic engineering technology can be exemplified by creating “designer babies.” This procedure involves manipulating the embryos’ genes using gene-editing techniques so that offsprings possess predetermined characteristics such as superhuman physical abilities, intellect, and beauty. Societal and ethical issues arise from attempting to build a society with superhumans who may dominate those less fortunate or unable because they lack specific genetically heritable attributes.

Genetic engineering has tremendous potential to improve numerous aspects of life; however, it is accompanied by specific hazards that cannot be overlooked. Among such dangers is the threat of bioterrorism and biological warfare, whereby modified viruses or bacterial strains can threaten human health and crop growth. The aftermaths could lead to dire repercussions globally that give rise to alarm. Another considerable danger lies in genetic discrimination: people’s genetic makeup has been utilized against them regarding employment opportunities or insurance policies based on possible susceptibility to certain illnesses (Hosseini-Shokouh et al., 2021). Responsible and ethical use of gene engineering necessitates regulating and monitoring its application to avert potential abuses, emphasizing the importance of establishing effective governance frameworks.

Socioeconomic and Political Impacts of Genetic Engineering

Genetic engineering in healthcare and reproduction has many good and bad socioeconomic effects. Genetic engineering improves illness therapy. Hospitalizations, healthcare expenses, and quality of life may improve. Genetic engineering increases agricultural yields, improving food security and economic prosperity. Genetic engineering may worsen and generate new inequities (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine et al., 2016). Genetic therapies are expensive and may only be offered to the wealthy.

Moreover, Genetically modified crops may also boost industrial concentration, hurting small farmers and rural communities. Genetic engineering in healthcare and reproduction has enormous political effects. Genetic engineering regulation is complicated. Governments must weigh genetic engineering’s ethical and social risks and rewards. Due to ethical considerations, several governments restrict reproductive gene editing. Politically, genetic engineering may be employed for good or evil. Genetic engineering may help governments improve public health or agriculture. Genetic engineering may be utilized for evil, such as bioweapons or selective breeding.


In conclusion, genetic engineering has advanced dramatically in recent decades and has the potential to assist agriculture, healthcare, and disease prevention. This technology’s potential misuse and economic and political effects are additional issues. Genetic engineering may improve illness treatments, crop production, and disease prevention. However, genetic engineering might increase inequities and be utilized for political or criminal goals. I believe genetic engineering may improve human health and well-being if used ethically. Governments and regulators must ensure that genetic engineering benefits society and does not discriminate against marginalized groups. Future genetic engineering should address ethics. For instance, gene editing for reproduction, GMOs, and genetic discrimination must be handled.


Hanneman, M., Suza, W., Lee, D., & Hain, P. (2021, November 25). 1.11: Recombinant DNA Technology. Biology LibreTexts.

Hosseini-Shokouh, S.-J., Sheikhi, R., Mohammad, S., Hosseini, R., & Moradimajd, P. (2021). The biological weapons threats and coping strategies for health promotion.

Karavolias, N. G., Horner, W., Abugu, M. N., & Evanega, S. N. (2021). Application of Gene Editing for Climate Change in Agriculture. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems5.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, & Committee on Genetically Engineered Crops: Past Experience and Future Prospects. (2016, May 17). Social and Economic Effects of Genetically Engineered Crops.; National Academies Press (US).

Chronic Disease Management In Ireland Sample Paper

With the rising prevalence of chronic disease, healthcare, and public health, societies are reviewing their responsibilities and exploring new avenues for more effective preventative and treatment therapies. Managing chronic illness is a method that entails screens, examinations, surveillance, and coordinating treatment together with patient education. History reveals that Chronic diseases affect the patient and the community, which has a significant weight on finances and healthcare utilization norms (Hernandez et al., 2019, p.1457). Therefore, many healthcare programs are working towards helping patients manage their condition and lead better lives.

Chronic diseases affect a large part of the population, and the conditions present in Ireland depict a need for proper management. In Ireland, there are now 1 million persons who suffer from chronic infections, including diabetes, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or cardiovascular disease. Three chronic diseases—cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and respiratory diseases—accounted for 75% of Ireland’s 27,123 fatalities in 2010 and are avoidable (Tandan et al.,1157, 2022). Besides, these illnesses caused 71% of early deaths in those under 65. Chronic disease’s existing and anticipated effects pose a significant challenge to the Irish community, its economy, and the health care system. Chronic care in present times in Ireland can best be described as unsustainable, inefficient, and ineffective. A large part of the population is dependent on hospitals to manage their chronic conditions, which sometimes face challenges such as delays in appointments and strain on resources. The HSE has created an Integrated Care Plan for the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Disease to improve the situation.

Prevention of chronic diseases in Ireland

Chronic diseases that take away masses of people are largely preventable. Most factors that cause chronic diseases, including poor diet, alcoholism, and smoking tobacco, among others, are lifestyle choices that can be avoided. The lifestyle changes recommended to prevent chronic diseases include avoiding tobacco use, weight management, and engaging in physical activities (Barr et al., 2019). Besides, it is important to embrace a healthy diet. These techniques have effectively worked in countries committed to implementing preventive programs. For instance, the best community intervention programs are from Finland.

Interventions for preventing chronic diseases in the community

The most current WHO Strategy for Chronic Disease proposes that nations implement an integrated strategy that encourages population-level health improvement and prevention and customizes this with a targeted chronic illness management approach concentrating on people at high risk.

Implementation of policies for healthy living. The government can formulate and implement healthy living policies to prevent the avoidable causes of chronic diseases. Economic policies may significantly impact how people behave and make decisions, and they have been particularly effective in lowering the incidence of smoking. To reduce the use of tobacco and prevent heart diseases, the government increases taxes on the consumption of tobacco, bans any form of advertisement or promotion of tobacco, provides health warnings in public places against the consumption of tobacco, and restricts smoking zones. A similar intervention is applicable for the reduction of alcohol use.

Education. Ireland has a unique opportunity to deliver focused education in the field of chronic disease prevention and treatment, including health behavior modification and self-management assistance, given the significant number of medical grads from college and university entry-level programs. The education program should include People with a high risk of having a heart attack or a stroke, including those who have developed CVD, who should get counseling and multi-drug therapy (Wagner, 2019, 665). For instance, The goal of treating asthma is to manage the condition’s symptoms, regain full physical and psychosocial functionality, remove obstacles to social interactions and quality of life, and eradicate any associated side effects.

Moreover, the health sector could manage chronic disease through educational campaigns. Invest in creating locally relevant health messaging about food, exercise, and weight management. These campaigns are a guide to patients and caregivers when making daily decisions. The goal is to live well with the condition. During the Covid-19 pandemic, chronic illness patients depend on information from timely campaigns.

General nursing practice to manage chronic diseases.

Continuity of Care: Hospitals are, in their very nature, fragmented; each team or specialty in the health service only deals with one part of the patient’s care. Chronic illness management is a complicated process that includes self-care, primary care, acute care, and rehabilitation. It has been demonstrated that high levels of continuity of care lead to better patient outcomes, happier patients, and more favorable patient experiences (Plumb et al., 2021,435). Each patient should have a personalized illness management plan that includes their treatment objectives. Services should be patient-centered. All studies demonstrate that continuity of treatment has a significant favorable impact on health outcomes. This continuity of care can be provided by the Doctor and support staff.

Increasing capacity: A serious scarcity of general practitioners is evident in Ireland, and it is expected that this shortfall will worsen over time. Therefore, to manage chronic diseases, it is essential to increase GP training locations, allocation of more professional health practitioners, including physicians and nurses, and addition of diagnostics access by GPs. The management plan should thus state guidelines on the nature of tasks between specialty service providers and caregivers. Healthcare providers should ensure they attain chronic disease competency by training in pharmacology and clinical interventions.

Integrated Care Program For Chronic Diseases

Additionally, The Integrated Care Programme for Chronic Disease has been established by government policy (ICP CD). The program is focused on prevention, diagnosis in early stages, and management of chronic diseases. It seeks to help 700,00 persons suffering from diabetes, heart, and respiratory diseases. Patients with Type 2 diabetes, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or cardiovascular disease are the focus of Ireland’s CDM structured program (Tandan et al., 1157, 2022). It is operated under three subprograms, including the national diabetic Clinic, national heart, and national respiratory programs. Healthy eating begins at a tender age. The school feeding program should ensure food services are nutritious and balanced.


Patients should be given the knowledge, tools, and resources they need to take control of their health, as well as the support they need to do so. Self-management is a method through which people take control of their chronic illnesses in the context of their daily life (Jiang & Cameron, 2020). It should be implemented by training and educating the patients about their health. Besides, patients under self-management programs require continuous support through the provision of digital solutions (Plumb et al., 2021,445). The objective of this approach is to improve patients’ health conditions as they live with the disease. This is because it trains a person to manage medications, symptoms, stress, and stay active.

Patient and caregivers management strategies

Patients and their caregivers learn to accept their condition and adopt coping strategies to survive. Most of them live with an optimistic mindset in hope for the future. They have developed the courage to consult with their physicians on an issue they experience daily. An individual may employ either constructive or destructive coping techniques to alter his or her psychological state or to lessen harmful effects when faced with a stressful event (Allegrante et al., 2019, 134). Nevertheless, some opted for medical insurance to reduce financial fatigue and made retirement plans. Social support is an important approach to the effective management of chronic diseases within society,

Challenges to chronic disease management

Ireland continues to face various barriers to the effective management of chronic disease among its population. The majority of hospital consultants cited a “lack of skills, education, and the knowledge gap” as a significant impediment to the management of chronic diseases. This slows the process of disease management. Likely, the majority of general practitioners, practice nurses, and hospital consultants all cited a lack of enough financing as one of the biggest obstacles, as well as difficulty in regularly accessing hospital consultants for guidance. Management of chronic diseases requires the use of specialized equipment, and the medication is also costly. Many healthcare facilities cannot afford machines to manage diseases effectively.

In conclusion, chronic disease management entails various initiatives. There are many reported cases of deaths due to chronic illnesses, including in Ireland. Ireland healthcare reports reveal that many elderly individuals suffer from chronic diseases and require help. Diabetes has the leading cause. The causes of these diseases are known and can be managed. Ireland implements various policies to discourage unhealthy living. Other interventions to manage the disease include education, capacity building, and improvement of the healthcare system. Patients and their caregivers are also dedicated to managing the situation by being positive. Nevertheless, Ireland encounters challenges that hinder the effective management of chronic disease.


Allegrante, J.P., Wells, M.T. and Peterson, J.C., 2019. Interventions to support behavioral self-management of chronic diseases. Annual review of public health40, pp.127-146.

Barr, R., Green, C.A., Sande, C.J. and Drysdale, S.B., 2019. Respiratory syncytial virus: diagnosis, prevention, and management. Therapeutic advances in infectious disease6, p.2049936119865798.

Hernández, B., Reilly, R.B. and Kenny, R.A., 2019. Investigation of multimorbidity and prevalent disease combinations in older Irish adults using network analysis and association rules. Scientific reports9(1), p.14567.

Jiang, J. and Cameron, A.F., 2020. IT-Enabled Self-Monitoring for Chronic Disease Self-Management: An Interdisciplinary Review. MIS Quarterly44(1).

Plumb, J., Weinstein, L. C., Brawer, R., & Scott, K. (2012). Community-based partnerships for improving chronic disease management. Primary care39(2), 433–447.

Tandan, M., Twomey, B., Twomey, L., Egan, M., & Bury, G. 2022. National Chronic Disease Management Programmes in Irish General Practice-Preparedness and Challenges. Journal of personalized medicine12(7), 1157.

Wagner, E.H., 2019. Organizing care for patients with chronic illness revisited. The Milbank Quarterly97(3), p.659.

How Women Are Portrayed Free Essay

Primary sources:

In her article “Feminism and Symbolism in Zora Neale Hurston’s Sweat,” Judith Jackson Fossett argues that Hurston uses symbolism to depict the struggle and triumph of women in a patriarchal society. The narrative’s protagonist, Delia, is a hardworking African-American woman whose husband, Sykes, treats her as enslaved. Delia may have had a difficult upbringing, but her profession as a washerwoman has given her the resilience to persevere.

According to Fossett, the sweat-soaked rag that Delia uses to clean her husband’s clothes symbolizes the labor that Delia and other working-class women perform in a patriarchal society. Women are expected to work long hours to support their families but receive inadequate compensation. Delia’s marriage is to her physically and emotionally abusive spouse is represented by the rag because she has poured her blood, sweat, and tears into it. However, Delia gains confidence through her work as a washerwoman. She is proud of her profession and appreciates the independence it affords her(Fossett,562). Fossett asserts that Delia’s perspiration, rather than being a sign of submission, is a source of fortitude. Delia’s discovery of a snake in her laundry mound is another metaphor. According to Fossett, the serpent represents the risk of violence and abuse that women face in patriarchal societies. The peril of internalized misogyny, represented by the snake, is exemplified by Sykes’ accusation that Delia is “afraid of her own shadow.” Delia’s eventual triumph over the snake is a metaphor for women’s struggles in today’s patriarchal society. Using symbols, Hurston depicts the triumphs and tribulations of women in a patriarchal culture(Fossett,567). The story implies that women like Delia are subject to oppression and marginalization but that they can surmount their circumstances through hard work and optimism. Fossett’s study demonstrates the pertinence of these issues as women continue to fight for equality and recognition in a culture that frequently attempts to silence and diminish them.

In “Society’s Limitations on a Mother’s Dreams: An Analysis of Tillie Olsen’s ‘I Stand Here Ironing,’” which focuses on Tillie Olsen’s short story, Kaitlyn Duffy analyzes women. In this fictional narrative, a mother reflects on her relationship with her eldest daughter, who is having difficulty establishing her own identity (Duffy, 34). Duffy argues that the narrative portrays women as incapable of escaping restrictive cultural norms. As she strives to provide for her children in today’s patriarchal society, the mother encounters significant obstacles. She must work lengthy hours to support her family, leaving her with little time to spend with her children. The fact that she spends the entirety of the novel ironing is a metaphor for the expected role of women at home and this concept.

The protagonist’s mother, Emily, also imposes social restrictions on her daughter. She cannot pursue her writing passion due to her mother’s lack of encouragement and the family’s financial difficulties. According to Duffy, this exemplifies women’s challenges when choosing between familial and cultural expectations and their ambitions. Despite these faults, Duffy argues that the story inspires readers by demonstrating that women are resilient and courageous. Despite the obstacles, the mother is devoted to providing for her family (Duffy, 36). Emily demonstrates fortitude by pursuing her writing ambitions despite encountering obstacles. The narrative, according to Duffy, demonstrates that women can flourish despite social expectations, even if they do not always get their way.

In her article titled “Jamaica Kincaid’s ‘Girl’: A Rhetorical Analysis,” Xaviania S. Scully analyzes the short story from the female characters’ points of view. The narrative is a mother’s lecture to her daughter about proper behavior. Scully asserts that the story demonstrates how women are constrained by stringent social norms and expectations (Scully, pg 59). The mother teaches her daughter domestic skills, including cooking, cleaning, and general maintenance. This expresses the belief that women’s worth is based on their ability to fulfill traditional gender roles in the household.

Scully responds by asserting that the novel features strong, autonomous female characters. The mother’s eloquent speech suggests that women can control their lives and make decisions. In addition to being grounded in reality, the mother’s advice offers practical tips for women’s commonplace lives (Scully, pg 62). This implies that women can exercise their agency despite living in an environment that restricts and confines them. Scully digs deeper into the story’s rhetorical strategies that emphasize women’s limitations. The monotony and uniformity created by the phrase “this is how you” indicates the high standards imposed on women. The mother’s warnings to her daughter about certain behaviors and attitudes allude to restrictive societal expectations for women.

Scully’s overall interpretation of “Girl” suggests that female characters are portrayed as both potent and susceptible to cultural norms and expectations. The narrative emphasizes the constraints women experience in contemporary society but also suggests that they can find ways to exercise their agency and overcome these obstacles (Scully, pg 59). The narrative is an uplifting reminder of women’s resistance and empowerment throughout history in the face of oppression and marginalization.

Secondary sources:

The outstanding essay “We Should All Be Feminists” by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie depicts women as complex, unique people deserving of respect and parity with males in the law. Adichie advocates for intersectional feminism, which recognizes the difficulties faced by women of different ethnic, social, and sexual identities. How Adichie portrays women as complicated and varied is a recurring theme in her writing(Adichie,34). She emphasizes that women are a diverse group of people with various backgrounds and viewpoints, not a homogenous group. Adichie contends that gender knowledge must go beyond these binary categories since conventional ideas of femininity and masculinity are constricting and oppressive. Adichie also exemplifies that women and men need equal access to opportunity. She claims that women have been marginalized and subjugated throughout history and in many cultures worldwide (Adichie,40). Adichie contends that feminism should promote women’s full and equal participation in all spheres of society, such as politics, business, and the media.

“Invisible Women: Data Bias in a World Designed for Men” by Caroline Criado Perez portrays a bleak picture of women’s treatment in various institutions and fields, including healthcare, public transportation, and the workplace. This book argues that gender inequality and patriarchal structures have persisted due to a paucity of research and data regarding women’s experiences.

Perez frequently disregards the existence of feminine characters. She argues that women’s perspectives are rarely included in research and data accumulation, resulting in ineffective policies and designs (Criado 9). Perez provides several examples, including the paucity of female crash test models and the absence of women in clinical studies of medications and medical treatments.

Perez’s assertion that women are the focus of discrimination and exclusion is supported by the occurrence of gender bias in statistics and studies. She contends that this bias leads to patriarchal systems and upholds negative stereotypes of women (Criado 4). Additionally, The book explains how the gender wage gap persists because women’s work is undervalued in economic models, and there is a paucity of information on women’s incomes. Nevertheless, Perez shows that women can surmount challenges and affect social change. She focuses on female activists, researchers, and government representatives who oppose gender bias in statistics and call for more inclusive study and rules (Criado 6). Perez contends that including female viewpoints in research and data collection can result in a more just and equal society. “Invisible Women” portrays women as a disadvantaged minority due to misogyny in statistics and research. However, the book also demonstrates how women fight against these stereotypes and advocate for more progressive legislation and social norms. Researchers, policymakers, and activists are urged to prioritize the voices and perspectives of women in their work.

Women are shown as multifaceted, imperfect, and frequently amusing characters in Samantha Irby’s “Wow, No Thank You” who fumble through the difficulties of modern existence. Irby uses her honest, humorous, and frequently self-deprecating writing to emphasize the unfair expectations and sexism that women still experience in today’s culture. Irby’s writings’ imperfect and untrue portrayal of women is one of his main themes. She is open about her battles with anxiety, depression, and body image. She writes with humor and candor about the challenges of juggling relationships and professional aspirations. The polished, well-groomed representations of women in the media are a welcome change from Irby’s work. Irby portrays female characters as helpless captives of patriarchal expectations and norms. In addition to being excellent mothers, wives, and workers, she discusses how women are expected to appear a certain way and maintain a particular social status. Irby attacks these expectations with biting wit and scathing derision, highlighting the absurdity of such high standards.

Irby demonstrates that despite women’s challenges and restrictions, they are resilient and resourceful. She emphasizes self-care and self-acceptance throughout her writing and encourages readers to find happiness in simple pleasures such as a home-cooked meal or their favored television program. Irby emphasizes the spectrum of female experience, from the difficulties of single motherhood to the benefits of a close female friendship group.


Women are depicted in a diversity of ways in the texts we examined. In “Feminism and Symbolism in Zora Neale Hurston’s Sweat,” women are portrayed as strong and resourceful despite the prevalence of tyranny and patriarchy. The women in Tillie Olsen’s “I Stand Here Ironing” are depicted as being hampered by societal norms and having difficulty establishing a balance between parenthood and pursuing their own goals(Irby,19). In “Girl” by Jamaica Kincaid, women are portrayed as compliant and defiant in the face of patriarchal expectations. “We Should All Be Feminists” by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie is a contemporary work that emphasizes the significance of gender equality and challenges women’s restrictive preconceptions and expectations. The book “Invisible Women” by Caroline Criado Perez highlights how women are underrepresented in statistical analyses and, as a result, ignored and underserved. The women in Samantha Irby’s “Wow, No Thank You” are portrayed as multifaceted, flawed, and frequently amusing individuals endeavoring to navigate the complexities of modern life(Irby,22). These materials demonstrate the importance of recognizing the diversity of women’s lived experiences and the unique challenges they confront in today’s patriarchal culture. We can create a more just and equitable society for everyone if we work to dismantle detrimental gender norms and expectations and acknowledge the unique ways existing social institutions impact women.

Work Cited

Fossett, Judith Jackson. “Feminism and Symbolism in Zora Neale Hurston’s Sweat.” African American Review, vol. 29, no. 4, 1995, pp. 565–75.

Duffy, Kaitlyn. “Society’s Limitations on a Mother’s Dreams: An Analysis of Tillie Olsen’s ‘I Stand Here Ironing’.” Student Pulse, vol. 9, no. 2, 2017, pp. 33–37.

Scully, Xaviania S. “Jamaica Kincaid’s ‘Girl’: A Rhetorical Analysis.” College Language Association Journal, vol. 64, no. 1, 2020, pp. 57–69.

Adichie, Chimamanda Ngozi. We Should All Be Feminists. Anchor Books, 2017.

Criado Perez, Caroline. Invisible Women: Data Bias in a World Designed for Men. Abrams Press, 2019.

Irby, Samantha. Wow, No, Thank You: vintage Books, 2020.