Genzai Play: Hanjo As A Mugen Writing Sample


In Yukio Mishima’s timeless tale, the protagonist Hanjo is waiting for the return of her lover. She falls into a state of insanity, and when he finally does come back, everything has changed. Ingulsrud playfully explores this story through different actors who take on each character role in turn throughout three sections. This text uses many literary techniques to create an unorthodox reading experience – it can be difficult at first glance as readers struggle with dense prose that features numerous techniques such as personification, allegory, and metonymy writing styles (a word or phrase with similar meaning). However, it is commonly regarded as one of Mishima’s most influential works, which has been central to the development of modern literature in East Province.

Background information of the stories characters and dressing code

To best understand the work, readers must learn how to recognize the performances of each character due to the masks and costumes. Unfortunately, it is not easy to make out who is who without a lot of trial and error. In reference to Tayler, the costumes for the characters are often an odd mix of traditional Japanese clothing with Western clothing (V.1). This can make it difficult for readers to identify which characters are men and women. For example, in the second section, Ing Ulsrud’s wife wears a red dress with blue trim while his sister wears a pink kimono with white trim. It is also challenging to figure out why certain characters wear masks during particular work passages. Mishima’s mother-in-law appears wearing a mask that obscures her face and reveals only one eye and mouth in one scene.

In explaining why this play is significant, we must first discuss its central theme: love. The protagonist waits for someone she knows will never come back to her in this play. She spends most of her time in a lonely room that has been decorated with all sorts of items from her past–things she will never see again as they were taken away from her as soon as she reached out to touch them. Throughout this, she suffers immensely because all she can do is wait and remember how much better it was when they were together–when they were happy together. But this state of being can only continue so long before she grows more insane by waiting endlessly for him to return–waiting until she becomes unrecognizable to herself–and ultimately dies waiting for him because there was nothing left but memories.

The stories Short Synopsis

Hanjo is a short piece of prose written by Japanese author Yukio Mishima. It is an exciting piece and subsequently reused to covey various life messages about love—the Temple of Dawn. Hanjo tells the story from the perspective of an unnamed woman who waits for her lover to return after going away on a business trip without telling her where he has been or when he’ll be back (Tayler V.1). She becomes obsessed with him, believing that she can stay alive because their love makes them “one” even if they are apart physically-and this belief gives birth to all sorts of fantasies about torturing herself and other people just like how Jesus tortured himself at Gethsemane before dying on the cross since this scene was later adapted into popular anime film Princess Mononoke. Things only worsen until she completely loses all sense as time goes by.

The Play as a Mugen

The story begins with a Yujo named Hanago who lived in an inn at Nogami in Mino Province (the present-day Nogami Sekigahara-Cho, Fuwa District, Gifu Prefecture) during ancient times. One day, a man called Yoshida no Shōshō, clothed in a suō, stopped at the inn on his route to the eastern provinces, and it was there that he met Hanago, who would become his lifelong companion. He described to Hanago, who is clothed in a Karaori, why he was traveling, and during their daily contacts, they each fell in love. Before his journey, they exchanged fans to mark his assurance of a better future. He is currently on his way to Japan (Tayler V.1). As a result, Hanago has been spending his days staring at the fan and fantasizing about Shōshō ever since. The mistress of the inn at Nogami, who had been serving the meal, had become dissatisfied with Hanago, who was now known by the nickname Hanjo. Hanago is then escorted out of the inn by the staff.

As Yoshida no Shōshō returns from his voyage across the eastern province, he pays a second visit to the inn, this time in expectancy of encountering Hanago for the second time. When he discovers that Hanago no longer resides in the area, he is disappointed. He then resolves to return to Kyoto to pray at the Shimogamo Sanctuaries in the Tadasu Forest, located in the heart of the city (Tayler V.1). After being expelled from the inn, Hanjo, also known as Hanago, appears by chance at the shrine clothed in a mizugoromo and a divinity school mask. As a result of her obsession with Shōshō, Hanago becomes insane Hanjo and eventually reaches Kyoto. Because Shōshō knows more about it than anybody else, he becomes skeptical.

After Hanjo had prayed to the divinity to grant her desire for affection, one of the Shōshō retainers demands that Hanjo provide entertainment for him and his friends by performing her lunacy. Hanjo becomes distraught as a response to this insensitive request. She regretted his careless comments and danced while conveying her despair, all while holding the fan she traded with Shōshō as a memento of their relationship (Tayler V.1). With each wave of her lover, she becomes further delirious. Hanjo confesses her feelings for him, which have grown more passionate as time has passed since they last saw each other. She sobs in agony, and she drops tears. During all the dancing, Shōshō pays close interest to Hanjo and requests that she displays her fan for him. Shōshō and Hanago are walking down the street when they notice each other’s admirers and realize they are the loves they were looking for. The couple is overjoyed at the prospect of reuniting. Hunjo, on the other hand, vanishes since he did not appear in his full form as Hanago.

Themes Used in the Story

Yukio Mishima penned “Hanjo,” a poetic, intense letter of love and betrayal that has taken on a life of its own. Written as a bilingual trio, with the actors rotating through each character role in the production, Ingulsrud’s direction unveils Mishima’s story as a timeless tale of love, loneliness, and betrayal. Tayler states that the prose is dense and complex and features numerous literary techniques that make it difficult for readers to follow along at first glance (V.1). In recent years, Yukio Mishima penned “Hanjo,” a poetic, intense letter of love and betrayal that has taken on an almost mythological-like status. Written as a bilingual trio with the actors rotating through each character’s role, Ingulsrud’s direction unveils Mishima’s story as timely and timeless. The prose is dense and complex and features numerous literary techniques that make it difficult for readers to follow along at first glance.


Yukio Mishima’s Hanjo is a play about the birth of a new Japan. Though the characters are not Japanese but rather a young woman and her father, it is still a play about the country.

The primary symbolic representation in Hanjo is the mask. The masks are both a physical representation of the characters and an internal image to help them interact and understand themselves as individuals. The shows are also used to help them achieve their goals and even alter their identities.

There are many costuming considerations in this play as well. The costuming demonstrates the different stages of the characters’ development while they are on stage. Though they are not always wearing masks, the costumes and masks are essential tools for them on stage to achieve their goals. For example, in the first scene of the play, where she is firstborn to her mother, she is wearing a white yukata with a black-and-white pattern and a white mask. This sets up her personality as an innocent person who needs protection from the world. Later, she is dressed in a kimono with a black-and-white pattern when she gets bigger. This shows her transition from innocence to maturity.

Works Cited

Tayler, Royall. 403 Forbidden,

Global Business Economics & Finance Report Free Essay


The construction of a loading bay is a costly project in terms of both money and time, so it is important to plan ahead the expenditures that will be incurred from the start of the project to its completion (Lee & Lee, 2009). In addition to the expenditures, emergencies, contingencies, other unexpected economic fluctuations such as inflation have to be covered in the budget. The purpose of this report is to draw up a budget for the proposed loading bay whose estimated total budget is £882,000. Alongside this budget, tools for monitoring expenditures will be developed and regularly updated in order to reflect the real budgetary estimates. Given that the approach to drawing up the loading bay budget will have a direct impact on the achievability of the budget, the importance of the approach used cannot be over-emphasized. The budgeting method or approach will be incremental since this year’s actual results will be used to prepare next year’s budget. Marginal changes will be made to this year’s budget in order to come up with next year’s budget.

Relevant calculations to prove that the budget is achievable will cover the third part of the report. The calculations will be based on this year’s actual calculations. Adjustments will be made based on the next year’s estimates, percentage increments, redundancies, economic fluctuations, and other factors. Since we are working with a fixed budget, the estimates should sum up to £882,000. The purpose of the calculations is to show the practicability of the budget and ultimately its achievability (Aziz & Shah, 2020). The fourth part of the report will be a detailed discussion of the proposed budget with full figures. The efficiency of each component of the budget will be discussed in this section. In addition, a realistic and complete justification of the budget estimates will be discussed in this section. The justification will include categorical descriptions of every each expenditure and other relevant information that may be necessary. The fifth section will be a conclusion on the achievability of the £882,000 overall loading bay and finally, the sixth part will provide recommendations for improvement. The final part includes the bibliography page, which contains a list of references of borrowed information.

Approach to Drawing up the Loading Bay Budget

Organizations can choose several budgeting approaches to perform operations depending on budgeting needs. It should be understood that when applied effectively, any approach can help a company to accomplish its fiscal management goals (Cardoş, 2014). Some budgeting approaches are, however, complicated compared to others. Compared to others, the incremental budgeting approach is a simple method and easy to implement. It is ideal for organizations like Clark Casc Logistics plc with steady budgets that change gradually. With an incremental budgeting approach, the current year’s budget is used as the base for preparing the next year’s budget. One of the main assumptions of this method is that the whole organization, as well as the departments, will operate within the previous year’s budget.

The incremental approach will work by taking the expenditures from the current financial year as the estimated expenses for the next year. Increments of various amounts will then be added or subtracted to the expenses to reflect an increase or a decrease for the coming financial year (Kim & Park, 2006). In the case of Clark Casc Logistics plc where we have a fixed budget of £882,000 with few or no fluctuations, the incremental budgeting approach will function properly. Further, given that the construction of a loading bay can be categorized as a long-term project, incremental budgeting will be the most ideal approach. A primary advantage of the incremental method is the fact that it is easy to use. It functions well in organizations or in projects where there is a guarantee that funding will continue in the foreseeable future. Furthermore, this approach requires few or no fluctuations in the allocation of funds. With incremental budgeting, the management is able to understand the budget better. The budgeting team is also able to minimize conflicts amongst the various departments over the allocation of funds. By eliminating inter-departmental conflicts, this approach helps organizations to achieve operational stability for a long period of time.

Critics of incremental budgeting argue that this approach does not encourage innovation since departments tend to spend the same amount of money over and over again to justify the allocation. There is no incentive for coming up with new ideas, and in most cases department will utilize funds even if the need for such funds no longer exists to avoid interfering with the coming year’s allocation. In fact, this method encourages over-spending since any drop in expenditure in a particular financial year affects the preceding years (Kim & Park, 2006). Opponents of this method also argue that this approach assumes that only slight changes will be made from the current budget when preparing the next year’s budget which may be far from the truth. In reality, major structural changes may occur in the coming year which may require significant changes in the allocation of funds. As a result, huge variances may occur between the budgeted allocations and the actual results. Furthermore, when a budget is based on the previous year’s budget, there is no incentive to carry out a comprehensive review of the budget (Vaznonienė & Stončiuvienė, 2012). As a result, inefficiencies and budget slacks of the current financial year are rolled over into the subsequent budgets.

Overall, consistency and simplicity are the key advantages of the incremental approach to budgeting. It does not require complicated financial calculations that are common in other budgeting techniques. It allows managers to save time and money in preparing the budget, so they can focus on other important operations of the business (Kim & Park, 2006). However, this method is subject to some adverse effects such as the lack of incentive for innovation. For companies operating in a fast-paced environment, incremental budgeting may not be the most ideal method. However, for companies where few or no fluctuations in budgetary allocations are expected, this method is effective. For example, where the managers are confident that the budgets will remain relatively stable for a long time, with minimum fluctuations, this method should be applied. Clark Casc Logistics plc, for example, is suitable for this method given that the proposed construction of a loading bay worth £882,000 is a long-term project that requires regular funding with minimal fluctuations.

Relevant Calculations to Show Achievability of the Budget

The table below shows the expenditure for this year which will be subjected to increments to come up with next year’s budget;

Expenditure Actual budget for this year £000
Wages and Employers’ National Insurance and Pension Contributions 542
Equipment Maintenance 84
Equipment Depreciation 74
Buildings Maintenance 34
Buildings Depreciation 56
Heating and Lighting 30
Goods Refrigeration 16
Apportionment of Central Administrative Costs 84
Insurance Costs – Apportioned Based on Past Claims 24
Other Costs 12
Total Expenditure, Tax and Dividends 956

3% increase in staff wages means that the new staff wages cost (0.97*£542) for the next year becomes £525.74. The staff wages is further subjected to redundancy of 10% which means that the final staff wages for next year become £473.166 (0.9*£525.74).

At least 10% of the equipment is redundant and could be sold or offered to another department. This means that the cost of equipment maintenance will decrease by 10% from the current £84 to £75.6 (0.9*£84).

Heating and lighting costs will decrease by 5% over the first six months next year, then increase by 3% over the next 12 months. This implies that the cost over the first six months will be £28.5 after which the cost will increase by 3% over the remaining period to £29.355.

Refrigeration costs will go down by 40% after repair from the current £8 to £4.8 (0.6*8). As a result of this repair, the equipment maintenance costs will go higher by a further £1 from the estimated £75.6 to £76.

Other costs will be increased from the current £12 to £27 to cover emergencies and economic fluctuations such as general change in prices of commodities, prices of construction materials, and other contingencies. Other costs also take into account the inflation of 0.008% in the current year. It is assumed that the general increase in prices will continue in the next year.

Overall, after the adjustments, there is a significant saving of £74,000 for next year’s budget compared to this year’s budget. The significant reduction of costs such as staff wages, refrigeration costs, heating and lighting combined lead to a decrease in the total expenditure for next year’s budget. However, some costs such as equipment depreciation, buildings maintenance, and apportionment of central administrative costs, insurance costs, and building depreciation are not expected to change. It is assumed that these costs will remain unchanged over the next year or will operate below the stated budgets.

Therefore, next year’s loading bay budget in comparison with this year’s actual budget will be as follows;

Expenditure Actual budget £000 Next year’s budget £000
Wages and Employers’ National Insurance and Pension Contributions 542 473
Equipment Maintenance 84 76
Equipment Depreciation 74 74
Buildings Maintenance 34 34
Buildings Depreciation 56 56
Heating and Lighting 30 29
Goods Refrigeration 16 5
Apportionment of Central Administrative Costs 84 84
Insurance Costs – Apportioned Based on Past Claims 24 24
Other Costs 12 27
Total Expenditure, Tax and Dividends 956 882

Proposed Budget with Full Figures

The proposed budget for the next year will have ten expenditures, including wages and employers’ national insurance and pension contributions which will account for £473,000 of next year’s budget accounting for 53.62% of the entire budget. Equipment maintenance will cost £76,000 of next year’s budget accounting for 8.6% of the entire budget followed closely by equipment depreciation which will cost £74,000 of the budget representing 8.4% of the budget.

Buildings depreciation will cost £56,000 of the budget while buildings maintenance will cost £34,000 representing 6.3% and 3.9% of the entire budget respectively. The apportionment of central administrative costs will cost £84,000 of the budget, which is a huge chunk representing 9.5% of the whole budget. Heating and lighting will claim £29,000 of next year’s budget which is 3.3% of the budget while insurance costs apportioned based on past claims will cost £24, 0000 representing 2.7% of the budget. Goods refrigeration will occupy £5,000 of the budget while other costs will amount to £27,000 of the budget representing 0.5% and 3% of the entire budget respectively.

A conclusion on the Achievability of the £882,000 Loading Bay Budget

Based on the above calculations, the budget looks achievable for the proposed loading bay. The increase in costs may cover unexpected mishaps in the budgets since it is a significant increment. However, the provision for other costs may not be enough if there are significant changes in the prices of commodities like construction materials. As a result, there may be huge variances between the estimated expenditure and the actual budget needed to complete the proposed loading bay. Thus, although the enforcement of this budget seems easy on paper, its achievability will depend on many factors.

Recommendations on the Next Steps

In order to improve the budgeting process and to support better decision-making about the construction of the proposed loading bay, the use of a better model of budgeting is inevitable. Changing the procedures and the approach used to develop the budget would help the managers to be more objective. For example, applying a zero-based method instead of an incremental budgeting method. Under the zero-based method, next year’s budget is prepared from the scratch, so apportionment of funds is done based on importance without considering past budgets (Ibrahim, 2019).

As opposed to incremental budgeting where allocation of funds is done without considering vital activities, zero-based budgeting allocates maximum resources to only those activities that are more beneficial to a project. For example, if the zero-based method was used instead of incremental budgeting, more crucial activities like the purchase of equipment, furniture, and fittings would have been allocated the highest amount in the budget instead of staff wages cost. In addition, a zero-based budget would have categorized the expenditures on the basis of importance as opposed to previous allocations, which is often misleading.

Furthermore, given that zero budgeting is developed from scratch, resource allocations would have been done after taking into consideration factors like cost-benefit analysis as well as risk-reward analysis. Goode & Malik (2011) notes that managers need to have specialized skills under the zero-based method of budgeting as only well-trained personnel can prepare such budgets. More often, preparing a zero-based budget requires the services of qualified accountants with impeccable experience who understand well the budgeting process. Besides preparing a more practical budget, engaging professionals only in the preparation of budgets would increase the chances of achievability of the budget. It would also minimize the chances of having huge variances between the estimated and the actual budget, which is common under incremental budgeting.

Finally, using incremental leads to wastage of resources on unnecessary expenses as reducing any allocation would jeopardize allocations in the subsequent periods. However, under zero-based budgeting, allocations are done on the basis of priority. According to Libby & Lindsay (2007), using the zero-based method would eliminate all kinds of inefficiencies and lead to money savings instead. Further, since the zero-based budget is done from the scratch, the management is more innovative in coming up with ideas for cost savings. Justification of resource allocation is also easy under the zero-based approach compared to the incremental budgeting approach.

Overall, a zero-based approach to budgeting is more dynamic while incremental budgeting is considered more conservative. Although the zero-based method is time-consuming and more complicated compared to the incremental method, it allows businesses and managers to reduce costs and minimize needless expenses (Ibrahim, 2019). The application of this method allows managers to be smart in making decisions concerning resources allocation and prioritizing. Therefore, if zero-based instead of incremental budgeting method approach was used on the proposed construction of a loading bay worth £882,000, chances are that the project would consume a lesser amount, take shorter to complete, and be more effective.


Aziz, H., & Shah, N. (2020). Participatory budgeting: Models and approaches. arXiv preprint arXiv:2003.00606.

Cardoş, I. R. (2014). New trends in budgeting–a literature review. SEA–Practical Application of Science2(04), 483-489.

Goode, M., & Malik, A. (2011). Beyond budgeting: the way forward?. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences (PJSS)31(2).

Ibrahim, M. M. (2019). Designing zero-based budgeting for public organizations. Problems and Perspectives in Management17(2).

Kim, J. M., & Park, C. K. (2006). Top-down budgeting as a tool for central resource management. OECD Journal on Budgeting6(1), 87-125.

Lee, J. C., & Lee, C. F. (2009). Financial analysis, planning and forecasting: Theory and application. World Scientific Publishing Company.

Libby, T., & Lindsay, R. M. (2007). Beyond budgeting or better budgeting?. Strategic Finance89(2), 46.

Vaznonienė, M., & Stončiuvienė, N. (2012). The formation of company budgeting system: importance, problems and solutions. Management theory and studies for rural business and infrastructure development30(1).

Global HR Acquisition Plan Sample Assignment

Executive Summary

In today’s universal economy, HR must pact with a variety of difficulties that might develop and invent an approach for dealing with each one. Organizations should have a exigence plan in place for concerns such as permitted issues in the nation where their workforces are working; they would have attorneys on hand and precise data to give to employees to guarantee that the issues are determined. All over this HR Attainment, I will go over the processes and procedures we have in place to secure our employees in greater depth. Legal education, according to studies, needs to be well matched with pupil and marketplace requirements. This entails two important aspects of allowed education: learning new aids that will help you succeed in the market, whether you’re a recent graduate or a experienced attorney, and obtaining real understanding in advance market admission.

Regarding any additional concerns that may occur, HR will have inclusive matters and resolutions, such as plan flexibility, work-life balance, talent preservation, variation acceptance, and the assessment procedure as a critical assessment. Incapability to address any problems that may ascend validates a lack of management on the part of HR, supervisors, and administrators. It is serious to offer the organization with guidelines to address concerns such as work assortment, talent running, performance managing, cultural matters within HRM, regulatory, lawful, and principled challenges


It will take a significant amount of time, study, and money to make the decision to enter the global arena by establishing a subsidiary presence in Italy. This report examines the potential host country as well as any concerns that may occur as a result of our decision to establish a subsidiary in that country. We also cover topics such as a multi-level talent management plan, global performance management, rewards and benefits management, corporate culture and human resource management, as well as legal, regulatory, and ethical considerations.

Subsidiary Country

To successfully conduct business in Italy, it is essential to have a thorough awareness of the country’s business or work culture. To be successful in Italy, it is essential to make the proper first impression on the appropriate people, and it is as crucial to back this up with thorough market research and interviews with possible business partners. The corporate culture in Italy is hierarchical, flexible, and social, and their working habits are both focused and person-oriented, as evidenced by the following characteristics: Employees in Italy put in long hours and are extremely productive in their jobs. It is important for peers to communicate on a personal and professional level. The high level of hierarchy in the Italian company structure is a result of the respect that Italians have for age, seniority, and power. When it comes to business, Italians strive to establish ties that encourage the development and growth of the company. Business interactions in Italy, on the other hand, are extremely formal, with the majority of important decisions being made at the highest levels of management. Following the establishment of trust-based relationships, Italians seek to show and share their human side with their partners.


In Italy ethnic diversity is associated with improved performance and higher profits in companies that support it. It is possible that some of this success can be attributed to the fact that diverse teams are not only more creative, but that 87 percent of inclusive workforces are also better at making decisions.


In terms of employment opportunities, studies demonstrate that in the majority of nations with data, the share of ethnic and racial minority workers in skilled -managerial, professional, and technical- occupations is lower than that of workers in the majority or dominating ethnic group.


In Italy, with regard to employment dynamics, the most significant and obvious development in recent decades has been the increase in female participation in paid work like in all of Europe’s countries.

Sexual Orientation

It is still difficult for LGBT and transgender employees in Italy to work because of a variety of obstacles, ranging from having to remain closed off to being fired from their jobs (Tripathy 2014). It is clear that traditional diversity management research has paid little attention to sexual orientation discrimination, as seen by the findings.

National origin

The corporate culture in Italy is hierarchical, flexible, and social, and their working habits are both focused and person-oriented, as evidenced by the following characteristics: Employees in Italy put in long hours and are extremely productive in their jobs. It is important for peers to communicate on a personal and professional level. At spite of this, there is a rising recognition of the importance of finding a work/life balance through flexitime and taking advantage of options for remote working, but in the office itself, etiquette continues to play a significant part.


In Italy according to the Disability Inclusion Champions Index, when comparing companies that hire and include people with disabilities with companies that do not, revenue for companies that hire disabled employees is 28 percent higher, economic profit margins are 30 percent higher, and net income is 111 percent higher for companies that hire disabled employees.

Multi-Level Talent Management Plan

When a corporation works on a global scale, its executives must make judgments concerning the internationalization of all of the company’s functional areas, including finance, marketing, and human resources management, among others (Biro, 2012) . They should decide where and how to carry out their specialized activities, and they should do it as soon as possible. In international corporations, there are four main ways to staffing:

Ethnocentric Orientation Approach

This is founded on the assumption that the professional skills, functions, and management practices of the parent firm are superior to those of the subsidiaries’ management teams. There are expats in every top position in the company’s headquarters in the host country. Fundamental decisions are decided at the corporate level, and foreign subsidiaries have minimal independence. When it comes to business, one of the most compelling arguments for following an ethnocentric hiring approach is the assumption that there is a shortage of qualified professionals in the host country.

Polycentric Approach

The management team is made up of individuals hired from the nation in which the subsidiary is located, granting it authority and the ability to make decisions on behalf of the company. Local personnel hold the highest positions in the organization. This strategy is based on the assumption that the cultures are different and that the people in the host country may be difficult to understand for the headquarters. As a result, the organization believes that the people who live in each locality are more qualified to make decisions about what happens in that location. From a managerial perspective, the headquarters has financial authority, while the subsidiary units function as quasi-independent centers. The headquarters considers subsidiaries to be distinct legal entities, and a large deal of authority is allowed to them.

Geocentric Approach

Perlmutter (1969) defined this approach as one that is world-oriented, which means that nationality is not viewed as a source of superiority in the eyes of the observer. This particular type of management is centered on the search for the most qualified person to solve an issue or perform a task, regardless of the person’s country origin. The goal of such a strategy is to establish a global image for the company, both at the corporate level and at the subsidiary level. The subsidiaries do not work as autonomous satellites, but rather as a group, they contribute to the overall identity of the multinational corporation. The objectives of each business unit are both local and global in scope, with each unit making a unique contribution based on its own set of competencies. This strategy necessitates a significant amount of collaboration among all of the units (headquarters and subsidiaries)

Regiocentric Approach

The majority of foreign positions are filled by people whose personal profiles are compatible with the specific host region. However, employees are only permitted to relocate within their home nations, not outside of them. A regional center regulates and interconnects the subsidiaries in this region. It is uncommon for regional managers to be promoted to a job at the corporate level.


Identify Key Positions

This is accomplished through the examination of business plans in order to determine the jobs that are most crucial to the expansion of the company.

Identify Potential Successors

Establish the critical competences required to perform these functions, as well as the high-potential workers who may be able to step up and take on these responsibilities.

Determine When Will the Potential Successors Be Ready

Recognize the timeframe in which your successor will be ready to take over the reins. Are they prepared to begin development right away? In the short term, what are your options? Alternatively, how about in the long run?

Determine What Development Needs Do They Have

Calculate the amount of training and development that will be necessary to fill skill gaps and prepare them for progression opportunities. Mentoring, secondments, on-the-job training, and external courses are all examples of what can be done.

Ensure An Ongoing Commitment

Managers in all areas of the organization should be on the lookout for talent gaps and investing time and resources in the development of high-potential individuals.

In Italy, as a result of the ongoing labor shortage, salaries will rise, inflation will rise, and supply chain concerns will arise in the short term. Over time, it has the potential to stifle economic growth, trigger a recession, and impede the rise of industries dominated by blue-collar and manual workers in the future. The unprecedented number of people who are quitting their jobs without taking another similar employment is having a significant influence on the availability of labor. (Chun. et al.2013) Organizations must take steps to keep their current employees as well as recruit new employees, including those from other organizations as well as those who have temporarily left the traditional labor force. Three major categories of measures that organizations should do are as follows: Enhance the attractiveness of the workplace by making it more engaging, satisfying, and long-lasting; increase the “stickiness” of employer-employee relationships; and go on offense to change the Great Attrition into the Great Attraction.

Global Performance Management

The following are some characteristics necessary to work efficiently in a global market:

Cross-cultural communication skills

If you work in international company in any capacity, you will be working in a diverse workplace with people who come from a different country or cultural background than your own. Understanding how to communicate with people from different cultural backgrounds, whether they are colleagues, clients, or customers, is an absolutely necessary ability.

Excellent networking abilities

The development of a strong network of relationships outside of your native country is vital if you wish to work in international company. Successful networking can open the door to unforeseen commercial prospects in foreign markets, and some studies suggest that up to 80 percent of employment are now obtained through network recruitment efforts.


It is not enough to merely create a network in order to be successful in international company; you must also be able to collaborate well with others. In the corporate sector, the capacity to collaborate and work together toward a common goal is critical to success. It necessitates humility, which entails allowing others to take the initiative and share credit for achievements. It also demands the confidence to confront difficulties, provide and receive feedback, and advocate for your cause in a courteous manner.

The following is how demographics impacts employees’ capabilities from a global perspective:


Most people agree that people with varying degrees of education possess a variety of abilities and characteristics. The learning and working abilities of people with higher educational backgrounds are stronger, and they have a greater chance of fostering superior qualities. As a result, many businesses will save money on information screening costs if they select employees with higher educational levels rather than those with lower educational levels.


Age and duration of service in an organization can be viewed as indicators of work experience and social capital in some cases. Employees will get more work experience and social capital in the firm as their age and working years progress, making them more capable of generating advantages for the company and, as a result, receiving more promotion opportunities in the future.


Females are much less likely than men to get promoted in many organizations, and numerous studies have found that, while there is no difference in wage return for promotion across a wide range of occupations, the promotion likelihood of women is significantly lower than that of men. According to the theory of human capital, women tend to invest more energy than males because of the influence of fertility, the distribution of labor in the family, and other factors.

The following are employees’ relations strategies that overcome biases:


This method is based on acquiring specific information about group members in order to avoid making stereotypical generalizations about them. Knowledge is a powerful tool. Getting to know people from a variety of various backgrounds can assist us in shifting our perspectives. Instead of relying exclusively on our limited experience, individuation allows us to ask better questions and obtain more accurate information about the situation.

Perspective taking

Consider the perspective of someone who belongs to an oppressed group as part of this method. Walk a mile in someone else’s shoes for a day. Take a look at the world through the eyes of a different cultural group. Because it necessitates a certain level of cultural awareness, this method may be most effective when used in conjunction with other strategies.

Increasing opportunities for contact

This method is actively seeking out opportunities to meet and connect with members of the out-group in order to foster favorable interactions. Take a break from your comfort zone, travel, and become immersed in another culture. Make an effort to be deliberate in your networking. We all have biases based on our previous experiences, and the only way to change old expectations is to develop new ones.

The following are challenges related to direct and indirect communication channels:

Lack of employee engagement

The ability to communicate with employees in businesses where people are not motivated and engaged is nearly impossible. Although only 13 percent of the workforce is considered highly engaged, only 50 percent of CEOs are aware of how to solve this issue, according to study.

Irregular communication

It is insufficient to communicate with employees solely for the purpose of announcing significant news or changes. Because of this, communications directors must design a strategy for constant communication in order to keep their personnel informed and interested.

Communication inconsistency

Another issue that IC professionals are dealing with right now is inconsistency in their communication. If you do not have an employee communications platform in place, it may be difficult to communicate with your staff at the appropriate moment. When it comes to keeping your staff informed and engaged, having an employee communications app is essential.

Rewards and Benefits Management

It’s fully up to us to decide what benefits are and how to use them to keep current employees and attract new ones. The reason I say this is that many employees are unaware of the incentives and perks provided by their employers because they are difficult to understand and, even if they are, they have not been put to proper use for the benefit of both the employees and the businesses (Deters 2018). A lack of structure can stifle the organization’s growth and potential, resulting in the possible loss of excellent talent. Having a competitive advantage is an important part of having a rewards and benefits system. Ultimately, the goal is to remain competitive and attractive to new employees. What is considered to be competitive in terms of financial incentives and benefits? That being said, it’s best stated by pointing out the advantages of using incentive programs like these. Benefits, of course, make it more appealing for firms to chase new talent, but a key component of that should be the ability to maintain their present talent pool as well. Training and development should be included as part of the benefits package. My opinion is that many organizations make the error of failing to see that they have a bunch of outstanding talents who are right under their noses, and then failing to cultivate that talent.

I believe that remuneration should be determined by the position, rather than on an hourly, salary, or contingency basis selection. Due to the fact that the organization has decided to employ hourly and salary pay compensation, I would adhere to standards which are based on hourly and salaried remuneration. It is planned to use the contingent base for the sales department, but it will only be on top of hourly pay personnel due to the fact that they must be compensated for commissions depending on the sales they generate. Compensation in Italy can be competitive if it is utilized effectively.

Organizational Culture and HRM

Flexibility in deployment of policies

Finally, a key component of the HR Acquisition Plan is the establishment of flexibility in the implementation of new innovative policies to guarantee that expectations and boundaries are met. According to researches one deployment does not suit all, because companies vary in size and have varying patching requirements.” In order to specify the installation and reboot choices to be done on the client computers while distributing a patch, software, or service pack on a network, create a Deployment Policy (Roehling et al 2015). When deciding when to deliver a patch to the operational environment, the multiple deployment options will assist in planning how and when that patch will be deployed in order to guarantee that it does not affect business important systems and applications. It is important for leaders to be able to recognize when policies are not flexible enough and that this will impede progress. This is something that many businesses fail to recognize. By taking the appropriate actions, it will be less likely that problems will occur.

Work-life balance

Work-life balance should be woven into the very fabric of any organization’s culture. Management should encourage employees to spend time away from the firm in order to retain a happy workforce. For example, in my previous employer, we the organization prefer that you take time off in the middle of the year. As a result, I’ll take a week off in June. It was critical for the corporation to exert pressure in order to keep the staff from burning out. In the words of Lee (2014), “work-life balance can appear to be an unachievable goal to achieve. Workers can be reached at any time of day or night thanks to technological advances. Long hours are encouraged by the fear of losing one’s employment. According to a Harvard Business School survey, a stunning 94 percent of working professionals reported working more than 50 hours per week, with nearly half reporting working more than 65 hours per week. Experts believe that the stress that builds up as a result of a never-ending workday is harmful. It can have a negative impact on relationships, health, and general happiness.

Regulatory, Legal, and Ethical Issues

Not Securing Your Business Trademarks

Trademarks serve as a representation of your company in the eyes of customers and other clients. Start-up companies do not consider trademark protection to be a significant component in their operations. This has the potential to result in a significant legal issue involving trademark infringement. In the event that you do not obtain copyright protection for your company’s trademark, this problem might literally rock the core of your organization. Not only that, but it may also have an impact on your sales and reputation in the market. Additionally, it may be necessary to invest thousands of dollars in order to acquire your trademark back.

Not Defining Your Company’s Policies Clearly

Many start-up businesses overlook the importance of developing a set of policies for their organization. Even though they have a comprehensive policy manual, they fail to adequately identify and communicate these policies to their personnel (Schuler et al 2001). The fact that an employee is unaware of a company’s policies may lead to unethical and unlawful activities by the employee, such as accessing forbidden websites while away from the job. As soon as an employee logs into a certain site, the hackers have access to the company’s confidential information. This can not only lead to the demise of your company, but it can also result in legal issues for your company.


Planning, implementing, and managing recruitment and selection processes, as well as career and organizational development activities, is what providing proper human resource acquisition means in a company. The goal of human resource management is to maximize the productivity of an organization by optimizing the effectiveness of its employees, while also improving the work life of employees and treating employees as valuable resources. Human resource management is a branch of management that focuses on the management of people.


Biro, M. M. (2012). 5 Great Challenges Ahead for HR and Leaders.

Chun, E., & Evans, A. (2013). The new talent acquisition frontier: Integrating HR and diversity strategy in the private and public sectors and higher education. Stylus Publishing, LLC.

Deters, J. (2018). Global leadership talent selection as an integrated acquisition process. In Advances in global leadership. Emerald Publishing Limited.

Lee, D.J. (2014). 6 Tips for Better Work-Life Balance. Retrieved from Marketplace

Roehling, M. V., Boswell, W. R., Caligiuri, P., Feldman, D., Graham, M. E., Guthrie, J. P., … & Tansky, J. W. (2005). The future of HR management: Research needs and directions. Human Resource Management: Published in Cooperation with the School of Business Administration, The University of Michigan and in Alliance with the Society of Human Resources Management, 44(2), 207-216.

Schuler, R., & Jackson, S. (2001). HR issues and activities in mergers and acquisitions. European management journal, 19(3), 239-253.

SHRM. (2017). Employee Benefits: Remaining Competitive in a Challenging Talent

Tripathy, M. S. (2014). Talent acquisition a key factor to overcome new age challenges and opportunities for human resource management. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 16(12), 39-43.