George Washington’s Greatest Achievements Essay Example

Although George Washington is primarily known as the father of our country, he also accomplished a great deal during his two terms as the first president of the United States (1789-1797). On February 4, 1789, he was unanimously chosen by the Electoral college. Upon receiving notification on April 14th, Washington departed from his Virginia home at Mount Vernon to make history in America. He admitted to feeling “more anxious and painful sensations than I have words to express” (215).

Some of his most consequential decisions as president were adopting Hamilton’s assumption plan, appointing Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton to his cabinet, and maintaining US neutrality throughout the French Revolution. These choices had a profound impact during Washington’s presidency.

Washington decided to adopt Hamilton’s assumption plan, which aimed to address the debt crisis by having the federal government assume states’ unpaid war debts. This plan sought to strengthen the nation by simplifying state finance systems and collecting most taxes at the federal level. However, it faced opposition from states like Virginia that had already paid off their debts and did not want to assist other states with their taxes. On the contrary, Massachusetts and Carolina threatened secession unless they received help in repaying all their debts.

In response, Washington devised a “Plan of American Finance” that involved collecting all taxes at the federal level for war expenses. As a compromise, he offered northern votes in favor of establishing the capital in the south in exchange for southern votes supporting assumption. This compromise prevented Massachusetts and Carolina from seceding while resolving the national war debt issue. With Jefferson’s assistance, Washington also resolved disputes over where to locate the permanent national capital.

Congress made an important decision by selecting Potomac as the permanent capital location and granting Washington authority over choosing its precise position. This allowed him to fulfill his dream of creating a magnificent city near Mount Vernon.The Union’s economic status was greatly affected when it accepted Hamilton’s assumption proposal.

Another important decision made by Washington during his presidency was to appoint Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton as Secretaries of State and Treasury, respectively. Despite the fact that “Hamilton and Jefferson were born to hate each other,” these appointments led to significant conflict. However, some of this conflict ended up benefiting the country. Jefferson and Hamilton competed for Washington’s favor and attention, but Washington remained fair in his decision-making, not allowing friendship to bias his choices. He selected his cabinet members based on their ideals, rather than simply choosing popular leaders from his party. By having Jefferson and Hamilton simultaneously hold these offices, partisan divisions grew and eventually influenced present-day politics. Although this decision carried a significant message from Washington, it may not have been entirely wise as the two men spent a great deal of time arguing instead of working. Both Jefferson and Hamilton threatened to resign multiple times, but Washington urged them to stay, partly for selfish reasons, even though they could never agree with each other. Thanks to Washington’s decision to include these two individuals with opposing views, the divide between partisans became more apparent and continues to impact American politics today.

Washington’s notable achievement was maintaining US neutrality during the French Revolution and the war between England and France. This decision was challenging because of France’s significant role in the American Revolution, leading some citizens to believe that the US was betraying France and freedom. Washington justified his choice by stating that if the nation progressed without interference, it would become respected and one of the happiest countries on Earth (277).

This decision held immense importance as it led to his later “face-saving proviso” (284) known as the Neutrality Proclamation during the war between England and France. The proclamation established America’s policy of neutrality towards European conflicts and influenced future foreign policies. By avoiding involvement in the conflict, Washington allowed the young nation to continue growing and strengthening before engaging in overseas wars. Joining any war at that time would have depleted resources, making Washington’s decision a wise one.

George Washington was a charismatic and influential man who made both good and bad decisions that shaped the fate of America. He adopted a compromised version of Hamilton’s assumption plan, satisfying all states while addressing the national debt. Despite their differing views, Washington appointed Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton to his cabinet, deepening the divide between their parties and influencing politics for years to come. This demonstrated that party affiliation does not always hinder the potential for good ideas to benefit the country. Additionally, Washington successfully maintained neutrality in the French Revolution, setting the tone for future foreign policy and allowing the nation to grow before engaging in overseas matters. Therefore, Washington’s role as a founding father encompassed more than just crossing the Delaware; he made numerous important decisions crucial to the development of the young United States.

Demand And Supply And Free Market Economy Economics

Market is described as a meeting topographic point of purchasers and Sellerss for which a good/service is offered for sale by manufacturers and purchased by consumer ( Blake, 1993 ) . Business managed by the Torahs of supply and demand, non restrained by control intervention, ordinance or subsidy is best every bit known as free market. A free market economic system is a system in which the distribution for resources is determined merely by their supply and the demand for them. This is chiefly a theoretical idea as every state, even capitalist 1s, places some restrictions on the ownership and exchange of trade goods. The market equilibrium occurs at the monetary value where consumer ‘s willingness to demand is equal to house ‘s willingness to provide ( Begg and Ward, 2007 ) In other words the relationship between the demand and supply determines the equilibrium place of a peculiar good or a service in the market topographic point where no economic forces are being generated to alter the state of affairs. For a peculiar good in the market this place is said to be existed when there is no extra demand and extra supply. In other words demand should be equal to provide.

History ON Computer

Computers were seen as technically superior goods which were sold foremost to its domestic market, so to other technically developed states. Moment in clip, it is being imported to the developing states and which finally produced by their citizens. For international trade, the long-run form is that the trades among states are being largely influenced by merchandise invention ( innovation ) and subsequent diffusion. The diffusion for computing machine merchandise is so rapid and influential that it has now become about impossible to finish a undertaking in the workplace or schools without the aid of a computing machine both in the develop and developing states.

Supply and demand, in old economic sciences, are factors that are thought to find monetary value, by demoing a relationship between the sum of a given article of trade makers who anticipate to sell at a certain monetary value ( in other words supply ) , and the sum of that article of trade that consumers are prepared to purchase ( in other words demand ) . To provide agencies bring forthing changing sums of a good/service that manufacturers to be sold at different monetary values ; in general, higher monetary values could take to a greater supply. Demand refers to the measure of a good that is requested by consumers at any given monetary value. Harmonizing to the jurisprudence of demand, demand decreases as the monetary value goes up. In a wholly competitory economic system, the proviso of the upward-sloping supply curve and the declivitous demand curve yields a supply and demand agenda that, so that as the two curves meet at a point, the equilibrium monetary value of an point could be arrived at. The information on supply and demand is sourced from Alfred Marshallaa‚¬E?s twentieth century theories, which acknowledges the function of consumers in monetary value finding, instead than taking the old economic theory which focuses wholly on the cost for the manufacturer as a determiner. Marshall ‘s work reveals together the old supply theory with more recent developments directed at the public-service corporation of a trade good to the consumer. Recent theories, such as indifference-curve analysis and revealed penchant, give more acceptance to the supply and demand theories formed by authors of fringy public-service corporation. The theory of snap is of import as good: it reveals how certain goods will bear a considerable addition in monetary value if there is no evenhanded replacement available, while other easy disposable ware can non make so without losing large concern to rivals.

The relationship that issue among consumers and providers of a good in a market is good known as demand and supply theoretical account in the field of Economics. In a free market, monetary value and measure sold in a market of a peculiar trade good such as computing machine. In recent old ages, the handiness and affordability of computing machine act as a important portion in high demand of it and to carry through the needed demand suppliers/ manufacturers supply more and more computing machine in market. Klein ( 1983 )


There are a figure of factors which can act upon the demand and supply of computing machines and for this ground the monetary value is without human intercession determined from the demand-supply curve in a demand-supply theoretical account.

Some variables that influences demand for computing machines are the increasing figure of population, penchants, income etc. All these factors affect the demand of computing machines positively by a right displacement in demand curve that increases monetary value and measure of computing machines which may give a deficit of computing machines in market. For case, an addition in demand as a consequence of the consequence of one of the determiner of demand say, an addition in the population size of computing machine users will switch the demand curve rightward. The addition in population size is as a consequence of computing machines being used by most people in the less developed and the development states which some old ages back computing machines were used by the developed population. The consequence of an addition in the size of the population on monetary value and demand measure for computing machine can be seen in the figure below.

An addition in demand as a consequence of population addition will switch the demand curve rightward. That is, the original demand curve D and supply curve S intersect to bring forth equilibrium Tocopherol with monetary value P and measure Q. an addition in population influence demand to switch the demand curve rightward to Make, taking the new equilibrium to Eo, monetary value rises to Po and measure additions to Qo. The net consequence is that there is a deficit of demand represented by Z in the figure.

In add-on to all that has been mentioned the supply of computing machines influenced by the figure of providers, cost deductions of the different factors of production, engineering etc will be imperative. These three factors have a positive impact on supply of computing machines in computing machine market place so we witness a clear right displacement in supply curve which reduces the monetary value and increases the measure of computing machines which may give the excess of computing machines.

An addition in the figure of manufacturers for bring forthing computing machines will do an addition in supply of computing machines in the market topographic point and therefore the monetary value. Since the providers can now bask more net income for bring forthing the trade good in inquiry, they will bring forth more of computing machines doing a rightward displacement of the supply curve for computing machines. Assuming that the original demand and supply curves for computing machines are D and S which intersect to bring forth equilibrium at E with monetary value of P and measure Q. the attendant consequence of inducement to do more net income by manufacturers motivations them to increase supply which shifts the supply curve to So, taking the new equilibrium to Eo. The Monetary value of computing machines falls to Po and measure additions to Qo.


Finally, we get the complete representation of the topical computing machine market if we merge both rightward displacement of demand and supply curve of computing machine in market place together in demand-supply theoretical account. In this instance, the measure additions but the monetary value of the computing machine might fall or lift. For a certain displacement of computing machine demand and certain displacement of computing machine supply the monetary value will non be changed but a small greater displacement in supply curve than the certain displacement will diminish the computing machine monetary value.


Another angle to this issue is to look at it from what is called the income consequence and permutation consequence of a alteration in monetary value. Demand of a trade good, say computing machines, is the measure of the trade good that consumers will be able to buy at a peculiar monetary value over a declared period. Demand is influenced many factors like population, gustatory sensation, income, the quality of the goods or services being offered, and the handiness of rivals ‘ goods or services and so on. These factors act uponing demand can be group into two, the permutation and income effects.

The permutation consequence emphasizes the alteration in the ingestion ( demand ) of a trade good ensuing from a alteration ( in the opposite way ) in the ingestion of a 2nd ( related ) trade good. For case, a decrease in the monetary value of computing machines ( the merchandise in inquiry ) would do replacements comparatively expensive and the consumer would demand more of computing machines. In kernel the measure demanded for computing machines would increase.

The income consequence on the other manus focal points on the alteration in existent income ensuing from a monetary value alteration. An addition in the monetary value of computing machines for case would take to a autumn in the existent income of the consumer. The consumer would buy less of every good including computing machine.

Therefore the income and permutation effects acts to implement a negative relationship between monetary value and measure demanded in a free market. The figure below explains it.

The permutation consequence is defined by skiding the budget line around a fixed indifference curve ; the income consequence is defined by a parallel displacement of the budget line. The original budget line is at Bachelor of Arts and a autumn in the monetary value of computing machine takes it to aj. The original equilibrium is at E with Q of demand computing machine, and the concluding equilibrium is at E1 with Q1 of computing machine demanded. To take the income the income consequence, we shift the aj to a parallel line nearer the beginning until it merely touches the indifference curve that passes E. the intermediate point E0 divides the measure alteration into a permutation consequence Qo-Q and an income consequence Q1-Q0. It can besides be obtained by skiding the original budget line Bachelor of Arts around the indifference curve until its incline reflects the new comparative monetary values.


Supply is the measure of goods that manufacturers are willing and able to supply at a cost or monetary value over a given period of clip. With supply, two factors are critical ; the willingness to provide and ability to provide.

With the willingness to provide, an addition in monetary value of a trade good offers an addition in profitableness given cost. Hence an addition in monetary value provides an inducement for manufacturers to bring forth and provide more to the market.


Another issue is the ability to provide. An addition in supply ( production ) is normally accompanied by an addition in cost. Cost of bring forthing extra units of trade good is normally high peculiarly when production exceeds the modesty capacity: excess labor hours would be paid overtime, hence complex engineering may be required to get extra natural stuffs, etc. an addition in monetary value provides a motive to bring forth more since the excess monetary value could cover for these extra costs. The supply curve is hence positively incline, bespeaking that more is supplied at a higher monetary value other things being equal.

The market for computing machines represents that of a engineering whose monetary values were far above their cost of production. The cost of bring forthing a computing machine was comparatively higher 20-30 old ages ago. However its monetary value was really high doing them really profitable.

As the engineering to bring forth them ( computing machines ) diffused, more manufacturers ( makers ) in an effort to do net incomes entered into the market and provide more computing machines. Existing providers of computing machines besides increase their end product because of their willingness to do more net income. The additions in supply will do the supply curve of computing machines to switch to the right. The providers of computing machines are really sensitive to monetary value. They respond quickly to monetary values due to the presence of rivals ( other makers ) .

On the demand side, the usage of computing machines has become more of necessity ; people find it imperative to hold computing machines in their places and work topographic points. Students, even those in the lower classs, require computing machines to make their work. Therefore users or buyers of computing machines are instead comparatively less sensitive to the monetary value of computing machines.

The net consequence of these rightward displacements in demand and supply are shown in the graph below:

The original demand curve DD intersects with supply curve SS at monetary value P1 and measure Q1. Computer users being comparatively less sensitive to monetary value of computing machines will increase measure demanded for computing machine ensuing in a displacement in demand from DD to DD1. On the other manus, manufacturers being motivated to do net income addition supply of computing machines into the market topographic point switching the supply curve from SS to SS1. The new meeting point of DD1 and SS1 produce P2 and Q2 which shows a autumn in monetary value from P1 to P2 and an addition in measure demanded from Q1 to Q2


Demand and supply are the cardinal determiners in the monetary value of computing machines.The ability to pull off them will assist command the monetary value of computing machines. The above papers has highlighted factors that could command this tapping on economic theories and rules from good known writers and observers.


Landsburg, S ( 1999 ) , Price theory and applications, 4th edn. Cincinatti: South aa‚¬ ” Western College Publications

Perloff J ( 2001 ) , Microeconomics 2nd edn. New York: Addison-Wesley

Pindyck, R & A ; D. Rubinfeld ( 2001 ) , Microeconomics 5th edition, Upper Saddle river, New Jersey: Prentice Hall

Begg, D. and Ward, A. ( 2007 ) , Economics for Business, 2nd edition, McGraw Hill Publications

Hubert, H. ( 2004 ) , Business and Economicss

Klein, L. ( 1983 ) , The Economicss of Supply and Demand

Cuthbertson, K. ( 1985 ) The Supply and Demand for Money.

Web sites

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hypertext transfer protocol: // , Accessed 5th December 2010

Does ‘hyperpluralism’ Have A Negative Or Positive Influence Upon Democracy In The US ?

In order to answer the question posed it would be first appropriate to define the term hyperpluralism. “Hyperpluralism is the theory of government and politics contending that groups are so strong that government is weakened, an extreme, exaggerated, and perverse form of pluralism”[1] Therefore hyperpluralism states that due to a large number of groups it becomes difficult for government to effectively and efficiently govern as excess compromise and time is required. However the source illustrates a negative view on its influence upon democracy. Other definitions provide a greater positive influence “hyperpluralism consists of a network of groups which exercise a great deal of control over specific policy areas”.[2] Therefore suggesting that groups are able to amend policy which is unpopular or ineffective and therefore express a positive influence on a government’s democracy.

As the sources illustrate hyperpluralism is based upon the influence of groups otherwise known as interest groups which is “any group that is based on one or more shared attitudes and makes certain claims upon other groups or organizational in the society”.[3] The influence in which interest groups have upon government is described through the interest group theory; where similar to hyperpluralism it suggests that either as a positive or a negative manipulate interest groups [4]

Interest groups have had an increasing presence in the US “57% of Americans in comparison to 47% in Great Britain and 29% in Italy hold a membership in a voluntary association”[5] therefore it is an issue that has a large impact on American politics and government. There are a number of positive and negative attributes associated with interest groups. One of the key positive impacts of interest groups is that it allows for public representation known as the pluralist view. The voice of a group generates greater influence and therefore can have a greater say in public policy and legislation than a single voter. For example large groups such as the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) which consists of 35.7 million members [6] have great influence on social security policy for the elderly from an economic and health prospective.

Recently the AARP supported bills to be passed in order to subsidise and make more affordable healthcare for the elderly.[19] But also implemented additional legislation to the bill in order to gain greater benefit to its members. The AARP also highlighted other issues that were not on the bill highlighting an interest groups power to raise issues that are not covered by the government and educate legislatures. This therefore expresses the positive value of interest groups. Another benefit relating to hyperpluralism is the breakup of monopoly held by political parties. Interest groups actively seek to influence and alter party legislation in order to benefit a particular active area. This therefore stops political parties monopolising policy and governmental decisions.

Another factor is that it generates civic activism. “The emergence of public interest groups has done more than any other factor to stimulate political action and attention in America”[15] This has clearly been shown through the recent events in America especially the “tea party” movement. The movement focuses on the pluralist ideal representing true American voter’s beliefs over the country’s current policy issues, including the economy, healthcare and social reform.

The movement has allowed for Americans to express their opinion which is shared with other voters creating an interest group which has great influence over American political parties legislative and policy making. More famously the civil rights movement during 1955-1968[8] consisted of a number of interest groups such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) gained great support and civic activism during the fights for civil and social equality. This created mass media attention and as a result there was a “250,000-strong crowd of civil rights protesters at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington DC.”[9]

However interests groups have been accused of a number of negative impacts. One of which is that too any groups can cloud the judgments of political parties “200,000 different organisations exist on the state and local levels of American politics”[10] With great numbers of groups each emphasising an own particular interest in an area of legislative it can create a excessive compromise which may dissolve the key ideas of the original policy and therefore may not act strongly or effectively enough. For example if we look at the number of health and medical interest groups in America these include most prominently the American Medical Association (AMA), American Hospital Association (AHA) and the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PRMA). The three mentioned all lobbied the America’s Affordable Health Choices Act of 2009 along with 1051 other lobbying organisations employed by interest groups. As a result this causes a clouding of the overall policy making and delays in passing through congress.

Demosclerosis is often a word associated with interest groups and is defined as a “government’s progressive loss of the ability to adapt”[11]. Marc Olson a political analysis confers with the effect of demosclerosis on American politics arguing in a stable, democratic society, pressure groups inevitably form to persuade government to redistribute resources their way. Taken one at a time, these benefits have practically no effect on society as a whole, so no countervailing group arises to stop the waste. But, taken as a whole, group demands gradually sap the effectiveness and flexibility of government to the point where no program can be cut and no subsidy eliminated without arousing opposition from some other group.

The theory of Demosclerosis put forward by Olson argues the fact that interest groups can affect the governing power of political parties. It would therefore be appropriate to understand how pressure groups are able to cause this dis-function within government. Lobbying is a key tactic used by interest groups defined as a “the communication of data by opinion by someone other than a citizen acting on his own behalf to a governmental decision maker in an effort to influence a specific decision”[12] “Direct lobbying is the strategy proffered by the vast majority of lobbyists” This method involves lobbyists (a staff member, elected leader or hired professional who attempts to carry out the oganisations policy preferences)[13]

Direct lobbying “bring the official representatives of the organisation straight to the government officials”[14]. This nature of lobbying has formed many organisations and companies dedicated to professional lobbying due to the large amount of money involved. Lobbying spending reached $2.1 billion in comparison to $1.2 billion in 2000[16]. Many interest groups have utilized these companies in order to pass through legislation. An example of this can be seen through the pharmaceutical interest groups in America.

A number of medical organisations lobbied Washington on the proposed introduction of legislation which “avoided media restrictions related to their drug advertisements in the U.S”[17]. This affected large pharmaceutical interest groups such as Bristol-Myres and Pfizer. Other cases of lobbyist power among Washington include policy making involving large areas such as oil services. Ogilvy government relations (one of the largest lobbying organisations) fought for Chevron Oil Company when a Chinese oil company attempted to buy Union Oil Company of California, Ogilvy successfully defeated original legislation and takeover criteria, allowing its client Chevron to under-bid and win the battle for the takeover.[17]

During the first quarter of 2008, telecommunications providers, including AT&T, Verizon and Comcast spent approximately $13 million on lobbying fees, seeking protection from surveillance lawsuits tied to illegal wire-tapping implemented after the September 11, 2001 attacks. After affective lobbying, significant amendments were made through congress in which greatly benefited the named telecommunications businesses in this area. [18]

Wealth and power have been contentious issues in American politics and this is also the case for the impact of wealth within interest groups and the power generated purely by wealth of an interest group and not by its political interests. It is clearly apparent that wealth is a key feature and money spent on lobbyists is being used to influence and effect bill and legislation rulings. The American Petroleum institute (API) and other lobbyists are reportedly “ready to spend tens of millions of dollars in order to promote or kill a bill”[20]. Larger organisations with greater membership numbers and therefore, greater revenues and spending power are suggested to have far greater influence on political decision making. “the political weapon of choice is money. It looms over the political landscape like the Matterhorn. It is the principal common denominator between the old lobbying game and the new”[21]

We can use the example of one of the biggest interest groups in America the AARP as discussed previously. Due to the large membership numbers of the group spending power is far greater than many other interest groups. This can have a profound impact on Washington and decision making within American politics. The AARP spent “$21,010,000” on lobbying alone. With large spending power the AARP are able to debate and alter large political decisions related to their specific interests. An example of which can be “The pharmaceutical industry’s promise to offer Medicare beneficiaries trapped in a coverage gap a 50% discounts on expensive drugs is a lobbying victory for another major player in health care: the seniors group AARP.”[22] Smaller interest groups with a much smaller spending budget are unable to affect these policies and legislation with as much dominance as the AARP. Therefore reiterating the issue that wealth could be suggested to be the key to political power and reform in American politics.

Illegal bribery can also occur due to the large sums of money and political gains that can be acquired through lobbying by interest groups. Jack Abramhoff a republican lobbyist “pleaded guilty in a Washington court to charges of trading expensive gifts, meals and sports trips in exchange for political favours.”[23] It can be argued that lobbyists should not have such great access to political figures and key decision makers. However this is hard to control due to legal forms of indirect bribery such as free trips to resorts. “When the National association of Broadcasters held its annual meeting six federal commissioners and sixteen senior aides were in attendance at the expense of the association”[25]. Thus illustrating although complying within the law, interest groups are suggested by many to influence senior officials by this form of indirect bribery. However “bribery is a rarity today and generally it returns to back fire”[24] there have been a number of cases where this still occurs within American politics.

One of the key negative impacts of interest groups is the influence they can generate through voting power. Due to large membership numbers of some groups in America such as the National rifle association (NRA) and the AARP senators and congressmen can be highly affected. If officeholders refuse to support positions held by groups, some groups may threaten officeholders politically, known as “electoral retaliation”. Some lobbies have been perceived as capable of carrying out revenge at the polls.

The NRA for example is credited with the votes that resulted in the defeats of four US senators in 1970 who voted “wrong” on gun control legislation. The Anti abortion movement in Iowa is generally credited for the defeat of liberal senator Dick Clark in 1978. More recently the NRA enforced “electoral retaliation” during the Clinton administration. Clinton introduced the Brady bill, a law in which required that background checks be conducted on individuals before a firearm could be purchased from a federally licensed dealer.[26] This came under strong opposition from the NRA quoting that it went against the second amendment of the right to bear arms.

This resulted in a similar act to the 1970 “electoral retaliation” where senators were voted against who did not share the views of the group. In this case over 15 congressmen lost their seats, in which many believe was due to the fact that they shared conflicting views with the NRA and backed the Brady bill. Clinton recently reinforced the power that he believes the NRA and other political interest groups have on American politics “They were mad about this whole weapons ban and the Brady Bill, and they probably took 15 of our House members out. That was their number, they said between 15 and 20, and I’d say, at least on the low side, they were right.”[27]

To conclude there are many arguments for and against hyperpluralism and its effect on American political democracy. Positively it provides a greater sense of civic activism, greater general public opinion and educating legislatures and office officials. However these factors in my opinion are far outweighed by the negative impact that hyperpluralism has on democracy and its effort to govern effectively. The American political system has changed, perhaps even developed to the point that “interest groups join the political game and are no longer content with themselves cheering on favoured players from the sideline”. Due to “electoral retaliation”, and the increasing overcrowding of opinions represented by interest groups in policy making, this has made governing a harder and more challenging process. Overall the threat to democracy is predicated on the belief that interest groups are in pursuit of their own selfish objectives and have therefore lost sight of the public good and strong democratic governance. Therefore as a result hyperpluralism denies governments to act at the best of their abilities.

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