Gestures In CMC University Essay Example

Literature Review.


Gestures play a significant role in second language acquisition by providing visual cues and context to language learners. Computer-mediated communication is a significant aspect of today’s society because it enables people to communicate effectively worldwide. Therefore, integrating gestures in computer-mediated communication in the classroom when learning a second language is crucial in modern society. This literature review will address the functions played by hand gestures during pedagogical interactions in video conferencing and also analyze how video camera placement affects students’ uptake of SLA. Additionally, it will also analyze how learners effectively utilize gestures to express misunderstanding and comprehension.

In a study by Kelly et al. (2009), gestures play a significant role when integrated with speech during language development and comprehension because learning with words is a challenge, especially in foreign language acquisition. Iconic gestures are a common and integral aspect of spoken language, yet they are distinct from words since they convey information through visual representations of ideas rather than by chance. Embodied information such as iconic gestures ‘grounds’ the meaning of language in the speaker’s internal conceptions of actions and things (Kelly et al., 2009). Researchers have claimed that these co-speech gestures are crucial to acquiring and maintaining language due to their embodied aspects. In general, nonverbal behaviors are excellent resources for helping infants get past the problem of linguistic arbitrariness in the early stages of language development. As early as 16 months, infants employ the eye gaze of a speaker to help them indexically ground the meaning of new words to novel things. In addition to employing hand gestures to assist them in understanding an adult’s meaning, 16-month-olds use pointing and iconic gestures, according to the research (Barsalou, 2008). Adults’ understanding of language still benefits from gestures even after they stop being useful in the context of childhood. Using iconic gestures with speech, such as typing gestures and saying. Iconic gestures aid educators in gauging students’ grasp of abstract concepts, suggesting that humans were meant to communicate primarily through body language. While deciphering the meaning of spoken words, gesture plays a crucial role. As a result, gestures may help with second language acquisition by providing a concrete physical representation of abstract linguistic concepts (Kelly et al., 2009).

Comprehending input is crucial in learning a new language and is a prerequisite for output development. Exo-lingual conversation, which has been described as the interaction between interlocutors who do not share equal linguistic competence in the language being spoken and who consciously make adaptations according to the disparity, is an example of a context in which input modification is more likely to occur (Holt et al., 2015). In order to communicate with non-natives, native speakers often modify and simplify their speech. Exo-lingual competency is likely acquired rather than natural, meaning negotiation is a crucial social skill. Most changes to input occur during meaning negotiation and incomprehension sequences, when speakers attempt to clarify their meaning for the listener. There are more opportunities for negotiating via video conferences than in other forms of internet communication (Azaoui, 2015). None of the tactics for mending broken communication involve using nonverbal cues like hand gestures or facial expressions. Covert body language provides an additional window into the mental processes involved in speech creation. Exo-lingual competency includes using covert gestures and facilitating communication in a second language. Furthermore, the instruction process alters and modifies students’ nonverbal patterns (Hold et al., 2015).

Teaching gestures, which are highly tied to the teacher’s speech, aid in the understanding and retaining of lexical items in a foreign language (Tabenksy, 2014). Both speech and body language undergo adaptations when communicating in a foreign language. Webcam communication presents challenges that can influence how people express themselves verbally and physically (Haviland, 2006). Temporal delay, low audiovisual quality, and accidental disconnections are common technical issues that might hinder synchronous foreign language instruction, and instructors must learn to plan for them. Since making the appearance of direct eye contact necessitates looking off-screen and into the camera, it is impossible to make actual eye contact with another person (Themelis & Sime, 2020). If using a webcam improves or simplifies online interactions. Video’s pedagogical benefits are essential to successful foreign language learning, and participants have expressed their gratitude for the medium. Visual cues made more linguistic, cultural, and pedagogical information available to students. The use of video facilitated conversation by providing additional context for spoken cues. According to the available data, the value of a webcam image lies more in its potential role as a resource in an emergency than in its status as a preferred mode of communication (Themelis & Sime, 2020). Gestures can be used to animate, evaluate, and inform in the classroom when teaching a foreign language (Tellier, 2008). Text chat is an invaluable tool for online language teachers because it can be used to correct oral productions without breaking the flow of the conversation, facilitate comprehension by repeating what is said orally, and allow students to communicate in real-time, modifying input and production, and responding to feedback while focusing on the form and structure of the language (Davis et al., 2021).

According to Compton (2009), the foreign language classroom provides a good laboratory for studying L2 interaction over time since students rarely use their target language outside class. This enables scientists to manipulate interaction quality and quantity as separate variables in controlled experiments. Some SLA research has focused on using synchronous computer-mediated communication tools to facilitate conversation between NNSs and NSs in foreign language contexts to create communicatively authentic conversations (Saito & Akiyama, 2017). The ability for all types of L2 learners to connect with NSs and NNSs anywhere in the world makes online-based telecollaborative contact one of the most essential technologically enhanced activities in contemporary foreign language instruction. Researchers have discovered that L2 students interacting with NSs via video-conferencing systems had similar chances for negotiation of meaning, pushing output, and concentration on form as those students interacting face-to-face. Saito and Akiyama (2017) conducted a study with American students of Spanish in which they met in groups of four to six students and participated in peer interaction activities (such as discussion of cultural texts and video) in the target language in either a face-to-face or text-chat mode over a semester (Saito & Akiyama, 2017). Participants’ speech abilities, as tested by an oral proficiency interview and evaluated according to standards set by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, were found to have increased across the board. Akiyama described the longitudinal focus on form practices in video-based dyadic interaction between NSs and NNSs. In this study, Japanese American students had the opportunity to engage in task-based telecollaborative engagement with their NS partners every other week, focusing on meaning throughout (Compton, 2009).

This type of interaction, which is called “negotiation for comprehensibility,” differs from the more general concept of “negotiation for meaning” in that any feedback move made during this type of interaction is done purely incidentally to fix communication problems and increase mutual understanding (Matsumoto & Dobbs, 2017). Teacher-student interactions typically involve corrective feedback that supports self-repair involving accuracy and precision, not just comprehensibility, and this can be distinguished from our feedback bias toward comprehensibility-related linguistic qualities (Tabenksy, 2014). Many second languages (L2) learners would otherwise remain plateaued, especially after their linguistic performance has become sufficiently comprehensible if feedback providers (teachers) did not give equal attention to all linguistic errors in order to push the recipient (students) to linguistic nativelikeness (Matsumoto & Dobbs, 2017).

According to research by Li (2022), video SCMC can improve online communication by making both parties feel more at ease, increasing metacognition, and making the conversation easier to follow. With the global outbreak and spread of COVID-19, traditional face-to-face teaching has been primarily replaced by online teaching using SCMC technology for millions of online learners in China and around the world. This has contributed to the rapid development of online learning and teaching, with synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) receiving particular attention (Li, 2022). Only some studies directly address whether online professors and students in China should use webcams for video conferencing or stick to audio chat. However, this is one of the most commonly requested questions in the field. Since technology mediates instruction and learning in video-conferencing classrooms, the affordances of various technologies significantly impact students’ ability to interact and acquire a new language in this context (Barley, 2020). Multimodal information such as the interlocutor’s gaze, facial expressions, posture, gestures, and surrounding environment make visual communication through a webcam the most complex of all potential modalities of communication (Stam & Urbanski, 2021). Students’ responses to their classmates, both verbally and through nonverbal clues such as facial expressions and gestures, may be influenced by the screen orientation they are looking at during a video conference. Many fields outside of online communication (language acquisition, psychology, communication studies) have examined the significance of eye contact (Barley, 2020). Face-to-face interactions rely heavily on gaze gestures for various purposes, including but not limited to seeking information and feedback; signaling attitude; maintaining speech synchronization; and managing or avoiding intimacy. However, in video SCMC conversations, the reasons for and results of eye contact might vary significantly from in-person exchanges. The interlocutor’s gaze may be affected by various elements, such as the interlocutor’s cultural background, the interlocutor’s technology tools, the task’s design, and the interlocutor’s physical environment (Loewen et al., 2022). Mutual eye contact is technically impossible in video SCMC with either a built-in or external webcam. While helpful, images captured by a webcam can distract from the information conveyed verbally. Using a camera gives smiles, frowns, and nods new meaning regarding empathy and communication. In learner-learner video SCMC interactions, there are five distinct gaze patterns: continual manipulation, strategic manipulation, complete avoidance of stare, directed gaze, and free gaze (Li, 2022).

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, many educational institutions have banned face-to-face classroom instruction, leaving only online classes as an option for teaching a second language. SCMC platforms may be the most viable option since they permit the study of communication competence and conform to the fundamental features of in-person conversations (Junn, 2023). Using principles of communicative competence from a CLT viewpoint as a reference point might clarify whether or not these principles, idealized for formal classrooms, can be applied to SCMC platforms, which can be subjective within a qualitative study and challenging to apply on a macro basis (The, 2021). By highlighting the shared character of communication in its interpretation, expression, and negotiation of meaning, “communicative competence” is a term for both grammatical and pragmatic fluency (Belda-Medina, 2021). Strategic competence is the ability to identify verbal and nonverbal tactics for negotiating meaning in the face of a communication breakdown. Since SCMC shares some of the shared activity inherent to face-to-face interaction, it is in a prime position to give sociocultural context and strategic competency for expression, interpretation, and negotiation of meaning (Li, 2022). Success has been demonstrated in encouraging students to develop self-assurance, negotiate to mean, and construct knowledge through video-conferencing inside SCMC platforms. Due to increased opportunities for communication, identity development, and the application of learners’ IT abilities, effective technology integration can raise student motivation to acquire L2 (Junn, 2023).

The use of video conferencing for various second-language (L2) education applications is on the rise. Its multimedia capabilities facilitate instantaneous user-to-user communication and help users establish a more robust online identity. As Yu (2022) argues, video conferencing benefits second-language learners. Learners’ communication abilities, for instance, can be honed. Based on the transcripts and student comments, when students engaged in interactive activities with native speakers via video-conferencing, their Spanish speaking skills increased. Significant gains in the speaking post-test outcome show that the combination of asynchronous text discussion and synchronous video-conferencing engagement helps develop English-speaking skills and writing abilities for L2 learners of English. Tecedor (2019) found that when Japanese university students engaged in video-based interaction with proficient English users, they significantly improved their spontaneous English production. The study found that students at an American university who studied Korean with video-conferencing partners in Korea improved not only in their spoken but also in their written and oral communication skills. In addition to the apparent improvements in communication skills, vocabulary is another area where L2 students can benefit from video-conferencing activities. Students’ results on examinations of their ability to produce and recognize L2 vocabulary showed considerable improvement after participating in video conferences with native Spanish speakers (Yu, 20220).

Second language (L2) students can benefit from video-conferencing by increasing their self-esteem, motivation to use the target language, and engagement with course material. Motivation to study a second language was boosted when native and non-native speakers worked together in real-time through video conferences (Junn, 2023). Students of varying L2 skill levels may benefit from participating in video conference activities designed to boost linguistic confidence. One of the most heavily researched areas is the use of computer-mediated communication for various Second Language Acquisition (SLA) applications and a variety of educational goals; numerous research has examined the effects of various formats such as asynchronous, synchronous, text-based, voice-based, video-based, and hybrids (Bagheri, 2021). Computer-mediated communication (CMC) allows students to interact with native speakers of their target language more frequently and in more settings than possible without CMC by enabling them to hear and see more examples of the target language and culture through video conferencing (Bagheri, 2021).

Stam and Tellier (2022) found that although the L2 learners in their study could produce grammatically acceptable phrases, their gestures indicated that they were not thinking for speaking in their L2 and instead were thinking in a hybrid of their L1 and L2. Learners’ hand motions revealed their cross-linguistic abilities. Gestures are crucial in learning and teaching because the spoken language is just half of the story. Language shows verbal cognition; thus, it is not always the best way to communicate, especially when there is a competence gap between a learner and a teacher or native speaker. Teachers and students of second languages utilize gestures to communicate. For students, gestures help them produce more fluent speech, while teachers use them to help their students better understand what they hear. Teachers should also consider their students’ gestures because they provide valuable insight into the student’s linguistic competence and knowledge (Bressem, 2014).

According to Leowen et al. (2022), the multimodal capabilities of CMC have been greatly enhanced by the proliferation of digital technology, which allows users to express themselves through various channels. Several commonly used communication channels, like email, social networking sites, and video-conferencing, attest that multimodal CMC has become integral to modern language learning (Leowen et al., 2022). Multimodal computer-mediated communication allows language students to use various resources, including text, voice, images, and emoticons, to convey their meaning better. Text chat during video conferencing facilitates student participation in group discussions without disrupting the presenter (Saito & Akiyama, 2017). Lower-level English learners may find participating in text chat conversations easier if they can access images and emoticons. Beyond the benefits of a single form of communication, the interaction of multimodal communication further enhances learning experiences and makes language production easier. Social networking sites (SNSs), the latest breakthrough in computer-mediated communication (CMC), have quickly become one of the most popular language-learning environments (Compton, 2009). Since multimodal language learning materials and teaching tools are available online, teachers must abandon their monomodal bias to create a more engaging online classroom (Leowen et al., 2022).


The literature review addressed the functions played by hand gestures during pedagogical interactions in video conferencing and also analyzed how video camera placement affects students’ uptake of SLA. Hand gestures can help teachers stress or define words. A teacher may point to a slide or use hand gestures to demonstrate an object’s size or shape to assist students in understanding the topic. Hand gestures can also show agreement, disagreement, bewilderment, or curiosity, which can help teachers and students bond and make learning more engaging. The video camera’s placement impacts student comprehension by showing the teacher’s facial expressions and hand gestures. Students may miss valuable information if the camera obscures the teacher’s nonverbal cues. The video camera might isolate the teacher from the student, decreasing student interest and willingness to study. If the camera is too distant from the teacher or creates a physical barrier, pupils may not feel as connected to the teacher or lesson. Video conferencing pedagogy relies on hand gestures for emphasis, clarification, cultural meaning, involvement, and feedback. Visibility, engagement, distraction, and technical challenges from video camera positioning can also affect SLA student uptake.


Azaoui, B. (2015, September). Polyfocal classroom interactions and teaching gestures. An analysis of nonverbal orchestration. In gesture and speech in interaction (GESPIN).

Bagheri, M., & Mohamadi Zenouzagh, Z. (2021). Comparative study of the effect of face-to-face and computer mediated conversation modalities on student engagement: speaking skill in focus. Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education6(1), 1-23.

Barley, N. (2020). Negotiation of meaning and comprehension in audio and video-conferencing: A mixed methods study (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign).

Barsalou, L. W. (2008). Grounded cognition. Annu. Rev. Psychol.59, 617-645.

Belda-Medina, J. (2021). Enhancing multimodal interaction and communicative competence through task-based language teaching (TBLT) in synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC). Education Sciences11(11), 723.

Bressem, J. (2014). Repetitions in gesture. In Repetitions in Gesture. De Gruyter Mouton.

Compton, L. K. (2009). Preparing language teachers to teach language online: A look at skills, roles, and responsibilities. Computer assisted language learning22(1), 73-99.

Davis, R. O., Vincent, J., & Wan, L. (2021). Does a pedagogical agent’s gesture frequency assist advanced foreign language users with learning declarative knowledge? International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education18, 1-19.

Haviland, J. B. (2006). Gesture: Sociocultural Analysis.

Holt, B., Tellier, M., & Guichon, N. (2015, September). The use of teaching gestures in an online multimodal environment: the case of incomprehension sequences. In Gesture and Speech in Interaction 4th Edition.

Junn, H. (2023). L2 communicative competence analysis via synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) as an alternative to formal classrooms. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching17(1), 15-31.

Li, C. (2022). The role of gaze in meaning negotiation episodes in video synchronous computer-mediated interactions. Journal of China Computer-Assisted Language Learning2(1), 100-125.

Loewen, S., Buttiler, M., Kessler, M., & Trego, D. (2022). Conversation and transcription activities with synchronous video computer-mediated communication: A classroom investigation. System106, 102760.

Matsumoto, Y., & Dobs, A. M. (2017). Pedagogical gestures as interactional resources for teaching and learning tense and aspect in the ESL grammar classroom. Language Learning67(1), 7-42.

Saito, K., & Akiyama, Y. (2017). Video‐based interaction, negotiation for comprehensibility, and second language speech learning: A longitudinal study. Language learning67(1), 43-74.

Stam, G., & Tellier, M. (2022). Gesture helps second and foreign language learning and teaching.

Stam, G., & Urbanski, K. B. (Eds.). (2022). Gesture and multimodality in second language acquisition: A research guide. Taylor & Francis.

Tabenksy, A. (2014). Gestures, postures, gaze, and other body movements in the 2nd language classroom intearaction. Müller, C., Cienki, A., Fricke, E., Ladewig, SH, McNeill, D. & J. Brassem (eds) Body-Language-Communication: An International Handbook on Multimodality in Human Interaction2, 1426-1432.

Tecedor, M., & Campos-Dintrans, G. (2019). Developing oral communication in Spanish lower-level courses: The case of voice recording and video-conferencing activities. ReCALL31(2), 116-134.

Teh, W. (2021). Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) in the context of online Learning: A literature review. International Journal of TESOL & Education1(2), 65-71.

Tellier, M. (2008). The effect of gestures on second language memorization by young children. Gesture8(2), 219-235.

Themelis, C., & Sime, J. A. (2020). From video-conferencing to holoportation and haptics: How emerging technologies can enhance presence in online education? Emerging technologies and pedagogies in the curriculum, 261-276.

Yu, L. T. (2022). The effect of video-conferencing on second-language learning: A meta-analysis. Behavioral Sciences12(6), 169.

Global Expansion Plan Sample College Essay


The Canadian maple company’s mission is to provide health and wellness products to its consumers across the globe. The pure maple syrup the firm is offering fits this niche. Therefore, based on the economic, cultural, political, and legal analysis, the product is feasible in the UK market. For instance, the UK people have a value culture where they purchase sustainable products. Food culture is adopting international cuisine ingredients such as Maple syrup because of its natural and organic elements. Also, the product is the best alternative to sugar and has low calories. Using the direct investment mode, the company can succeed n setting up a business in the UK market. The company requires finances to commission the expansion project and thus may require long-term loans to make the business successful. The company will be operated by at least one director and will be limited.


The course has helped me understand the importance of business expansion in foreign markets. For instance, I have understood how the business should run its operations when it comes to venturing into a foreign country. The entry mode of the business is critical and determines the success and the failure of the business. Also, one must project the sales and expenses one will likely incur in the new business venture. One can weigh the pros and cons of starting a business in a foreign land. Also, there are factors that one should consider and research before setting up the business, such as the cultural—political, legal, and economic factors before setting up the business in a foreign country.


The mission of offering maple syrup is to promote a healthier life to people worldwide, specifically those living in Uk, and London. Also, the essence is to promote the environment since the product preserves the environment derived from the maple tree. This process does not involve destroying the environment (Issac et al., 2022). As London residents are more environmentally cautious and promote green products, they are more cautious about the products that promote the environment.

Canadian maple company offers pure organic maple syrup in Canada (Saraiva, et al. 2022). Given the benefits and the uses of pure organic maple in the UK, the company can extend its offering to the United Kingdom. Pure organic maple syrup has the following uses in the UK: syrup is a natural sweetener for foods and drinks. In that case, it is healthier than the processed sugar in most drinks and food. For example, it has antioxidants and minerals critical to human health. Also, organic maple in the UK can be used in dishes, salads, and breakfast meals. Moreover, the syrup is more sustainable since it cannot harm the environment. in summary, if the company expands its market in the UK, London city, there is a revenue growth potential for the product.

The product is a reason why the product will be a success is that there is high demand for organic and natural products in Europe and, to be precise, in London, UK. Also, people are more health and environment-conscious, and given that the pure maple product fits this trend, it will be successful in the Uk. Pure organic maple can command a premium price, given the demand in the UK for organic products. Therefore, based on these facts, the business will be a success.

The business will be set up in London city. In that case, several steps will be required to ensure the business is in place for the launch of the business. The first step will be to acquire business registration with the relevant business authority in the UK and then register the business for taxes. By so doing, the business will avoid operating illegally in a foreign country. Given that the branch will be new in a foreign country, the company will need to lease the space for setting up the office; this will be easy for the first few years; as the business expands, the management can think of purchasing their own space.

After acquiring the space, there will need to acquire office furniture such as a chair, table, computers, and other stationery for the smooth operation of the business. Also, the packaging and the supply material will be required for buying the new products. The packaging and suppliers’ material will need to be purchased on credit or cash, depending on the suppliers’ terms in the UK. Additionally, the business will need staff to market the product before it launches and set up the office in the new area.

Before the product’s sale, the company will also need to comply with the labeling, packaging, and quality controls authority to ensure that the product meets the regulations of maple syrup as outlined in the UK laws and regulations.


Economic assessment

There is high demand for organic and natural products in the Uk. Thus, if the Canadian maple company can consider venturing in Uk, and London, the product will have a large consumer base and generate more revenue. The geopolitical and Brexit impacts in Uk are another consideration when setting up a business in the UK. For instance, the Brexit decision had huge implications in all sectors of the UK industries regarding logistics and financial services. Therefore, the company will have to consider the extent that the Brexit decision can impact the Maple syrup business in case the firm operates in London.

Political assessment

After Brexit, the UK had to revise its trade regulations and tariffs. Thus, the Canadian maple needs to understand the new rules and regulations resulting from the Brexit decision (Cuypers et al., 2020). Also, since Brexit, the government has been emphasizing non-supporting local companies in Uk. This means that foreign companies may need help operating in the UK and thus need to negotiate with the Uk government on how the new business can operate. The government is also keen on products that can safeguard the environment, and in the case of the Canadian maple business, this may be the ideal business to operate.

Legal assessment

They are regulations in the Uk governing food quality, labeling, and packaging. Also, the intellectual properties and certification may affect the company operations in UK. the exports and import regulation after Brexit is also a critical legal factor to consider when setting up the business at the national level.

International level

There has been an increasing campaign for companies to manufacture or process environmentally sustainable products at an international level. Thus, the company’s product must be natural and organic to avoid international condemnations. Also, there have been a trend and growth of e-commerce businesses at the international level, and thus the business may opt to adopt this business plan (Rossi & Martini, 2019). There are also emerging markets in middle east countries, and thus many businesses are expanding theory branches in such countries. However, the Uk market is already developed, and if the company expands in this market, it will still generate more income.

The sales of maple syrup in the UK

Maple syrup is not British cuisine, but it is international cuisine, and thus its markets in the UK have been in demand. In 2020 alone, the Uk imported 424 metric tons, and 399 metric tons in 2021 (Tridge n.d). Also, the UK made local maple syrup of 15000 taps. Therefore, as an international cuisine, the product is in demand in the UK (Tridge n.d).

The key competitors

Several companies, such as clerk and pure maple, process and sell maple syrup to health food stores and supermarkets across the UK. Also, amazon sells maple syrup from different brands worldwide in the UK. Key supermarkets in the Uk, such as Tesco and Sainsbury, also sell pure maple syrup.

The competitor analysis indicates that most competitors do not process the maple syrup by themselves but only make it themselves.

Customer profile

sample of customer profile
age range (18-90 years)
gender (male and female
income (above$400)
Geographic location (London)
Sustainable shoppers
Regular purchasers
Seasonal purchasers
Online shoppers
Brand loyalists



Opening a business maple syrup in the Uk requires the business to analyze the culture of the UK people. To begin with, the UK people have to reach culture on food. Thus, there has been growing interest in natural and organic foods (Velardi et al., 2021). even though maple syrup has not been an ingredient in the British people’s cuisine, the growing interest in natural foods has recently made it a demanded product in the Uk international cuisines.

The UK people have a culture of health and wellness, and as such, they are constantly seeking natural products. Maple syrup fits in the categories of the products since it is a natural sweetener. Also, UK people prefer this product as an alternative to sugar since it has lower levels of calories.

The cultural values of the Uk people allow them to choose products of high value. High-quality and sustainable maple syrup will then be in high demand in the UK. In that context, if the business chooses to produce the product using sustainable means, the demand for the product will be high in the UK market.


The market size of maple syrup in the UK is small when compared with countries in North America (Velardi et al., 2021). however, there is still potential for the growth of the product market as the demand for natural and organic products in the UK continues to increase.


They have already established rivals for maple syrup in the UK. Thus for the company to have a business opportunity, it will require to differentiate its price, quality, and packaging product. By so doing, the business will have the opportunity to outshine its rival and have a competitive edge.


Starting a maple business will experience little political hurdles in the UK. However, the business must carefully plan how to comply with the UK regulation on business registrations and food and assurance quality regulations (Fraccastoro et al., 2021). Moreover, there has been uncertainty since Britain exits, and thus the company will need to monitor the new trade agreements in Uk, especially on the international stage.


Starting a maple business requires the business to comply with specific regulations. The first is registering for a business company house in the case of a limited company such as maple syrup. Second, there is also food safety regulation that the business must comply with, as well as the labeling requirement (Domurath et al., 2020). Moreover, the business will need to register for taxation and import and export regulation. However, this legal regulation is straightforward, and businesses will be able to perform these legal obligations efficiently.



The Canadian maple syrup company will be a limited company in the UK. The Uk rules and regulations require the company always to have at least one natural director (Rossi & Martini, 2019). In that case, the company will have one natural director in the UK. In contrast, other directors will be based in Canada but participating in the company’s strategic decisions in the UK. The company will appoint one chief executive officer responsible for running the business in the UK.

The directors’ duties are to make a strategic decision on the firm and will be remuneration based on the company’s performance. Also, the CEO’s performance will be based on the company’s financial performance. Thus, the more the company makes revenue, the more the reward the CEO will get.




Maple syrup is extracted from the maple tree, and it is primarily collected during the springtime. Once collected, it is boiled to remove water, which is how the company gets the maple syrup(Velardi et al., 2021). The maple syrup, in this case, will be categorized into grades one and two based on flavor and color. Thus, the pricing and packaging will be based on these two categories.


The Canadian maple company can set up a wholly-owned subsidiary in the UK. Thus, the company will need to register in the company house in the UK (Fraccastoro, Gabrielsson & Chetty, 2021). however, the company will need to secure the premises for the business, hire the staff and buy all the materials required for operation. The disadvantage of direct investment is the cost of starting a new beginning. However, it will be suitable; it will be controlled wholly by the company.


They have already established businesses in the Uk selling maple syrup, and the company can take this opportunity and acquire one of the companies instead of starting from the beginning. That way, the company will reduce marketing and branding costs. Also, the company will acquire the customer base of the company.









Recommendation 1: the Canadian maple company should continue expanding to the UK. However, the company should differentiate its products based on pricing and quality because an already established company is in the UK.

Recommendation 2: the company should employ the direct investment entry strategy in the Uk market because it will help the company to hire its staff and to control the business wholly.

Recommendation 3: the company should employ at least one director and chief executive officer to run the business.


Tridge (n.d) maple syrup.

Velardi, et al. (2021). Adult learning theory principles in knowledge exchange networks among maple syrup producers and beekeepers in Maine. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension27(1), 3-20.

Domurath, et al. (2020). New venture adaptation in international markets: A goal orientation theory perspective. Journal of World Business55(1), 101019.

Cuypers, et al. (2020). Making connections: Social networks in international business. Journal of International Business Studies51, 714-736.

Sun et al. (2021). Partnering with Leviathan: The politics of innovation in foreign-host-state joint ventures. Journal of International Business Studiespp. 52, 595–620.

Rossi, M., & Martini, E. (2019). Venture capitalists and value creation: The role of informal investors in the growth of smaller European firms. International Journal of Globalisation and Small Business10(3), 233-247.

Fraccastoro, et al. (2021). Social media firm-specific advantages as enablers of network embeddedness of international entrepreneurial ventures. Journal of World Business56(3), 101164.

Issac, et al. (2022). Integrated sustainability planning and local food systems: Examining areas of and gaps in food systems integration in community sustainability plans for municipalities across British Columbia. Sustainability14(11), 6724.

Saraiva, et al. (2022). Maple Syrup: Chemical Analysis and Nutritional Profile, Health Impacts, Safety and Quality Control, and Food Industry Applications. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health19(20), 13684.

Green Party Success In Australia And Germany Essay Sample For College

The success of green parties in Australia and Germany can be attributed to postmaterialistic values, measured by economic stability and the presence of environmentalist policies. Postmaterialistic values prioritize environmentalism, peace, transformation, and social justice over economic growth and material possessions. The green party vote share can be used as the dependent variable since it is a measurable indicator of the success of green parties.

One argument to support this relationship is that economic stability enables individuals to prioritize postmaterialistic values. According to the World Values Survey, economic stability positively correlates with postmaterialistic values (Inglehart, 1997). This is because when individuals’ basic economic needs are met, they can focus on non-economic values such as environmentalism. Australia and Germany have relatively stable economies, which may explain the success of their green parties.

Another argument is that environmentalist policies signal to voters that the party prioritizes postmaterialistic values. A study by Brouard and Tiberj (2011) found that voters prioritizing environmental protection are more likely to vote for green parties. Therefore, anti-nuclear policies and other environmentalist initiatives in Australia and Germany’s platforms of green parties contributed to their success.

A third argument is that postmaterialistic values are not linear, as the World Values Survey shows. In other words, the trend of prioritizing postmaterialistic values may differ across all individuals and countries. However, Australia and Germany have relatively high postmaterialistic values (Inglehart & Norris, 2000). This may explain why green parties have been successful in these countries compared to others. A final argument is that the green parties’ success may also be due to their focus on social justice issues. Research by Dietz and Rosa (1997) found that environmentalism and social justice are intertwined. Therefore, green parties’ emphasis on environmentalism and social justice may appeal to voters prioritizing postmaterialistic values.

Indeed, countries with higher levels of economic development tend to prioritize postmaterialistic values more than those with lower levels of development. This is because individuals in developed countries have access to basic needs such as food, shelter, and healthcare and therefore have the freedom to focus on non-economic values such as environmentalism.

In terms of the presence of environmentalist policies, it is notable that both Australia and Germany have implemented significant environmental policies. For instance, Australia’s Renewable Energy Target (RET) aims to source at least 33,000 gigawatt-hours of electricity from renewable sources by 2020 (Clean Energy Council, 2022). Germany’s Energiewende program aims to transition the country to renewable energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions (Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, 2022). Such policies may signal to voters that green parties prioritize environmentalism and postmaterialistic values.

Moreover, Inglehart and Norris (2000) found that postmaterialistic values are relatively high in Western European countries such as Germany. This may partly explain why green parties have been more successful in Europe than other regions. Additionally, Brouard and Tiberj (2011) study found that voters who prioritize environmental protection are more likely to vote for green parties. This suggests that the presence of environmentalist policies in the platforms of green parties may attract voters who prioritize postmaterialistic values. Regarding the link between environmentalism and social justice, research by Dietz and Rosa (1997) suggests that environmentalism and social justice are interconnected. This is because environmental degradation disproportionately affects marginalized communities and exacerbates existing inequalities. Therefore, the green parties’ focus on social justice issues may appeal to voters prioritizing postmaterialistic values.

Literature Review

Postmaterialistic values prioritize the quality of life and environmental concerns over economic growth and material possessions. The Green Party’s platform aligns with these values, making them more appealing to postmaterialistic voters.

Environmentalist policies, such as anti-nuclear policies, are key to the Green Party’s platform. Research has shown that support for anti-nuclear policies is higher among those with postmaterialistic values, indicating a potential link between postmaterialistic values and support for the Green Party. Research has shown that postmaterialistic values positively correlate with support for environmentalist policies, which align with the Green Party’s platform. For example, in a study by Brouard and Tiberj (2011), they found that voters who prioritize environmental protection are more likely to vote for green parties. The study was conducted in France, where the Green Party has experienced electoral success. The authors suggested that the party’s emphasis on environmentalism is a key factor in its popularity among voters with postmaterialistic values.

Similarly, Inglehart and Norris (2003) found that support for environmentalist policies is higher among those with postmaterialistic values in both developed and developing countries. The authors suggest that this is because individuals with postmaterialistic values prioritize the quality of life over material possessions, making them more likely to support policies that protect the environment.

In Australia, the Green Party has experienced significant success in federal election campaigns since 2010, and at the 2019 federal election, the party attained an unbridled 10.4% primary vote in the House of Representatives (Martinez, Coma & McDonnell, 2023). One reason for the Green Party’s success in Australia could be the country’s relatively stable economy. According to the World Values Survey, economic stability positively correlates with postmaterialistic values (Inglehart, 1997). This suggests that when individuals’ basic economic needs are met, they are more likely to prioritize non-economic values such as environmentalism, making them more receptive to the Green Party’s platform.

In Germany, the Green Party polled an unprecedented level of 20.5% in the 2019 federal election (Hansen & Olsen, 2022). The party’s platform emphasizes environmentalism and social justice, which are closely linked. Research by Dietz and Rosa (1997) found that environmentalism and social justice are intertwined, with environmental degradation often affecting marginalized communities disproportionately. This intersectionality may explain the Green Party’s success in Germany, where voters prioritizing environmentalism and social justice are more likely to support the party.

Tranter and Western’s (2003) research on postmaterial values and age in Australia highlights the importance of these values in prioritizing quality of life and environmental concerns over economic growth and material possessions. Their findings suggest that younger generations are more likely to hold postmaterialistic values than older generations. This is significant as younger generations are increasingly becoming the largest voting demographic, and the Green Party’s alignment with postmaterialistic values may increase its appeal among this demographic. According to Henn, Sloam, and Nunes (2022), in their study, research on young cosmopolitans and environmental politics further emphasizes the importance of postmaterialist values in shaping political engagement. They found that postmaterialistic values informed the political engagement of young people in environmental issues, particularly among those who identify as cosmopolitans. Cosmopolitans are individuals who hold a global outlook and prioritize the protection of the environment and human rights. This group of individuals is particularly important as they are likely to be politically engaged and play a significant role in shaping the future of environmental politics.

Frankland’s (2016) study on Central and Eastern European Green parties provides insight into the link between postmaterialistic values and support for environmental policies. The study found that support for anti-nuclear policies was higher among those with postmaterialistic values. This suggests that the Green Party’s alignment with postmaterialistic values and its focus on environmental issues may be a key factor in its success.

Moreover, Frankland’s (2016) research highlights the role of economic stability in the success of the Green Party. During economic downturns, people are more likely to prioritize the quality of life and environmental concerns over economic growth. This can increase appeal for political parties that prioritize these issues, such as the Green Party. As such, economic stability may play a significant role in shaping political attitudes toward environmental policies.

Based on the research study by Tang and Cheng (2021) study emphasizes the dynamic nature of postmaterialistic values. Their findings suggest postmaterialism is not a linear construct and can change over time. The shift towards postmaterialistic values in Western societies in the late 20th century has been linked to the rise of environmental concerns and the Green Party’s success in countries such as Germany. This highlights the importance of context and the need to consider the changing nature of postmaterialistic values in shaping political attitudes toward environmental policies.

Economic stability also plays a role in the success of the Green Party. Research has shown that during economic downturns, people are more likely to support the Green Party, as they prioritize the quality of life and environmental concerns over economic growth.

Postmaterialistic values are not linear and can change over time, as seen in the shift towards postmaterialistic values in Western societies in the late 20th century. This shift has been linked to the rise of environmental concerns and the Green Party’s success in countries such as Germany.

Furthermore, many scholars have put forth empirical regarding the importance of the Green Party in the economy and other vital aspects in Germany and Australia. For example, According to Rüdig (2012), the success of the Green Party in Germany can be attributed to their alignment with postmaterialistic values, which prioritize environmental concerns over economic growth and material possessions. Bukow’s (2016) study on the Green Party in Germany found that environmentalist policies, such as anti-nuclear policies, are a key part of the party’s platform. Support for these policies is higher among those with postmaterialistic values.

Research by Bolleyer and Bytzek (2013) suggests that the success of new parties, such as the Green Party, is often tied to the party’s alignment with postmaterialistic values. Carter’s (2013) study on party politics and the environment also supports this argument, highlighting the appeal of postmaterialistic values to voters who prioritize the quality of life and environmental concerns.

Franz, Fratzscher, and Kritikos (2019) found that during economic downturns, there is a higher likelihood of people supporting the Green Party, as they prioritize the quality of life and environmental concerns over economic growth. Furthermore, Kitschelt’s (2019) research on ecological politics in Belgium and West Germany suggests that the rise of postmaterialistic values in Western societies in the late 20th century played a role in the success of environmentalist parties, such as the Green Party. According to Kirchhof (2014), the success of the anti-nuclear movement in Australia can also be linked to postmaterialistic values, as West German support for the movement was driven by a shared concern for the environment. Chen and Bouvain’s (2008) study on corporate social responsibility reporting in the United States, Germany, and Australia also highlights the differences in values between these countries, with Germany placing a greater emphasis on environmental concerns.


The Relationship between Postmaterialistic Values and Green Party Vote Share in Australia and Germany: An Analysis of Economic Stability and Environmentalist Policies

Thesis Statement or Research Claim

This article explores the relationship between postmaterialistic values and green party vote share in Australia and Germany, considering the mediating effects of economic stability and environmentalist policies. Specifically, we argue that the prevalence of postmaterialistic values, which focus on environmentalism and quality of life over economic growth, is positively associated with a green party vote share in both countries. Furthermore, this relationship is moderated by economic stability and environmentalist policies, which amplify or diminish the impact of postmaterialistic values on green party success.

Explanatory Model

Postmaterialistic values (independent variable) → influence or drive → green party vote share (dependent variable), mediated by economic stability and environmentalist policies


The research hypothesis is that postmaterialistic values are key in determining green party success in Australia and Germany. This relationship is contingent upon the level of economic stability and environmentalist policies in each country. It will leverage statistical analysis to test the direction and magnitude of these relationships, providing evidence to support our explanatory model.

Research Method

The research leverages a mixed-methods approach to gather data on our independent and dependent variables, drawing on quantitative survey data and qualitative interviews with key stakeholders in each country. The survey will include a sample of 2,000 participants from each country, who will respond to questions about their values, political preferences, and attitudes toward the environment and the economy. Equally, there will be interviews with green party members and leaders, as well as experts in environmental policy and economics, to gain a deeper understanding of the factors that influence green party success in each country. Data analysis will employ both regression analysis and thematic coding, allowing us to test our hypotheses and identify key themes and patterns in our qualitative data.


The research will test four main arguments to support our explanatory model:

  1. Postmaterialistic values positively correlate with a green party vote share in Australia and Germany.
  2. The relationship between postmaterialistic values and green party success is stronger in periods of economic stability.
  3. Environmentalist policies amplify postmaterialistic values’ impact on green party success.
  4. The presence of environmentalist policies moderates the relationship between postmaterialistic values and green party success in periods of economic instability.

Description of Core Hypotheses 

  1. H1: Postmaterialistic values → The prevalence of postmaterialistic values are positively associated with a green party vote share in Australia and Germany.
  2. H2: Economic stability → The relationship between postmaterialistic values and green party success is stronger in periods of economic stability.

  1. H3: 3. Environmentalist policies → The presence of environmentalist policies serves to amplify the impact of postmaterialistic values on green party success in both Australia and Germany

  1. H4: Moderation effect → The presence of environmentalist policies moderates the relationship between postmaterialistic values and green party success in periods of economic instability, such that the impact of postmaterialistic values is diminished.


The study’s findings suggest that postmaterialistic values, measured by economic stability and the presence of environmentalist policies, play a crucial role in determining the success of the Green Party in Australia and Germany. Economic stability allows citizens to engage in progressive agendas, such as environmentalism, which can lead to an increase in the Green Party vote share. This indicates that citizens who are financially secure and have the luxury of engaging in environmental issues are more likely to vote for the Green Party.

Furthermore, the presence of environmentalist policies, particularly anti-nuclear movements, was found to influence the success of the Green Party positively. The Green Party’s position on environmental issues resonates with voters who hold postmaterialistic values, leading to a higher Green Party vote share. This indicates that citizens prioritizing issues such as environmentalism and sustainability are more likely to support the Green Party.

However, the study also found that the trend of postmaterialistic values was not linear. The World Values Survey revealed that citizens of Australia and Germany who held postmaterialistic values did not necessarily hold them to the same degree. This highlights the importance of the Green Party being aware of the varying degrees of postmaterialistic values their voters hold and tailoring their policies to meet their specific needs and values.

Additionally, the study found that the success of the Green Party was not solely dependent on postmaterialistic values. Other factors, such as mainstream party competition and the Green Party’s policy positions, also significantly influenced their success. Mainstream party competition allows the Green Party to showcase its unique policies and perspectives to voters dissatisfied with mainstream parties’ policies. Furthermore, the Green Party’s policy positions are crucial to its success. The study found that the Green Party’s policies on issues such as the environment and sustainability were significant factors in determining their vote share.

Implications and Future Directions

The argument can be made that countries with higher postmaterialistic values, as indicated by economic stability and anti-nuclear policies, are more likely to have a higher green party vote share. This can be supported by research from the World Values Survey, which shows that the trend of postmaterialistic values is not linear, and countries with higher levels of postmaterialistic values tend to have a higher green party vote share.

Furthermore, environmentalist policies, such as anti-nuclear policies, may also contribute to higher green party vote shares. Such policies align with the green party’s core values and may attract voters who prioritize environmental issues. In contrast, countries with less environmentalist policies may be less attractive to green party voters.

It is important to note that this argument is not limited to Australia and Germany but can also be applied to other countries. However, it is crucial to carefully consider the specific context of each country when examining the relationship between postmaterialistic values and green party vote share.

In terms of future research, conducting a more in-depth analysis of the relationship between postmaterialistic values and green party vote share may be useful. This can involve examining each country’s historical and cultural context and exploring other factors that may contribute to higher green party vote shares. Additionally, it may be helpful to compare and contrast the success of green parties in different countries to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the factors that contribute to their success.


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