Gibbs Cycle As A Reflection Scheme For A Therapist Homework Essay Sample


According to Cotton (2001), reflection is to tackle and decide the contradiction between what the practitioner wants to be in the ideal world and what he actually does in the real world. The desire by the practitioners to make their minds up brings a lot of tension which is creative since it may be resolved in a way that can move the practitioner forward in their carrier. Two forms of reflection have been suggested so far, that is, reflection-in-action which occurs during the event, and reflection-on-action that occurs after the event. The health practitioner or nurses are guided by several models such as Gibbs, Johns and Rolfe (Bondб 1993). According to Bond, Gibbs Reflective cycle is widely used though not sufficiently sophisticated to offer detailed reflection. On the other hand, John’s model offers a structured reflection. Self-reflection has been identified as a vital way of progressing our learning. Students are therefore required to keep a journal recording their experiences from clinical practice. Reflection is a very important part of professional practice as it increases our expertise in the present and for the future by providing us with novel insights incorporating theory into practice.

The impact of feelings on the learning process cannot be over-emphasized. We all have past experiences with negative feelings where some incidents have left us feeling angry and frustrated. On the other hand, experiences resulting from positive incidents such as recognition for quality care from our patients or our peers validate our work as individuals and promote learning. Reflective practice requires you to draw upon your theoretical knowledge in a creative way and practically solve problems in everyday practice. That is, completing the cycle from theory to practice and practice to theory. Reflective thinking can be a complex skill but writing in the form of journaling is a recognized way of developing thinking processes fundamental to reflective practice. Problems of reflection There have been a lot of controversies on reflection. Some researchers have viewed reflection as a means of self-surveillance that ensures that nurses are doing ‘right’. Many nurses have complained of the issue of keeping a diary to record practice and reflections and they want to go home after work and rest. In addition, nurses use negative experiences as a reflection because they are the most memorable. This, however, brings unbalance towards the positive and negative experiences (Harkreader & Hogan, 2004). Advantages of reflection Reflection is compared with Foucault’s idea whereby the specific intellectual seeks the truth for its own sake and not a source of power over others. A reflective nurse reduces his/her traumatic experiences and thereby improving his carrier. Since reflection is a way of seeing or learning the truth, it brings out perception which is normally in the dark into light. Other institutions have described reflection as a “scholarship of practice” as it reflects how the practitioner engages in other areas of nursing scholarship. Gibbs Reflective Model

The Gibbs Reflective Model can provide some structure, guidance, and stimulation to your reflections. Gibbs (1988) consists of six stages to complete one cycle which is able to improve my nursing practice and learn simultaneously from the experience for better practice in the future. The first stage is the description of the situation followed by the analysis of the feelings. The third stage involves evaluation of the experience; the fourth stage is an analysis to make sense of the experience; the fifth stage is a conclusion of what else could I have done and the final stage is an action plan to prepare if the situation arose again (NHS, 2006). Reflection is about gaining self-confidence, identifying areas to improve your knowledge, learning from your mistakes, being self-aware and improving the future from past experience. In my context, it is important to improve the teamwork relationship. This will enable in achieving success by working together and valuing each other’s skills and contributions. As a member of a team, I was expected to demonstrate the utilization of the Gibbs reflective model within the multidisciplinary team. In teamwork, a sense of trust and mutual understanding exists between members that build a special link of the relationship. The members are expected to be cooperative and active in contributing to team goals and meetings. It was also expected that each one of us would challenge and contribute in a positive manner. These attitudes could be expressed by promoting effective communication and relationships by implementing interpersonal skills. Interpersonal skill is defined as the total ability to communicate effectively with other people (Wold, 2004). On the other hand, communication is defined as the exchange of information, thoughts and ideas either verbally or non-verbally (White, 2005). They further explain that verbal communication consists of speech whereas non-verbal communication consists of gestures, postures and facial expressions.

Mental health case study and teamwork

In this reflection paper, I will discuss my development of teamwork in a mental health care practice. I was on a placement test where I was placed in a psychiatric ward having a 3 weeks clinical placement for mental health care in the third semester. The words had elderly male patients and we were supposed to take care of them. Collaborative teamwork and proper allocation of duties are essential within elderly wards with mental problems. In addition, the ethical responsibilities of nurses are not only set by the Department of Health but also by a team exercising professional responsibilities. It was during a certain time when one elderly managed 67 years refused to be injected and threatened me. I was very shocked by the scenario and I didn’t know my next action. My colleague noticed us and he came over.

I later sat down and reflected on my feelings or thinking that took place before and after the event. Before I prepared to inject my patient, I introduced myself and build a good rapport with him as I explained I was to inject him. He stared at me with a suspicious face and mumbled something I didn’t hear clearly. As I reached for him, he got irritated and kicked my arm to keep me off. My colleague explained to me that the elderly male had a hearing problem and maybe he needed something before the injection. Actually, according to my colleague, he preferred gestures as means of communication. It was my duty to take care of my patient and make sure he gets the best care in the ward. This introduced me to task-centered communication as well as fulfilling the basic conditions as a nurse such as genuineness, warmth and empathy. While taking care of him, I was able to develop my non-verbal communication skills. Caris-Verhallen et al. (1999, p. 809) state that the non-verbal communication becomes important when communicating with elderly people who develop a hearing problem. It is also important to develop some effective ways of communicating with hearing-impaired people such as first gaining their attention before speaking and using sensitive touch (Holman, Roberts & Nicol 2005, p. 31). I feel this is a good experience for me because I learned the importance of teamwork and also, I learned to develop my non-verbal communication. Furthermore, gestures are one specific type of non-verbal communication intended to express ideas and are useful for people who cannot use words. Moreover, I used my facial expression to assure him that all was okay. Sometimes he could put a blurred face but I smiled back to assure him the injection was for the better of his health. My facial expression encouraged him to take the drugs and accept the injection. I also evaluated that my communication skills are very important in the best nursing care to my patient (Heath 2000, pp. 27-28). In a nutshell, my reflection of this event explores how communication skills play a vital role in the nurse-patient and nurse-nurse relationship in order to deliver nursing care towards the patient, especially the adult. As days passed, we became great friends with my patient as I successfully understood him and enabled him to effectively communicate with other staff nurses. I also learned that such patients should not be neglected and nurses should help one another in taking care of such patients (Delaune & Ladner, 2002).

After analyzing the situation, I could conclude that I was able to know the skills for effective communication with the patient such as approaching the patient, asking questions, being an active listener, showing empathy and supporting the patient emotions. My action for the clinical practice in the future if there were patients that I need to help in giving medications or other nursing procedures, I would prepare myself better in handling the patients who have some difficulty in communication. This will enable me to be one of the health care workers in the clinics. Further, I will work with my colleague at all stages of my practice for the benefit of the patients. Most important is to seek clarification from relevant members of the health team regarding the individual’s request to change or refuse certain care.

Another important aspect I learned is to first evaluate the effectiveness of the patient’s response to prescribed treatments, interventions and health education in collaboration with patients and other health care team members. I also indicated in my diary the reflection on the patient feedback on the evaluation of nursing care and health service delivery. The level of understanding of the patient about the health care should be analyzed when answering their questions and providing information. For a patient to understand, one may use formal or informal methods of teaching. Working as a team, I was able to identify my own level of competence and seek assistance and knowledge from my colleagues where necessary. I learnt to reflect upon and evaluate with peers and experienced nurses on the effectiveness of nursing care. The members of the team were cooperative and I could access advice, assistance, debriefing and direction when necessary. This however updated my knowledge on treatments and medications interventions within my area of practice. My colleague took the responsibility for my own professional development by advising me on how to handle my patient (Funnel, Koutoukidis & Lawrence 2005). However, according to my experience, I knew that communication was the fundamental part to develop a good relationship. Good communication is essential to get to know the patient’s individual health status. One should exercise active listening which means listening without making judgments. I must not judge the patients on the basis of their culture, belief and individual means of communication. To add to my action list is to learn the disabilities the patient has such as hearing disability, visual impairment and mental disability. Once I know the disability that a patient has, I could be well prepared with which method of communication to use as these specific groups requires particular skills and considerations. The hearing problem affects elderly people because of the aging process (Sivitier 2004). Conclusion The reason why I chose Gibbs’s (1988) reflective cycle as my framework of reflection is that I am able to explain every stage in the cycle about my ability to develop my therapeutic relationship by using interpersonal skills with one patient as well as one member of the team for this reflection.


  1. Bond, M. 1993, ‘Stress and self-Awareness: A Guide for Nurses’, Nursing Today, Butterworth Heinesman. Cotton, A. 2001, ‘Private thoughts in public spheres; issues in reflection and reflective practices in nursing’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 512-519.
  2. Caris-Verhallen, W. M., Kerkstra, A. & Bensing, J. M. 1999, ‘Non-verbal behavior in nurse-elderly patient communication’, Journal of advanced Nursing, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 808-18.
  3. Delaune, S. C. & Ladner, P. K. 2002, Fundamentals of Nursing: Standard & Practice. 2nd ed, New York: Thomson Learning.
  4. Funnel, R., Koutoukidis, G. & Lawrence, K. (eds) (2005). Tabbner’s Nursing Care 4E: Theory & Practice, Australia: Churchill Livingstone.
  5. Gibbs, G. 1988, Learning by doing: a guide to teaching and learning methods. London: Further Education Unit.
  6. Harkreader, H. & Hogan, M. A. 2004, Fundamental of Nursing: Caring and Clinical Judgment, 2nd ed. Missouri: Saunders. Heath, H. 2000, ‘Assesing older people’, Journal of elderly care, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 27-28.
  7. Holman, C., Roberts, S. & Nicol, M. 2005, ‘Promoting good care for people with hearing impairment’, Nursing Older People, vol. 17, no. 2, p.31.
  8. Sivitier, B. 2004, The Student Nurse Handbook, USA: Baillere Tindall.
  9. White, L. 2005, Foundations of Basic Nursing, 2nd ed. USA: Thomson Delmar Learning.
  10. Wold, G. H. 2004, Basic Geriatric Nursing, 3rd ed. USA: Mosby.

Wal-Mart Scenario: Sex Discrimination

Wal-Mart was founded by Sam Walton in 1962; it is an international retail outlet that runs several discount department stores. It’s an American public cooperation operating discount stores, supercentres, and neighborhood markets. It has been reported that Wal-Mart is not in line with Equal Employment Opportunity Committee regulations, due to diversity, there are cases where employees are discriminated, by age, sex, disability, religion, or even their race. Discrimination thus refers to a situation whereby individuals especially in the workplace are treated unfairly due to the mentioned demographic characteristics (Ackman, 2006).

Several cases have been brought forward to claim that Wal-Mart indeed discriminated against employees on such demographic factors mentioned as above and especially on gender grounds, most of which were determined in courts. For instance, in Bentonville, Ark discount store chain, women raised concerns that they were not getting promotions and were being paid less as compared to men in the same jobs, the plaintiff further claimed that 70% of the workforce is made up of women but hardly one-third hold managerial posts, the case is still pending. A similar suit was made in 2003 by US (San Francisco) women working at Wal-Mart. Male always have privileges and are not severely punished as compared to women. Cindy Stem, a worker of Wal-Mart at Covington in Washington realized that there was unequal treatment of women of all ages. In my view, these moral complain brought forth by women are justified because what the organization is doing is contrary to provisions in Equal Employment Opportunity Committee (EEOC) regulations and for this reason, women deserve to win such cases by providing solid evidence.

The financial implications associated with such lawsuits are enormous. The organization might lose the trust it has built with its customers and once the name is tarnished, then consumers will not associate with it which will jeopardize the sale volumes. More importantly, the business will e compelled to pay a fine in form of damages to the plaintiff if the cases are ruled in favor of the theme. On the same line, Walmart will incur extra expenses in hiring lawyers and advocates to defend it.

To address discriminations that may arise due to these demographic factors, organizations must strive to follow laid down regulations and guidelines concerning employees (Ackman, 2006). In addition, the organization opts to establish ethical statements that will guide it although as well as having a committee in place that will be addressing such issues once they are raised.

It is no doubt that the manner with which Robinson’s male workmates behaved was unacceptable and for this reason, the management opts to take necessary action to prevent it because it was an act of sexual harassment and discrimination which is not in line with regulations in EEOC. Although workers are allowed to post a picture in their place of work, there is a need to clearly define the kinds of pictures to be posted so that they do not disturb other co-workers. following the channels within any organization, such problems need to be solved by those involved but when things seem to hit a snug, then there is a need to involve those in higher authority within the organization.

Although section six does not mention sexual harassment while prohibiting sex discrimination, the former in itself amounts to the latter since it is unfair treatment of women. For this reason, even if the manager will admit that it was morally wrong for Robinson’s co-workers to do what they did, I will not agree with him if he asserts that what was done was not illegal.

According to Boatright, 2009 even though Robinson was not denied other privileges such as wages, she was offended. It is worth noting that all employees do have the right not to be offended and there is a need for all employees to be given equal chances to adequately complete tasks and duties bestowed to them. Offensive gestures especially the postings interfered with her ability to execute her duties. The moral rights of workers should not be deprived at all.

It is worth noting that it may seem the posting of the sign ‘men only’ had a good intention but it turn out to be self-defeating as it was prejudiced against Robinson together with her female counterparts. Considering here the posting was made, a ship-fitter trailer where individuals g to receive instruction, such a posting is both morally and legally wrong. Since both males and female workers in the company, the posting restricted the movement of women hence interfering with how work is carried out (Boatright, 2009).

From the review of sex discrimination, it is evident that at any given time, the organization will have a workforce that is diverse in several ways. It will only be rational for them to put in place measures that will help them, be in line with regulations in EEOC.


Ackman, D. (2006). “Wal-Mart and Sex Discrimination by the Numbers”. Web.

Boatright, J. (2009). Ethics and the Conduct of Business. New York: Prentice Hall.

Music Appreciation: A “Great” Composer

A “Great” Composer
Historical Period One


Historical Period Two


Which historical period? The Baroqueperiod represents Western music composed between 1600 and 1750, following the Renaissance and leading up to the classical era. The term is borrowed from the Portuguese language and means an oddly shaped pearl. The music during this period was embellished with many ornaments. The classical era slightly overlaps with the Baroque period because it is approximated to have started in 1730 and lasted until 1820, and preceded the romantic era. Compared to baroque, the music of this era was less complex and lighter, with clearer texture.
Name all the influential composers for the period you chose. This period had influential composers whose works are appreciated to date. Johann Sebastian Bach is the most famous musician of the era of German origin. He is well-known for his creative works in instrumental music, such as Goldberg Variationsand Brandenburg Concertos. Other composers of the era are Antonio Vivaldi, Henry Purcell, Johann Pachelbel, and Claudio Monteverdi. Classical music is still played on radio today, and this fact is attributed to the amazing works of the period’s composers. Johann Sebastian Bach contributed to both baroque and classical music and influenced the use of concerto styles, which dominated those periods. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is another important Austrian composer of the time who borrowed composition techniques from Bach. He is famously known for his prowess in opera and symphony styles. Other composers of the classical period include Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Schubert, and Joseph Haydn.
What are the hallmarks, or unique characteristics, of the composers’ styles? The composers’ musical styles were unique during the Baroque because they used four-part music to create harmony. They also incorporated basso continuo, baseline phrases that enriched the music’s texture (Vaubel 281). Additionally, they introduced modulation and ornamentation. Bach predominantly used the techniques demonstrated in the Goldenberg Variationspiece. The peculiarity of this era’s compositions compared to baroque is manifested in the simplicity of the music style. The composers used few ornaments and focused on balance and elegance. Harmony was majorly diatonic and not four-part like in the works of the baroque (Georges 40). Furthermore, melodies were brief and well-balanced, and textures were homophonic with an accompanying instrument.
Choose one composer for each period. Name a musical work and composer’s name for each period you chose. One of the Baroque period’s musical works is St Matthew Passionwritten by Johann Sebastian Bach in 1727. The piece is a sacred oratorio composed of solo voices with a double orchestra and a double choir in the background. The composition also includes a libretto section that was written by Picander, a poet living during the era. The soloist, choir members, and instrumentalists in the performance were all men because, at that time, only males were allowed to present items of music in the church. Requiemis one of the major compositions of the classical period. It was written partly by Wolfgang Mozart on his deathbed in 1791 and completed by Franz Sussmayr a year later. As the name suggests, the work was composed as a funeral song for church services to repose the soul of the dead. The piece integrates the use of instruments and voices. Additionally, its structure is divided into eight distinct sections.
Similarities between the two (2) musical works. St Matthew Passionis a sacred piece and Bach intended it to be used during Christmas and Easter celebrations.

The piece has a double choir and a soloist section for string instruments and voice.

Bach uses four-part harmony in the piece.

Requiem is also a sacred work but meant for funeral services.

The composition also employs double-choir and solo presentations in sections of the performance.

Even though the piece is dominated by soprano and baritone solos, there are sections with four-part harmony.

Differences between the two (2) musical works. The piece was only performed by men because women were not allowed to participate in church performances.

St Matthew Passion is in the key of E Major with a BPM of 76.

The composition is divided into two main movements.

The piece was performed by a mixed choir. Women began to participate in church services during the Classical era.

Requiemis in the key of D Minor, with a faster tempo of 104 BPM.

The music is categorized into eight movements and is longer compared to St Matthew Passion.

Can you think of a modern artist or song that may have been influenced by each style? Eduard Ferlet is French jazz and classical musician who built his career by improvising Bach’s works (Thomas). One of his solo piano compositions, Think Bach (2012)imitates the composition style of the Baroque period. The classical styles of Mozart continue to influence the composition of modern music. Artists such as One Republic, Avicii, and John Bellion have incorporated classical elements into their music (Wildridge). The musicians have borrowed the minor and major chords and triads as used by Mozart.

Works Cited

Georges, Patrick. “Western Classical Music Development: A Statistical Analysis of Composers Similarity, Differentiation, and Evolution.” Scientometrics, vol. 112, no. 1, 2017, pp. 21-53. Springer Science and Business Media LLC, Web.

Thomas, Doug. “How Bach Has Influenced Musicians.” Interlude, 2019, Web.

Vaubel, Roland. “The Role of Competition in the Rise of Baroque and Renaissance Music.” Journal of Cultural Economics, vol. 29, no. 4, 2020, pp. 277-297. Springer Science and Business Media LLC, Web.

Wildridge, Dr Justin. “How Classical Music Has Influenced Modern Music – CMUSE.” CMUSE. 2019, Web.

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