Spartacus was a charismatic gladiator who led the great uprising of enslaved people in Italy. The slave uprising resulted from enslaved people escaping from a gladiatorial training school located in Capua, which is south of Rome. Many enslaved people joined the slave revolt to free themselves from servitude conditions in which they were forced to live. Spartacus, alongside Crixus, Castus, Oenomaus, and Gannicus, was among the leaders of the enslaved people who escaped from the gladiatorial training school and led the slaves against the roman republic. Spartacus, through his skills, made significant contributions towards the slaves’ revolt against the roman republic. However, little information is known concerning Spartacus, especially information beyond the events of the slave war. This paper will discuss the early life of Spartacus, his enslavement and escape, the slave war he led, his legacy and recognition in various parts of the world.
Plutarch refers to Spartacus as a Thracian of Nomadic stock as he is associated with the Maebi tribe (Fields, 28). Spartacus was a Thracian and had served as a soldier alongside the Romans. However, Spartacus was sold as a slave after being a prisoner. A lot concerning his early life is not in the public domain, but the name suggests that Spartacus was a Spartokids dynasty descendant. Therefore, it is clear that little is known concerning his early life. Spartacus is a symbol of rebellion despite ancient accounts explaining his life being contradictory. One of the accounts claims that Spartacus spent some of his years working as a paid auxiliary for Romans. However, after turning against them, Spartacus became a deserter, and after some time, he became a bandit, and at the end, he became a gladiator because of his body strength (Strauss, 31). Spartacus had married, and his wife’s name is not mentioned in any of the accounts despite being enslaved with him.
Spartacus received training at the gladiatorial school, which Lentulus Batiatus owned. Numerous ancient sources have shown that Spartacus was taken captive by the legions. Despite being a slave, Spartacus was a heavyweight gladiator (Strauss, 31). As a fighter, he had to live like other fighters; thus, he kept caring a large oblong shield and was always in possession of a sword he used alongside a broad straight blade.
Spartacus was among the gladiators who planned an escape from the gladiator training school, whereby around seventy slaves took part in the planning. The slaves despite being few, were able to fight their way out of the school free, seize kitchen utensils and some wagons of weapons and armor belonging to the gladiatorial school. Spartacus alongside the slaves who escaped, defeated those sent after them and recruited more slaves into their teams. The team became large in number, and they retired into defensible positions to fight against their enemy, who was once their masters. The free slaves and gladiators who escaped chose Spartacus alongside Crixus and Oenomaus as their leader in the war against the roman republic.
The Romans responded to the escape despite being hampered by the roman legions’ absence as they were engaging in a fight in the Third Mithridatic War and against a revolt in Hispania. Also, the Romans considered the slave rebellion to be more of a police matter than a war. Therefore, Rome dispatched its militia, who besieged Spartacus and his team as they had taken a defensible position in a mountain. Rome believed that subjecting Spartacus and his team to starvation would make him and his team surrender to the Roman militia. However, the militia was surprised as Spartacus and his team used ropes to move down the mountain and attacked the militia in their unfortified roman comp. In the attack, Spartacus and his men killed many militias sent to besiege them.
Spartacus-led rebels were able to defeat the expedition against them after they killed all lieutenants of the praetor commander and seized their military equipment. The success of Spartacus and his rebels’ team attracted many slaves, shepherds, and herdsmen from the region to join hands with Spartacus’s forces. Therefore, as many more people joined the Spartacus forces, the team grew and included many people from different parts of the region. Spartacus organized the slaves into ranks where some of the slaves held the rank of legion veterans. Most slaves came from the countryside in the team, meaning they came from rural areas, which made them better prepared to join and fight in the rebels’ army led by Spartacus. The army also included urban enslaved people who were considered lazy and privileged.
Spartacus, in the fight, showed the world that he was an excellent tactician, which proved he had previously acquired military experience. Spartacus was able to lead rebels who did not have military training. He defeated the disciplined Roman armies they faced by only using locally available resources and unusual skills and tactics. Spartacus and Crixus trained the recruits in the army and continued expanding their raiding activities into other territories.
The wars escalated as the rebels advanced northwards. The roman senate was astonished by the rebels’ success over the praetorian forces. The senate was propelled to dispatch a pair of consular legions under the command of Gnaeus Cornelius and Lucius Gellius. These two legions were able to defeat around thirty thousand rebels under the leadership of Crixus near mount Garganus (Shaw, 186). However, Spartacus defeated them, which prompted the senate to chare Marcus Licinius to end the rebellion as the rebels continued to pose a threat to the republic.
Crassus after being given the responsibility despite being the richest man in Rome was put in charge of eight teams with over forty thousand trained soldiers. Crassus introduced the decimation punishment on the soldiers and treated them with harsh discipline to be afraid of him. When Crassus was given the charge, Spartacus and his troops had retreated to the south, and when they were moving to the north again, Crassus deployed six teams out of his eight teams on the borders. At the same time he detached two legions with his legate Mummius to maneuver behind the rebels led by Spartacus. Mummius attacked Spartacus and his troops despite being ordered not to fight the rebels. Crassus’s teams became victorious in different engagements, which forced Spartacus and his team to move further to the south of Rome through Lucania. Spartacus encamped in Rhegium. Spartacus was then betrayed by Cilician pirates, who received payments and failed to transport him as was agreed. After a failed escape, Spartacus turned against the legions after most of his rebels were killed. He fought his last battle, and the legions defeated him.
Spartacus is recognized in almost every part of the world as a slave leader who was excellently rebelled against the masters by using locally available resources and unusual tactics to defeat Roman armies. Spartacus has become an icon in current times, especially for socialists and communists. Karl Marx explains Spartacus as a hero who is the most splendid in ancient history as he was a noble character, great general, and real ancient proletariat representative (Croix, 25). Spartacus has gained popularity and praise as an inspirational revolutionist. For instance, the Soviet Union intelligentsia was obsessed with Spartacus as a global revolutionary figure. The actions of Spartacus in leading the enslaved people’s revolt in Rome made hi to attract recognition in various aspects of life. For example, Spartacus’s name appears in many sports clubs, especially those in the former communist and soviet bloc.
In conclusion, Spartacus was a charismatic gladiator who led the great uprising of slaves in Italy despite little information about Spartacus, especially information beyond the events of the slave war. Spartacus received training at the gladiatorial school, which Lentulus Batiatus owned. Spartacus was among the gladiators who planned an escape from the gladiator training school, whereby around seventy slaves took part in the planning. The slaves despite being few, were able to fight their way out of the school free, seize kitchen utensils and some wagons of weapons and armor belonging to the gladiatorial school. The success of Spartacus and his rebels’ team attracted many enslaved people, shepherds, and herders from the region to join hands with Spartacus’s forces. Spartacus, in the fight, showed the world that he was an excellent tactician, which proved he had previously acquired military experience. Spartacus was able to lead rebels who did not have military training. He defeated the disciplined Roman armies they faced by only using locally available resources and unusual skills and tactics.
Croix, De Ste, and EM de Geoffrey. The class struggle in the ancient Greek world: from the archaic age to the Arab conquest. Duckworth, 1981.
Fields, Nic. Spartacus and the Slave War 73-71 BC: a gladiator rebels against Rome. Vol. 206. Osprey Publishing, 2009.
Shaw, Brent D. “Spartacus and the Slave Wars.” A Brief History with Documents (2001): 180-207.
Strauss, Barry. The Spartacus War. Simon and Schuster, 2009.
Smoking And Tobacco Use Writing Sample
The cigarette industry has taken over a large portion of the world economy in the past decade. There has been a significant rise in the global population of smokers due to this quick expansion. There are three common reasons people smoke: relieve stress, reduce weight, or fit in with a specific social group. In other words, since cigarettes are so physically and psychologically addicting, individuals will spend whatever it takes to keep getting more of them, according to new research on the subject. Tobacco usage is a significant issue in today’s society. People of all ages are presently using tobacco products, and the number of dependent on the drug is growing. Smoking is more common among the elderly due to addiction than among youngsters, who see it as a symbol of freedom and maturity. Cigarettes damage almost every part of the human body, causing sickness and disability due to the damage done. Despite recent attempts to eliminate smoking, it remains the leading cause of disease, disability, and death in the US. More than 34.1 million adults in the United States already smoke, with 15.3 million males and 12.7% of women now doing so. In the United States, around 1,600 individuals under 18 begin smoking each day. Tobacco use has been linked to several health problems, and this research explores the difficulties that smokers have in giving up the habit.
Why smoking should be banned
There are so many health issues associated with smoking that it’s impossible to identify them all. It is the essential risk factor for adults and adolescents to control. Chronic and acute disorders alike may be aggravated or exacerbated by smoking. To educate people about the severity of COPD, the article on “Respiratory Disease and Respiratory Physiology” uses pathos. According to the findings, COPD, a common smoking illness, maybe prevented via smoking cessaed by smoking each year, and at least 41,000 of these fatalities are due to secondhand smoke exposure. This is why I think smoking should be banned since it poses a severetion (Berend). In this well-researched essay about COPD, a condition that is still mostly unknown, statements and support from well-known experts who specialize in the topic are included. To bolster his arguments, the author cites a slew of facts on the dangers of secondhand smoke-induced ailments, including COPD. These illnesses eventually lead to death. A different estimate of 556 000 adult deaths due to extra mortality from all sources is included in the study. At least 16 million people in the United States now suffer from a smoking-related illness. More than 30 persons are left with a significant smoking-related disease for every death caused by cigarette smoking (Berend). More than 4.8 million Americans are kill danger to your health, the environment, and your wallet.
Why do smokers find it difficult to quit smoking?
Smoking cessation is a difficult objective to attain. Even those who can control their urges might quickly go back into their destructive habits since there is always a trigger that forces them to return to their old ways. Some people believe they will die if they don’t smoke, even for an hour a day. Smoking is a lifeline for people dependent on it (Hopkinson). Even if you’re motivated to give up smoking, the fear of withdrawal symptoms might make you hesitate. Addiction to it is one of the most challenging things to break. Nicotine dependence may be challenging to break even after repeated tries. When you smoke, your body becomes dependent on the highly addictive chemical nicotine.
In the same way that heroin and cocaine are addictive, nicotine is also considered. To make cigarettes more addictive, the tobacco industry has tinkered with them. Logos says that nicotine, a stimulant, may momentarily reduce feelings of worry and sadness (Hopkinson). Tension and a desire to smoke arise as the brain’s nicotine levels drop between cigarettes. Because of the calming effect of the next cigarette, quitting smoking is tough. People who are more dependent on tobacco are more prone to begin smoking in the first place, as seen by this correlation.
What are the alternatives available?
Many individuals are convinced that vaping is the most excellent way to stop smoking cigarettes for good. Cigarettes have been shown to have a significant impact on health. Cigarettes not only harm the smoker but others around them as well. As a result, quitting smoking and switching to vaping will not end the cycle of addiction that started with smoking. Although vaping looks to be a viable alternative to smoking cigarettes, it still contains toxins found in tobacco products that may be hazardous to one’s health (Marton). Many individuals feel that vaping should be the first step toward quitting smoking, yet perspectives and ideas vary between vaping and cigarette smoking. The likelihood of a person effectively stopping smoking increases when they properly use nicotine replacement therapy. Prescription drugs may help smokers quit by easing withdrawal symptoms and increasing nicotine intake cessation.
How does tobacco use benefit the economy?
The expenses of tobacco use and the costs of lowering its prevalence among smokers are both parts of the economic effect of smoking. Smoking has far-reaching health and financial ramifications for people, families, businesses, and the government that go beyond the cost of the cigarettes themselves (Mundial). We may now classify tobacco-related expenses as direct, indirect, and intangible. Smoking’s direct expenses include the health care expenditures associated with treating people who have acquired ailments due to smoking (e.g., cost of drugs and administrative services). These include GP visits, medicine prescriptions, and other expenditures associated with treating smoking-related illnesses in the United Kingdom. It’s not only government institutions and philanthropic groups that eat up resources. Low-income countries with undeveloped income tax systems get a large portion of their revenue from tobacco excise taxes. Excise taxes on cigarettes are easy to collect since cigarette manufacturers are low (Mundial). Nine to eleven per cent of government income is generated by taxes on tobacco in some nations. Even tiny sums of government money may be worth billions of dollars in high-income countries. Tobacco regulation is commonly regarded as a danger to the industry’s profitability. However, for the time being, governments worldwide are counting on higher cigarette levies to help them fund their budgets.
How does tobacco use detrimental to the economy or health sectors?
Tobacco-related ailments have exceptionally substantial medical expenditures. Smoking results in an estimated $170 billion in yearly costs for public and private health care in the United States. The cost of smoking in the United States is around 1% of GDP. Smoking-related emergency and primary care visits for adults and children are also markers of health care spending (Ries). It has been projected that smoking costs Taiwan and Hong Kong an annual health-related cost of $397.6 million and $688.5 million for adults aged 35 and over, respectively.
Smokers in Taiwan spend an average of US$70 more per year on medical care than nonsmokers. Tobacco-related health care expenses in Hong Kong rose by 23 per cent in 2013, indicating an increasing incidence of passive smoking. Smoking everywhere is expensive in many ways, and it has a significant impact on the state’s budget. Smoking-related expenses account for most overall health care expenditures, with far-reaching consequences for the economy. Smoking during pregnancy, or “maternal smoking,” has other financial implications (Ries). Health care expenses for children and the general population are expected to rise significantly as a result.
In conclusion, More than 34 million adults in the United States smoke, with 15.3 million males and 12.7% of women now doing so. Around 1,600 individuals under 18 begin smoking each day. Smoking is more common among the elderly due to addiction than among youngsters, who see it as a symbol of freedom and maturity. At least 16 million people in the United States now suffer from a smoking-related illness. More than 4.8 million Americans are killed by smoking each year, and at least 41,000 of these fatalities are due to secondhand smoke exposure.
Smoking should be banned since it poses a severe danger to your health and the environment. Smoking has far-reaching health and financial ramifications for people, families, businesses, and the government. Smoking’s direct expenses include the health care expenditures associated with treating people who have acquired ailments due to smoking. Prescription drugs may help smokers quit by easing withdrawal symptoms and increasing nicotine intake cessation. Smokers in Taiwan spend an average of US$70 more per year on medical care than nonsmokers. Smoking costs Taiwan and Hong Kong an annual health-related cost of $397.6 million and $688.5 million. Smoking during pregnancy, or “maternal smoking,” has additional financial consequences. It is evident from the information provided by the articles above that tobacco use brings serious health issues to people. Therefore, those trying to quit smoking should seek better alternatives such as smokeless tobacco, while those who have never smoked should desist from smoking.
Berend, Norbert. “Respiratory disease and respiratory physiology: putting lung function into perspective interstitial lung disease.” Respirology 19.7 (2014): 952-959.
Hopkinson, Nick. “Why Is It so Hard to Stop Smoking?” British Lung Foundation,
Marton, Hanna. “Cigarette Substitutes: How Safe or Effective Are the Alternatives to
Tobacco?”Healthdirect, Healthdirect,14Sept. 2021,https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/blog/cigarette-substitutes-how-safe-or-effective-are-the-alternatives-to-tobacco.
Mundial, Banco. “The Economics of Tobacco Use & Control in the Developing World.” Development Planning and Tobacco Control, 2014,
Ries, Richard K., Shannon C. Miller, and David A. Fiellin, eds. Principles of addiction medicine. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009.
Social Isolation Among The Elderly Sample College Essay
Understanding how social ties affect health is challenging to grasp in its entirety. A person’s health is influenced by the quality of their social connections and the quantity of those connections. An increase in research shows two elements of social relationships worth focusing on, isolation and loneliness. Adults over the age of 50 are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of social isolation on their physical and mental wellbeing (Fakoya et al., 2020). Although it is wrong to think that all older persons are alone or lonely and that aging is the sole cause of social isolation and loneliness, many variables contribute to isolation and loneliness. Older adults are more prone to experience social isolation due to predisposing conditions, including living alone, losing relatives or friends, being unwell, or having sensory impairments (Blazer et al., 2020). These are just a few examples of the many. Social isolation can be episodic or long-term, depending on an individual’s circumstances and perspectives during their life.
Incidence and Impact of Social Isolation among the Elderly
Before the current decade, few resources had been devoted to better understanding the health effects of social isolation and how it affects individuals and society as a whole, as other risk factors for health. After more than two decades of research, it has become clear that socially isolated people are more likely to die prematurely from any cause, including cancer. As a result, some proof connections may have a more significant impact on mortality risk than other well-known risk variables generally recognized and taken into account by the health care sectors.
Individuals who are lonely and isolated or lonely are more likely to suffer from health disorders that worsen their isolation (Blazer et al., 2020). Conversely, the linkages between these risk factors and the health effects they cause are true. Social isolation can have detrimental effects on health, so it’s essential to consider all variables in a person’s mental and physical wellbeing. Wellbeing, quality of life, and significant health outcomes are linked to social isolation and other measures of social connectedness.
Family dispersion, limited mobility and finances, loss of family members and friends, and poor health are all risk factors for social isolation among the elderly. As with other risk factors, including smoking, lack of physical exercise, obesity, and high blood pressure, social isolation is associated with all-cause morbidity and death with similar consequences. Loneliness has also been linked to worse immune system function, cognitive decline, and mental health issues, including depression and dementia, among other things (Fakoya et al., 2020). Even though social isolation affects everyone at some time in their lives, research shows that the elderly are more prone to these feelings. Increasing levels of loneliness among the elderly have been linked to many social changes, including less intergenerational relationships, more geographic mobility, and a weakening of local bonds.
Social isolation and loneliness have been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke and mental health issues, including cognitive decline, depression, dementia, anxiety, and even suicidal ideation and suicide, among the elderly population. Although the evidence is weaker, social isolation may raise the likelihood of developing various health issues (such as type-2 diabetes mellitus and excessive cholesterol), as well as restricting one’s ability to go about one’s everyday activities. The incidence of violence and abuse towards elderly adults has grown over the years, which is among the direct effects of being isolated (Wu, 2020). With the increase in violence, they are bound to be more vulnerable.
There are three possible explanations for the negative health impacts of loneliness and social isolation among the elderly. Individuals who are socially isolated are more likely to be stressed out than those surrounded by friends and family, which means their bodies are more likely to cope with the stress they face regularly. Second, they lead to physiological maintenance and repair mechanisms that are insufficient or ineffective. Many physical health issues, such as coronary heart disease diabetes, are linked to poor sleep quality and quantity, and poor sleep is connected with an increased risk of mortality. Social isolation and loneliness are third factors contributing to behavioral risk factors such as decreased physical activity, poor nutrition, non-compliance with medical treatment, and increased smoking and alcohol intake.
Preventing health problems before they arise is the fundamental goal of primary prevention. This can be done by modifying health habits or changing the physical environment to reduce vulnerabilities to risks (Cacioppo et al., 2015). Primary prevention for social isolation may involve public health awareness initiatives and identifying those at high risk. Community and city development for housing and communal areas that enable the gathering of people, interactions, and preventing isolation might also be considered an alternative strategy. As a result of these efforts, isolation in the population can be reduced.
Secondary prevention tries to minimize the negative effects of a sickness or a situation that has already taken place. In this example, it refers to reducing the negative effects of isolation. This intervention strategy includes development and encouragement to join support groups within the community and encourage the individuals to join volunteer groups. In the recent past, education on how to use technology has increased. The elderly can communicate with their family more often via social media and teleconferencing applications through this skill.
Post-diagnosis tertiary prevention can limit or mitigate its effects as the disease or condition progresses. Tertiary preventive techniques aim to alleviate long-term social exclusion or loneliness by addressing the underlying causes. Strategies at this level include cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), where the elderly can get counseling from experts and help manage symptoms such as stress, anxiety, and low self-esteem (Cacioppo et al., 2015). Another strategy at this level is a home visit to the elderly residences. In the visits, nurses or social workers may assess their wellbeing, provide counseling, and offer company.
Social isolation among the elderly has been a prevalent issue. Research shows that this has a direct link to their health deterioration. Among the impacts include increased abuse of the elderly, substance abuse, depression, and suicide rates (Cacioppo et al., 2015). All these impacts reduce the quality of life for the elderly. However, with intervention strategies, the isolation can be reduced. The first is to prevent by creating an environment that reduces chances of isolation. However, strategies such as support groups and volunteer programs can help if isolation occurs. Lastly, in extreme cases, therapy may be involved and home visits to offer support and counseling.
Blazer, D., Lustig, T., & Kearney, M. (2020). Social isolation and loneliness in older adults (1st ed.). National Academies Press.
Cacioppo, S., Grippo, A., London, S., Goossens, L., & Cacioppo, J. (2015). Loneliness. Perspectives On Psychological Science, 10(2), 238-249. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691615570616
Fakoya, O., McCorry, N., & Donnelly, M. (2020). Loneliness and social isolation interventions for older adults: a scoping review of reviews. BMC Public Health, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-8251-6
Wu, B. (2020). Social isolation and loneliness among older adults in the context of COVID-19: a global challenge. Global Health Research And Policy, 5(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41256-020-00154-3