Global Economic Integration And Unification Free Essay

Globalization is when a business or other form of organization develop international or start operation on an international scale. Throughout this class we talked about many different forms and kinds of globalization. I was surprised at how many different kinds there actually are and how we experience globalization in our everyday lives. Globalization has been happening since very early on. It began in the late 1400’s when people started travelling and imposing their ideas and/or lifestyles on others around the globe. There is very many forms of globalization but the main ones are political globalization, social globalization, and economic globalization. These forms of globalization are expressed in many types of ways and have been around since very early on in time. In this essay I will elaborate on different examples of globalization.

Globalization had started before this, but, I think the true start to globalization was when Christopher Columbus set out on his voyage and found America.

After this happened trade across the Atlantic was very common and was not something that was happening before. Let’s start with the Columbian Exchange. Europeans and Africans brought their plants and animals over here. Such as, wheat, rice, sugarcane, grapes, and many garden fruits and vegetables, as well as weeds where they transformed the landscape and made possible a recognizably European diet and a European way of life. Though these new plants were revolutionary, their animals were even more revolutionary. They brought horses, pigs, cattle, goats, sheep. All of these animals were new to the Americans and flourished greatly in the new environment that was mostly free of natural predators. These animals made ranching economies and cowboy cultures possible for people in the North and the South.

Horses also had a really big impact on Native societies. Specifically, natives in the North. They abandoned their farming lifestyles to go hunting bison on horseback. Through this happening, women lost their role as being the food producers and was replaced by the culture of men being hunters and warriors.

In the other direction of the exchange, American food crops such as potatoes, corn, and cassava spread rapidly and widely throughout the Eastern Hemisphere. In Europe, calories were mainly derived from corn and potatoes and this helped push the population from 60 million to a whopping 390 million. These crops also later created a cheap and mildly nutritious food source for millions of industrial workers. Potatoes also allowed the Irish population to flourish and then caused them to crash when they had a potato famine.

Meanwhile in China the popular crops were peanuts, corn, and sweet potatoes. They ate these alongside their rice and wheat and it was used to sustain a good amount of their exploding population. By the early twentieth century, American crops made up about 20 percent of total Chinese food production. In African corn was a popular one and it was an easy source of food for the cargoes of the transatlantic trade. Enough about the food.

Other American crops such as tobacco and chocolate were soon used all around the world as well. There was even manuals on how to smoke tobacco and Chinese people liked it a lot. A Chinese poet said that tobacco was the gentleman’s companion, and that it warms his heart and makes his mouth feel like a divine furnace. Tea from China and coffee from the Islamic world also spread quite globally as you would guess since we still drink both today. The societies that developed within the American colonies drove the processes of globalization and completely reshaped the world economy of the new modern era. The Atlantic slave trade brought the African peoples over here resulting in them scattering throughout the Western Hemisphere. This enormous network of communication, migration, trade, disease, plants, and animals is what the Columbian Exchange is.

Now onto the Silk Road. The Silk Road was an old trade course that went all the way from China to Europe. It went across the North borders of China, Persia, and India and ended in Europe near the Mediterranean Sea and what we now know as Turkey.

Global Interdependence: A History

Origins of Global Interdependence (1500-1800)

In the early 1500s throughout the early 1800s many countries were focused on actively exploring the world looking for opportunity to trade. Before the 1500s there had been interaction between nations, although, encounters would be much easier with advanced knowledge, as well as technology.

Europe during this time, was expanding much faster, and because of this became much more powerful than others. Europeans were looking to explore the world’s oceans for many reasons, according to the text, they were looking to: search for resources and lands suitable for the cultivation of cash crops, establish trade routes for Asian goods, and expand the influence of Christianity. Eventually, Europe’s explorations led to the expansion of the Pacific Ocean, and eventually led to a network of trade, such as the Columbian Exchange. The Columbian Exchange, named after European mariner Christopher Columbus, included the trade of plants, food crops, animals, human populations, and pathogens. As a result of the European explorations and expansions, global trade networks and international interaction became important.

However, another important event that was going on in Europe, that transformed Europe, was the Protestant Reformation. Although, the Protestant Reformation also led to the consolidation of strong centralized states and a capitalist population in Europe. The Protestant Reform was led by Martin Luther According to the text, Luther (1483-1546), with support from others, wrote many “scores” condemning the Roman Church, and as a result, called for a thorough reform of Christendom. As aforementioned, the Protestant Reform led to a Capitalist population in Europe, which according to the text, led to the restructuration of European economy and society.

Meanwhile the Americas were feeling the impact of the new international interactions. When the Spanish were attempting to find resources in the Americas, the first stop for the Spanish was the Caribbean, however, after no useful resources were found, they moved on to Mexico and Peru. According to the text, they found many agricultural societies, cities, and large states. A major factor that aided the Spanish conquest was the epidemic disease, which killed thousands and thousands of civilians, in fact, these diseases killed as much as 90% of their population. Whenever this happened, Europe was able to take advantage of the Americas, and conquer their land for their own use.

Another example of global interdependence came in the form of the Atlantic Slave Trade. The Atlantic Slave Trade consisted of Europe sending manufactured goods to Africa, in exchange for slaves. This slave trade, according to the text, removed a little over sixteen million people from home, which in turn, caused much political, and social grief throughout Africa.

Moving on to Asia, who was also participating in trade with Europe, and benefitted greatly from the Columbian Exchange. Unlike the Americas, Asia was able to be in control of their own affairs. China remained a powerful centralized state, mostly because of the Ming and Qing dynasties. A major benefit to Asia, according to the text, came from the American food crops, which “helped increase agricultural production, which fueled rapid population growth.” Also, during this time, Japan was able to end an extended period of “civil disorder,” with help from the Tokugawa shoguns, who much like the Ming and Qing dynasties in China, were attempting to stabilize society long-term.

The Islamic Empires, such as the Mughal, the Ottoman, and the Safavid empires; ruled over the Islamic World during this period. These Islamic Empires were also able to benefit and participate in the trade networks. Although, Islamic Empires, much like China and Japan, was still able be in control of their own affairs.

The modern global exchanges that occurred benefitted Europe and Asia, however the Americas felt an impact from it. According to the text for Europe, the establishment of trade routes meant: territorial expansion, population increase, and growing political and economic influence. Asia benefitted from the global exchanges as well, one example being that Asia was able to strive economically because of American silver, and they were able to strive agriculturally because of the American crops. However, the Americas felt a bad impact from the global exchange, mostly because, as aforementioned, they lost close to 90% of their population due to diseases from Europe.

Age of Revolution, Industry, and Empire (1750-1914)

During the time period from 1750 to 1914, Asia, Europe, and the Americas were able to “piggy-back” off of the profits that they gained from the global exchange movements. Although, different from the previous time period, European powers were able to control and dominate in Asia and the Americans.

The early eighteenth century gave birth to a new movement labeled as the “Enlightenment Movement,” this movement focused on emphasizing equality as well as freedom. As a result of this movement, also during the eighteenth century, many violent revolutions occurred. The first revolution came in the form of the American Revolution, and in the end, America was able to become independent. However, this was only the first revolution, as there were many more revolutionaries that happened. One of which happened in France, when revolutionaries were able to reorganize French society. Furthermore, in Saint-Domingue, revolutionaries were able to abolish slavery and get rid of French rule. Although, while this fighting was going on, Europe was able to advance national communities.

Whereas the Enlightenment movement brought the independence of western hemisphere states from Europe, they also faced some problems. One problem came from American states, who were struggling constructing a society that followed the principles of the Enlightenment, and because of this there were many problems that arose.

Revolutions played a major role during this time period, although this period is also labeled to some as the “age of industrialization.” Industrialization, according to the text, was a “process that transformed agrarian and handicraft-centered economies into economies distinguished by industry and machine manufacture.” Throughout the world, agricultural societies were turning into industrial societies with the emergence of new technology. Industrialism was so important to the world, because now goods could be produced more efficiently, quickly, and they could be produced spending less money. Some types of ways that the industrialization period was beneficial were evident in the mechanization of cotton, steel mills. Transportation also evolved as a result of the development of the steam engine.

Many benefits came from this age, although family life changed dramatically due to the fact that men, women, and even children had to leave their home for work. Before the age of industrialization families usually worked together, however this was no longer the case.

Great Britain was one of the first to step into this age, and to not be dominated, Western Europe, and North America follower, however, Asia and Latin America depended on the exportation of the goods.

Contemporary World (1914-present)

These new forms of technology and connection did not bring peace throughout the world, it only brought problems. According to the text, the growth of nationalism brought intense competition for natural resources, strategic ports, and international prestige. All of this competition, combined with ongoing disputes between nations, led to one of the most violent times in history.

The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, an Austrian, was the apparent catalyst for the first of the world wars. In the summer of 1914 World War I, the alliance system in the world tur what would have been a local war, into a European-wide war, however, not long after, the Ottoman empire and Japan joined the war. Although, when the United States joined the war in 1917, on the side of the Allies, everything changed. On November 11, 1918, the war finally came to an end.

World War I, “The Great War” to some, caused many human casualties, damaged national economies, and “altered the political landscape of many lands.” After the war, the Europeans felt that their dominance was even more secure, although this was false, and Europe lost power because of the fact that the war caused a process of decolonization. Also, after the war, according to the text, European intellectuals began to question established traditions.

However, after the Great War, the crash of the United States’ stock market brought even more turmoil to the world. The Great Depression not only hurt the U.S., but because of global interdependence, it also hurt the “international, financial, and commercial network of the capitalist economies,” and as a result, governments had to attempt to use their own resources. The Great Depression, eventually, led to the emergence of the Nazi party, which was a party based on racial inequality. Jews were the biggest victims of this new Nazi party, which was led by Adolf Hitler.

However, other places had other ways to cope with the effects of the Great Depression. The Depression caused Japan leaders to begin to build national strength through imperial expansion. However, the U.S., because of the Depression, changed their policy in Latin America because they realized how costly it was. Latin Americans eventually began to come into America for “agricultural and industrial work.”

Eventually, however, the Axis Powers (Japan, Germany, and Italy) and the Allies (France, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, China, and the United States), went to war again, causing the second of the world wars. The first actions that were taken came in 1930, with Japan’s attacks on China, making China the first to experience the effects of World War II. World War II came with many violent encounters between people from all over the world. However, in 1945, when the German and the Japanese empires were destroyed, the war came to an end. As a result, the Soviet Union and the United States were now the super powers in the world.

Immediately following the war, many European empires fell, and as a result many nations were attempting to gain independence. Many “quests” for independence, according to the text, was “realized,” because of the cold war. The cold war required a big amount of military r

In today’s time, globalization has become very important, and has led to the formation of international organizations and the irrelevance of international borders. The breakdown of these international borders came from the technological and cultural developments that have erupted.

In conclusion, there was a big amount of change that occurred in the twentieth century. As a result of the two violent world wars, the once powerful European powers, who had taken control of most of Asia and Africa, had now been weakened. Furthermore, the world is now different than it has been, in how that the entire world is connected some way because of the technological and cultural gains that have occurred.

Separation Anxiety Disorder

Picture this: you’re a stay-at-home parent to a three-year-old boy. Your spouse works two jobs to support cost of living. You both agree that it’s important to set aside time to cultivate intimacy in your marriage so your spouse takes time away from work for a romantic date night. Your normal babysitter can’t make it on such short notice, but sets up an arrangement for you with a trusted friend with great babysitting references.

Date night arrives and you reassure your son that you will only be a few hours away from him, yet he seems clingier than normal. The door bell rings and the two of you head to the door to greet the new babysitter. You introduce yourself with a bright smile on your face and before you can introduce your son, he is throwing a tantrum on the floor, kicking and screaming at the top of his lungs. The babysitter insists that date night should commence and your spouse agrees so you go about date night, worrying about your son because this is not the first time he’s had a hard time being away from you. In fact, it happens more often than not. You ask yourself what is causing his separation anxiety, how can you help him overcome this anxiety, and if there will be repercussions for this later in life.

According to the DSM-5, separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is placed under the category of anxiety disorders. children with this disorder have a lot of anxiety associated with being away from attachment figures. This can include parents and physical objects that are comforting to the child. The child exhibits low self-esteem, shyness, sensitivity, and are nervous about situations outside of their comfort zone. He or she may become overwhelmed with worry and fears about negative outcomes from being away from the attachment figure to which they cling tightly (Hooley et al, 2017). They may exhibit behavior such as tantrums and clinginess. Physiological symptoms may include stomachaches, headaches, and nausea associated with having to be apart from their attachment figure (Ehrenrich et al, 2008).

Separation anxiety does not only affect the individual diagnosed with it. It can affect the entire family dynamic, especially when siblings are involved. If the child with SAD becomes demanding of parental attention, it can take away quality time with other siblings and cause some rivalry. It can also be difficult for parents to find alone time or even time to cultivate their marriage (Ehrenrich et al, 2008).

According to Ehrenrich and colleagues (2008), SAD is thought to be caused by both nature and nurturing factors. Individuals may have a genetic disposition to anxiety in which imbalances with serotonin and norepinephrine occur (Stanford Children’s Health, 2018). It may also be a learned trait if parents have a tendency to be anxious or if they do not promote autonomy within the child. SAD may also develop following a situation that may cause grief, such as the loss of a family member or a beloved pet (Hooley et al. 2017).

In many cases, children outgrow their separation anxiety (Hooley et al, 2017). However, in some cases, this does not happen. Childhood SAD increases the risk of an individual to carry the disorder into adulthood if left untreated (Mohatt et al. 2014). Adults with a history of childhood SAD are at higher risk for developing depression, panic disorder, and agoraphobia (Ehrenrich et al, 2008).

Treatment includes medications of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in conjunction with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Together, the treatments have shown evidence of positive effects than either treatment by itself (Mohatt et al. 2014).

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