Globalisation Is Dead


Globalisation has existed since the ancient period, with notable changes in the system taking place as countries grow and develop. Michie (2019) denoted that globalisation is the interdependence of the global economies, which works through cross-border trade in products, technology, movement of investment, and information. Various nations have developed partnerships and economic groups to facilitate the process of globalisation. Policy structure that considers different countries’ economic, social, and political structures are the pillars governing globalisation. Since its beginning in the ancient era, when the movement of goods and people began, the significant impact of globalisation in the global economy took a steady path in the 20th century. Many multinational corporations function in the current global economy through the guidance of globalisation. Advanced economies such as the U.S., Canada, the U.K., and Japan have dominated the international exchange of goods and services for decades. However, the emergence of China, Russia, and India, among other emerging economies, has changed the playground in international economics by imposing a competitive advantage on various countries around the globe.

The concern is whether globalisation is dead, alive, or experiencing difficulties. O’Sullivan (2020) suggested that globalisation is dead and countries should focus on incorporating a multipolar world. As predicted by O’Sullivan (2020), the multipolar world will acquire dominance from the America, China, and European Union regions. However, that does degrade the remaining regions in the globe as they still will play a significant role in the functionality of the multipolar world. Another concern O’Sullivan (2020) raised is the monetarism activism that countries, through their financial sectors, have imposed on their economies. The derivation of political concern that surrounds the multinationals has created tension in the expansion and operations of such corporations, thereby jeopardising the normalcy of globalisation. Power (2023) established that current events, like the breakout of the Covid-19 pandemic, the Russia-Ukraine war, Brexit, and the tension between the U.S. and China, are some of the concerns that are killing globalisation.

Impact of Globalization on Marketing Strategy

Petersen et al. (2020) derived that for the period 1990-2018, Japan was the country that realised the enormous globalisation-induced growth in real gross domestic per capita, with an approximation of €1,790 followed by Ireland and Switzerland at €1,610 and €1,580 respectively. However, the report acknowledged the slight decline in globalisation since 2007, when the global economy experienced a financial crisis caused by the collapse in the housing market in the U.S. A summary of the data analysis on globalisation for 1990-2018 is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Globalization Data 2020

: Globalization Data 2020

The line graph in Figure 1 provides an overview of the decline in globalisation after the 2007 financial crisis. Also, the tabulated table gives the difference in changes in the globalisation index, with a significant depreciation occurring after 2007 as indicated in the nine list countries of Netherlands, Ireland, United Kingdom, Germany, USA, Romania, Japan, China, and India. With the changes in globalisation depicted by Petersen et al. (2020), the urge to narrow its influence on marketing strategy is vital as Naghi (2013) denoted that the contemporary companies that produce products for global consumption face stiff competition in the international market that demands dynamic global marketing activities. The process has created consistent amendments to the marketing policies and agreements between countries. Governments have introduced regulation measures to trade, with others like Russia imposing a total burn on genetically modified food products from sales in the country. Such adjustments in restriction, along with geopolitical status, impose a significant threat to globalisation.


Mathew (2023) established that globalisation comprises the interconnectivity and independence of global businesses, which requires an international marketing strategy to function effectively and efficiently. Countries apply different marketing plans that cover price, product, distribution, and cultural strategies. In the effect of opportunities, globalisation significantly influences contemporary businesses as they seek to enlarge their reach and capitalisation. Therefore, as globalisation supports, some existing opportunities in the international marketing strategy include increased competition, consumer awareness, new technology, cost reduction, and expansion of reach.

With the increased flow of information between countries, globalisation has created vast opportunities to explore the invention of new technology. Technology-augmented production is the current norm in various economies. Countries like China, Japan, the USA, and the United Kingdom, among other countries, are trending as the leading applicants and inventors of new technologies in the market (Dechezleprêtre et al., 2011). Access to various technologies has created new and effective marketing techniques and is efficient in covering a large population of the globe. Some of the better marketing techniques include introducing digital marketing with connectivity through digital gadgets and the Internet of Things. Bala and Verma (2018) denoted that digital marketing is flexible and cost-effective, with the target population enlarged, unlike traditional marketing techniques. Digital technologies have created marketing process automation that applies new marketing technologies through globalisation.

Globalisation creates the opportunity for firms to reduce costs or production. Through trade and interaction by the movement of people from one region to another, the companies can access production raw materials from various countries, which creates a negotiation advantage for that raw material and further lowers the production cost. Human capital is another vital input in producing goods and services (Ferguson & Reio, 2010). With the help of globalisation, human capital has been moving from one country to another, and people learn and acquire vast production skills, which regulates production costs through lowering wage rates (Brown & Lauder, 2001). Mathew (2023) denoted that outsourcing material and labour creates marketing aspects that reflect on the quality of final products. Also, technology has supported efficient marketing that lowers the cost of resources applied to impose fair prices on commodities in the global markets.

Globalisation creates increased competition for businesses through access to multiple markets worldwide. The stiff competition forces firms to develop compelling marketing strategies that differentiate them from their competitors. As firms compete on the global rather than the local stage, they intend to adjust their product quality to match the stiff competition and gain market advantage. The theory of comparative advantage applies in such cases as firms tend to major in producing those commodities they hold the advantage in to ensure they capture new markets and expand dominance in the existing markets (Mathews, 2002). In addition, businesses must pursue trends in the global market to stay ahead of the possible competition. With the urge to remain competitive in the global market, businesses have to work brilliantly and complicated in the presence of competitors that also intend to copy any new idea that gives an advantage in the market.

Another opportunity provided through globalisation is increased consumer awareness. The movement of products and people between various countries creates an increased audience targeted by the producers. Global digital connectivity has created the opportunity for commerce, which is vital in boosting the growth and development of countries. With access to a broad market through e-commerce, the marketing strategy influences product prices as consumers can choose to buy goods from one country to another (Le & Liaw, 2017). The possibility of moving goods directly from production units to consumers through the connections of e-commerce is a game changer in the marketing strategy for companies and consumers. Consumer awareness increases the bucket for choices of goods and services. Therefore, consumers are likely to choose goods and services of preferred quality, as depicted by their ability to purchase such products.

With the derived globalisation opportunities and their relations to international marketing strategy, the other side of the analysis that posits that globalisation is dead provides the threats to globalisation with such focuses based on the contemporary situations that have created fear of depletion of globalisation.


Several threats have emerged that are making globalisation seem impossible in contemporary society. Concerns related to political instability, protectionism, nationalism, pandemic, climate change, and income inequality are imposing a deathbed for globalisation (Agwu, 2021). Even though the situation worsens, countries are making progressive agreements and friendships that can consolidate the trend for future trade patterns. The need for new international economic order is viable as countries depend on each other for survival.

Globalisation faced an upsetting situation during the breakout of the Covid-19 pandemic. The pandemic caused the close of businesses and the movement of people from one country to another also stuck as people embraced the lockdown policies introduced by various governments as the mitigation procedure for combating the spread of the Covid-19 virus (Debata et al., 2020). The pandemic not only closed globalisation but also disrupted the domestic production process. The global economy was set on depression, negatively affecting production, investment, and social aspects of life. Statista Research Department (2023) reported that even though it is hard to derive the exact damage caused by covid-19, the approximate show that in 2020, the global gross domestic product (GDP) decreased by 3.4%. However, the economic recovery in 2021 saw the global GDP increase to US$92.3 trillion from US$84.54 trillion in 2020. With such a positive recovery trend, the globe experienced another unexpected shock ignited by political instability between Russia and Ukraine.

Political instability covers a variety of conflicts between countries, regions, or at worse global conflicts. Such conflicts include civil wars, terrorism, and regional wars, which all negatively influence trade. The current political instability that has affected globalisation is the Russia-Ukraine war. The conflict has ignited oil price shock in the international market (Ben Hassen & El Bilali, 2022). Since oil is a significant input in the production of goods, the cost of production has increased and subsequently increased prices of commodities worldwide. Such influence directly relates to the international marketing strategy because businesses have to adjust their price strategy to meet the cost of production and maintain the market advantage. The political instability has changed the trade treaties between countries, like the case of Russia and the Western region, in which the West has imposed sanctions on Russia to reduce its political power and manage the conflict in Ukraine. However, such policy affects other countries that trade with Russia in various capacities making the entire globalisation a complex process to facilitate in the current world.

Climate change is another serious threat to globalisation. The impact of climate change on the production of food and other manufacturing products is a concern that the world has noticed, and it is working on the mitigation processes that champion clean energy in the production process (Mills, 2009). Food shortage that has resulted from climate change has ignited price strategy in international marketing. With producers targeting to make profits, the need to adjust food prices because of low supply is an economic basis from the laws of demand and supply. The theory of market equilibrium posits that whenever the supply is low, the prices of commodities shoot upwards because of the increased demand. Climate change, particularly global warming, threatens people and deters them from moving across the world. The basics of globalisation denote that the process involves the movement of people from one region to another as they facilitate the exchange of goods, technology, information, and culture. However, in the presence of global warming, people will fear travelling to severely affected regions. The current global warming situation is the instance of Italy’s prevailing temperatures rising for the better part of 2023 (Gayle, 2023).

Protectionism and nationalism are other forces that can terminate globalisation today. Countries have launched a trend of imposing tariffs, quotas, and import bans on various commodities. For instance, Russia has banned the importation of GMO food in the country (Peter, 2015). Such moves have limited globalisation more negatively. Nationalism through movements or sentiments can hinder globalisation. For instance, the sentiments by China about the dollar’s dominance in international trade have ignited a global debate that has seen countries like Russia, Brazil, and India, among others launching new trade agreements that do not involve transactions in dollars (Admin, 2023). The concern about income inequality that can persist because of globalisation threatens the system. Globalisation can induce wages to drop in advanced economies while maintaining low wages in developing economies (Stockhammer, 2013). Since governments work through fiscal and monetary policies to control wages in a manner that seeks sustainability, globalisation can challenge such initiatives and make developed countries lose their worth in the labour market.

Practical Recommendations

With the current concerns about globalisation, such as the impact of climate change, geopolitics, the hegemony of dollar and euro currencies, protectionism, and nationalism, globalisation is in limbo. A practical move to save the international market requires the constitution of a new system that caters to every country globally to draw benefits and manage their economy in a more structured manner. Some practical recommendations that can save international trade with attributes of international marketing taken into consideration include the removal of dollar hegemony, the embrace of technology, and the global redress of climate change, among other measures that can sustain the functionality of the international market.

Establishing new currencies for regional and global trade should be the priority. Currently, the U.S. dollar is the dominant currency for international trade. In fact, for several years, the dollar has been attached to the oil trade globally. Until recently, countries like Russia and China dropped oil transactions using the dollar and now apply Yuan (Aizhu, 2023). Other developing countries intend to join the trend and formulate bilateral means of trading without applying the dollar as the intermediate means of exchange of goods and services in the market. Regional trade involving countries within the same continent should apply a common currency to transact goods and services. Therefore, continents like Africa, Asia, and South America can each create a single currency that every country can apply, just like the case in the U.S., where the dollar applies in every state, and the management of the monetary system lies with the federal bank.

The global mitigation for climate change is an imminent concern that every country should join by contributing resources to ensure that the process of launching clean energy is realised by 2050. Industries should engage in carbon control and other pollution controls that have deteriorated the ecosystem. Even though countries cannot contribute equal resources to facilitate the mitigation process, countries with vast capacities, like the U.S., U.K., Japan, and Canada, among other G7 members, and the BRICS members, should lead the process. Furthermore, the need to embrace new technology, like using electric vehicles instead of fuel combustion vehicles, is a trend that can regulate carbon emissions and control for further deterioration of the global climate.

In the face of protectionism, introducing regional markets is another solution to embrace the functionality of the international market. Since regions can function with a single currency as proposed in the first stage, the urge to avoid a solitary market is a direct link to an international marketing strategy through which the members of a given region, like the case of the U.K. market, provide multiple market choice that can sustain producers and consumers if globalisation fails to function. Therefore, regions like Latin America, the Middle East, Africa, and Asia can form a regional market structure that allows for trade with a single currency, which is not the dollar or euro, as has been dictated in the past by the dominance of the dollar in the international market.

The ongoing geopolitics in different parts of the world requires a harmonious approach to settling disputes and embracing peace and unity. The exploitation that some countries like France and the U.S. have remitted to regions like Africa and the Middle East should stop because those invasions, which those powerful do in the course of mining minerals, have ignited constant conflicts in some countries. For fair trade, advanced economies like the U.S., the U.K., and other Western powers should allow the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and Latin America to conduct mining for the minerals in their countries and then trade them on a fair marketing scheme that does not involve exploitation and geopolitics.


For an extended period, globalisation has provided significant growth in the world. The expansion created by international marketing has helped multinational corporations to function effectively and efficiently as they can access materials for production and a ready market for the produce. Globalisation has given consumer awareness to which the advantage relies on the consumption choices made by consumers in the market. A direct link for the control of product, price, people, and place in the marketing strategy applies globalisation initiatives. The availability of various products in the markets through globalisation affects the price strategy in international marketing. Also, the product strategy, particularly the production quality, depends on the provision of inputs through the supportive model of globalisation. Therefore, globalisation holds a significant positive impact on the international marketing strategy, and it is viable for countries to formulate new mechanisms of embracing globalisation instead of letting it die as purported by the new trends in the world of trade.

In the contemporary view, globalisation is dead. The collapse of globalisation arises from geopolitics, climate change, protectionism, and the pandemic, among other challenges that have imposed the decline of globalisation since the 2007 financial crisis. The tension between China and the U.S. has triggered the multipolar system where various countries are now emerging to support either side of the trade giants in the world. Currently, China is fighting the U.S. dollar hegemony while maintaining the lead in the product market. The U.S. has controlled the money market for several years, and its economy depends on the dollar’s applicability in international trade, particularly oil trade. With the challenging effect coming from China, Russia, and India, among other emerging economies, the fate of globalisation is still being determined. Therefore, the need to formulate a new multipolar order for international trade is viable, considering the tensions in the global market. The prevailing situation, like protectionism and nationalism, has also created a split in the functionality of globalisation as developing countries now call for bilateral trade deals that they demand should hold countries at equal levels for fair trade. Therefore, with an imminent solution to the existing problems in international trade, globalisation is alive.


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Agwu, F.A. (2021) ‘Globalisation, populism, nationalism and the African Continental Free Trade Area’, Foreign Policy in the Age of Globalization, Populism and Nationalism, pp. 261–339. doi:10.1007/978-981-16-3372-0_7.

Aizhu, C. (2023) Vast China-Russia resources trade shifts to Yuan from dollars in Ukraine falloutReuters. Available at: (Accessed: 30 July 2023).

Bala, M. and Verma, D., 2018. A critical review of digital marketing. M. Bala, D. Verma (2018). A Critical Review of Digital Marketing. International Journal of Management, IT & Engineering8(10), pp.321-339.

Ben Hassen, T. and El Bilali, H. (2022) ‘Impacts of the russia-ukraine war on Global Food Security: Towards more sustainable and resilient food systems?’, Foods, 11(15), p. 2301. doi:10.3390/foods11152301.

Brown, P. and Lauder, H. (2001) ‘Education, Globalization and Economic Development’, Deregulierung der Arbeit — Pluralisierung der Bildung?, pp. 31–53. doi:10.1007/978-3-322-97487-7_3.

Debata, B., Patnaik, P. and Mishra, A. (2020) ‘Covid-19 pandemic! it is impact on people, economy, and environment’, Journal of Public Affairs [Preprint]. doi:10.1002/pa.2372.

Dechezleprêtre, A., Glachant, M., Haščič, I., Johnstone, N. and Ménière, Y., 2011. Invention and transfer of climate change–mitigation technologies: a global analysis. Review of environmental economics and policy.

Ferguson, K.L. and Reio, T.G. (2010) ‘Human Resource Management Systems and firm performance’, Journal of Management Development, 29(5), pp. 471–494. doi:10.1108/02621711011039231.

Gayle, D. (2023) Italy’s disasters suggest the climate crisis is at the gates of EuropeThe Guardian. Available at: (Accessed: 30 July 2023).

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Healthcare Disparities; Annotated Bibliography On Healthcare Disparities

Overview of Healthcare Disparities

Disparities have been a concern in healthcare for quite some time, as they are influenced by historical, social, and structural factors that result in unequal health outcomes and treatment for different communities. While there are numerous definitions of “healthcare disparities,” Ndugga and Artiga (2023), define them as “differences in healthcare and health across people’s groups resulting from larger inequities.” At the same time, CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) defines these disparities as avoidable differences in violence, injury opportunities, diseases, and burden due to achieving optimal health experiences across marginalized and socially disadvantaged ethnicities, races, and other communities. As a result, discrepancies in healthcare are frequently dependent on geographic location, handicap status, age, ethnicity, race, gender, and financial status.

Ethical concerns, academic pursuit, and seeking equity and social justice are some of the motivators that have developed my interest in the healthcare disparity topic. Access to quality healthcare is a critical human right, and the existence of disparities challenges this notion and infringes the ethical considerations prompting them to seek ways to ensure equal healthcare opportunities for all. Also, it is critical to uphold equity and social justice across all aspects of society, including healthcare; healthcare disparities disproportionately impact vulnerable and marginalized communities. Therefore, to address the issue of healthcare disparities, this paper presents an annotated bibliography of four scholarly peer-reviewed articles from the google scholar database.

Andraska, E. A., Alabi, O., Dorsey, C., Erben, Y., Velazquez, G., Franco-Mesa, C., & Sachdev, U. (2021). Healthcare disparities during the COVID-19 pandemic. In Science Direct (Vol. 34, Issues 3, pp. 82-88).

Andraska et al. (2021) examine the healthcare disparities that emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic. They focus on the crisis’s effect on vulnerable and marginalized groups, for example, racial and ethnic minorities and low-income individuals with pre-existing health problems. The study sheds light on the unequal distribution of healthcare resources and the resulting discrepancies in COVID-19 results through a comprehensive evaluation of current literature and data analysis. The authors give a brief and clear outline of the present status of healthcare discrepancies, detailing the elements that add to unequal access to healthcare services and clinical treatments during the Covid-19 era. The study, published in Science Direct as a scientific publication, is based on reliable sources and employs a strong technique in examining accessible data. However, the study’s reliance on existing data may only partially represent the complexities of healthcare inequities throughout the fast-shifting pandemic. Future studies could benefit from adding qualitative methodologies and real-time data collection to grasp the difficulties.

Lee, L., Whitley, K. S., Puckrein, G., & Banks, S. (2019). Reducing Health Care Disparities in Sickle Cell Disease: A Review. In Public Health Reports (Vol. 134, Issues 6, pp. 599-607).

In this analysis published in Public Health Reports, Lee et al. (2019) analyze healthcare disparities in Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) and examine potential ways for eliminating these variations. Before delving into the variables that lead to medical care differences in this specific situation, the authors feature the disproportionate burden of SCD on minority populations, especially African Americans. The study gives a well-structured assessment of fundamental barriers that add to discrepancies in medical services access and quality for individuals with SCD. These barriers include inadequate provider knowledge and training regarding SCD, limited access to specialized care centers, and systemic racism within the healthcare system. Drawing attention to these issues, the article sheds light on the complexities of addressing disparities in SCD management and treatment. One of the key strengths of this review lies in its emphasis on potential solutions to mitigate healthcare disparities in SCD. The authors propose proof-based intercessions, for example, carrying out socially competent care models and laying out patients-centered clinical homes. These suggestions could further develop well-being results for SCD patients and dispose of existing disparities in care.

Morales, D. A., Barksdale, C. L., & Beckel-Mitchener, A. C. (2020). A Call to Action to address rural mental health disparities. In Journal of Clinical and Transitional Science (Vol. 4, Issues 5, pp. 463-467).

Morales et al. (2020) address the critical topic of rural mental disparities, advocate actions to address these disparities and provide choices to enhance rural mental healthcare. The examination was published in the Journal of Clinical and Transitional Science, and it offers a logical and evidence-based perspective concerning the subject. Morales et al. (2020) address the issues that individuals in rural, for example, restricted access to medical care, lack of the necessary skills and experts, the stigma that accompanies finding support, and insufficient cash for mental healthcare services. They take insights at the studies that have proactively been finished on mental health disparities and stress that it is so critical to utilize targeted interventions to decrease the impacts of these disparities. “A Call to Action to Address Rural Mental Health Disparities” adds significantly to the body of knowledge on healthcare disparities. Its in-depth research and practical solutions make it an indispensable resource for anybody attempting to comprehend, advocate for, or alleviate mental health inequities in rural communities. The publication of the work in the Journal of Clinical and Transitional Science provides legitimacy to its findings, making it a significant resource for healthcare and mental health academics, policymakers, and practitioners.

Yip, K., & Navarro-Millan, I. (2021). Racial, Ethnic, and Healthcare Disparities in Rheumatoid Arthritis. In National Library of Medicine (Vol. 33, Issues 2, pp. 117-117).

Yip and Navarro-Millan (2021) explore what racial and ethnic variations in healthcare are impacted by rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). The study looks at how RA is managed, frequently occurs, and how serious it is in different locales utilizing information from the Public Library of Medicine. The authors inspect expected supporters of these disparities, including financial position, access to healthcare services, social standards, and prejudice from the healthcare experts. The study stresses how crucial it is to deal with and lessen healthcare discrepancies to ensure fair patient health outcomes. The authors urge for improved policies, interventions, and patient-centered care approaches to alleviate the effects of healthcare disparities on varied groups affected by RA by shedding light on current inequities. This study contributes to a better understanding of healthcare inequities and the need to implement targeted interventions to achieve health equity in rheumatoid arthritis management.

Potential Interventions

Over the decades, health inequality has proved to be among the leading challenges across the healthcare field. Therefore, the challenge must be tackled using appropriate social and health policies involving all the stakeholders. According to CDCP (2022), potential intervention approaches include utilizing federal goals, community health improvement plans, Triple Aim’ for populations, and patient advocacy efforts (CDCP, 2022).

Federal Goals

Goals are powerful but simple ways of motivating communities and people’s priorities. Therefore, Federal goals and intervention approaches can be crucial in eliminating health disparities by coordinating efforts across different levels of government and various sectors. Federal agencies ought to collaborate to distinguish healthcare discrepancies that should be tended to, like differences in accessing medical care, illness prevalence, or health results among various racial groups, and lay out measures to resolve the issue. These aims should be distinct and time-bound to act as an establishment for activity.

Community Health Improvement Plans

CHIP are collaborative, action-oriented plans that bring together multiple stakeholders, such as community members, healthcare professionals, local governments, and other organizations, to address health challenges and improve health outcomes in a specific community (CDCP, 2022). These plans can be useful in identifying and reducing health inequities. Community people and stakeholders must be included in the planning and decision-making process for the success of CHIPs. This approach ensures that the interventions produced are culturally appropriate, relevant, and directly meet the needs of those affected by health inequalities. Community feedback can assist in influencing the plan’s priorities and strategies.

“Triple Aims” for populations

The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) created the “Triple Aim” concept to help healthcare companies enhance health system performance. The three goals are to improve the patient care experience, increase the population’s health, and reduce per capita healthcare expenses (Norman, 2020). Healthcare organizations and communities can work cooperatively to eradicate health disparities, promote health equity, and improve general population health and well-being by including the “Triple Aim” framework, specifically focusing on populations and health inequalities.

Patient Advocacy Efforts

Patient advocacy intervention techniques are critical in eradicating health disparities because they empower and enable patients, particularly those from poor or marginalized communities, to navigate the healthcare system, get appropriate care, and advocate for their rights (Heath, 2017). To that end, patient advocates can identify and remove hurdles to healthcare access for disadvantaged people, such as financial barriers, transportation challenges, language barriers, a lack of health insurance, and inadequate healthcare facilities in neglected areas. The efforts of advocates ensure patients’ access to healthcare services.


From the above discussed, it is evident that healthcare disparities are complex issues influenced by historical, social, and structural factors, resulting in unequal health outcomes and treatments for different communities. The research has highlighted the significance of access to quality healthcare as a fundamental human right, prompting the need to seek ways to ensure equal healthcare opportunities for all and uphold equity and social justice. The development of the annotated bibliography has stressed the need for targeted interventions, evidence-based solutions, and patient-centered care models that emerged as essential to mitigate these discrepancies. Furthermore, the research recognized the importance of considering qualitative methodologies and real-time data to understand evolving healthcare disparities comprehensively. Developing this annotated bibliography has deepened the understanding of healthcare disparities across diverse fields, their underlying factors, and the urgency to address them with comprehensive and equitable solutions.


Andraska, E. A., Alabi, O., Dorsey, C., Erben, Y., Velazquez, G., Franco-Mesa, C., & Sachdev, U. (2021). Healthcare disparities during the COVID-19 pandemic. In Science Direct (Vol. 34, Issues 3, pp. 82-88).

Morales, D. A., Barksdale, C. L., & Beckel-Mitchener, A. C. (2020). A Call to Action to address rural mental health disparities. In Journal of Clinical and Transitional Science (Vol. 4, Issues 5, pp. 463-467).

Morales, D. A., Barksdale, C. L., & Beckel-Mitchener, A. C. (2020). A Call to Action to address rural mental health disparities. In Journal of Clinical and Transitional Science (Vol. 4, Issues 5, pp. 463-467).

Ndugga, N., & Artiga, S. (2021, April 21). Disparities in Health and Health Care: 5 Key Questions and Answers. Racial, Equity and Health Policies.

Yip, K., & Navarro-Millan, I. (2021). Racial, Ethnic, and Healthcare Disparities in Rheumatoid Arthritis. In National Library of Medicine (Vol. 33, Issues 2, pp. 117-117).

Norman, A. (2020, March 1). What you should know about health care’s triple aim. Verywell Health.’sthreeareas,thehealthofpopulationsoverall

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022, November 25). CDC – Assessment and plans – community health assessment – STLT gateway. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Heath, S. (2017, January 31). Effective patient advocacy starts with strong relationships. PatientEngagementHIT.

Research Paper: Effectiveness Of Lie-Detectors In Criminal Justice

Part 1

Principally, technology was meant to increase human efficiency. However, incorporating technology in specific industries has elicited significant controversy and heated debates. For instance, the adoption and incorporation of neuroscientific technologies in the criminal justice system have drawn criticism and praise in equal measure. A polygraph test, commonly known as a lie detector test, is a criminal investigation procedure that involves recording and analysis of human stress indicators such as heartbeat rate, perspiration, blood pressure, and skin conductivity to establish possible intentional deceit. Usually, the polygraph examiner analyses the vital signs graph for every question to detect potential lies. The procedure was developed as a technological alternative to the traditional oral interrogation used in most jurisdictions. The continued use of polygraphy tests in criminal investigations has attracted mixed reactions. Antagonists of the procedure emphasize that the technology is scientifically flawed and mental and psychological torture that violates fundamental human rights. On the contrary, pro-technologists insist on the accuracy of the procedure compared to traditional practices. Amidst the claims and counterclaims, the big question remains, “How effective is polygraphy in criminal justice?”

Discussions around the effectiveness of the lie detector test have stretched to its effects on the victims’ moral behavior on subsequent tasks. According to a study by Peleg, Ayal, Ariely, and Hochman (2019), feedback from polygraph tests leads to less dishonesty, thereby reducing intentional deceit in criminal interrogation. In this study, the researchers sought to establish the impact of moral reminders on human behavior by subjecting participants to mock polygraph tests similar to those carried out during criminal investigations. The study’s findings show the lie detector induces self-signaling, which invokes past behavior to affect future moral standards. The researchers further established that though the human mind is naturally inclined to maintain a positive moral self, there are equally natural tendencies to gain from unethical behavior. The resultant conflict creates a psychological tension known as ethical dissonance, which inhibits dishonest behavior if sufficiently substantial.

Peleg, Ayal, Ariely, and Hochman (2019) further argue that the design of lie detectors increases their accuracy and efficiency in lie detection. The idea behind creating the technology was to develop an alternative approach to lie detection with reference points. The previous analysis largely depended on reports given by investigation officers. Despite the qualifications and competence of such officers, some reports exhibited attempts to incriminate innocent victims and collusion between victims and officers to produce favorable determinations. Hence, lie detector technology incorporates several aspects that make it more accurate and credible. For instance, besides psychological manipulation, people undergoing polygraphy tests are meant to believe that their responses to the various questions asked by the interrogator will be independently analyzed and verified by an infallible lie detection machine to generate feedback. In other words, the fear of potential detection through machine-generated feedback compels victims to remain as truthful as possible, thereby helping the examiner to establish truths from lies by analyzing the psychological indicators. However, machines are only used in some of the processes. As a result, polygraph tests in mock juror studies often have no consequence on the final verdict.

While supporting polygraphy as an effective technology in lie detection, Peleg, Ayal, Ariely, and Hochman (2019) equally point out that the technology may be ineffective in some circumstances. For instance, psychological manipulation occurs in several ways. In some cases, the victim may be threatened with losing mental stability. Other cases of psychological manipulation involve instances such as witness coaching, where one is trained to respond to certain questions. Finally, the test environment may also be designed to intimidate the victim, thereby manipulating him psychologically. In all the conditions stated above, the polygraph recordings will not be a truthful representation of the victim’s stress indicators. Consequently, the accuracy and credibility of the technology will be compromised. Therefore, the effectiveness of lie detectors combines several aspects, some of which are only known to polygraph analysts, giving room for potential manipulation to get a predetermined outcome.

The accuracy and effectiveness of polygraphy cannot be generalized since such parameters change from one group to another. For instance, in an article by Schindler et al. (2020), the four contributing researchers argued that the technology is more accurate and effective in lay people than offenders and criminals. According to the study, people with criminal backgrounds have better manipulation skills and can successfully mask stress indicators even when telling lies. While investigating the effectiveness of the lie detector on establishing truth from offenders, the authors established that laypersons often hold stereotypic beliefs about deception cues but do not pay any attention to such when undergoing polygraphy tests. As a result, the decree of the accuracy of polygraph tests for laypersons is significantly high, especially for offenders undergoing their first test.

On the contrary, liars, repeat offenders, and seasoned criminals often show few deception cues, leading to undetected deceit. Therefore, the effectiveness of lie detector technology in criminal justice should be subject to establishing criminal history, which limits its application. For instance, during interrogation, establishing criminal history is one of the factors under investigation; the interrogator seeks to establish the relationship between the current offense and the offender’s previous involvement. As a result, the lie detector becomes less effective if its accuracy is tied to pre-established criminal history.

Sustained criticism of the lie detector technology and its application in criminal justice is evident in a research article by Kotsoglou (2021), where the researcher referred to the technology as zombie forensics regarding its application in Wales and England. Unlike other articles on the effectiveness of polygraphy in criminal justice, the article by Kotsoglou (2021) takes an entirely legal perspective to expose the weaknesses and technical illegalities of the procedure. In the introductory remarks, the author reckons that despite evident structural and logic-grammatical inconsistencies in polygraphy, the technology has always found its way back into the public discourse as a toolkit of the Wales and English criminal justice systems. For instance, while lie detectors are extensively used in Wales and England’s criminal justice systems to extract information from released offenders, there is a legal cloud around the technology. According to the author, the presupposition in England and Wales’s criminal justice systems that lie detectors can detect deceit is founded on an obsolete psychological paradigm. Secondly, the author argued that the legal requirement that expert evidence must be sufficiently founded on reliable scientific claims further rules out the admissibility of polygraph evidence in a criminal process. Lastly, the author claims that the admission and use of polygraph tests infringe on released offenders’ rights and expose the public to criminal behavior.

Amidst the endless ethical and legal debates around polygraphy, scholars have undertaken practical studies to establish the effectiveness of the technology. An article by Yu et al. (2019) is based on an experiment to develop polygraphy’s effectiveness in detecting passengers ferrying illegal items. In the two experiments, the researchers sought to explain the extent to which polygraphy can correctly identify criminals in transit using their psychological responses about possible cargo being transported by travelers. The assumption in the two experiments was that guilty passengers would often exhibit guilt-related responses. In contrast, passengers without illegal items show steady answers without significant alterations during the polygraph tests. Using a population of 78 randomly selected participants, the study found that polygraphy can effectively differentiate between common passengers, drug traffickers, and terrorists using their psychological responses to critical crime-related questions. For example, the researchers established significant heart rate accelerations and peak-to-peak amplitude of GSR indicative of guilt in committing certain crimes targeted by certain questions.

Nevertheless, the study equally established that polygraphy can incorrectly identify one as innocent if one committed a crime that is not directly related to the questions being asked. As a result, a second guilt condition is required to enable polygraphy to differentiate between multiple crimes. As a result, the article recommended additional discriminant analysis to increase detection accuracy.

Another article by Brennen and Magnussen explores the prospects of the practical applicability of lie detectors in criminal justice. According to this article, researchers generally agree that no single simple verbal; clue can be used to detect deceit explicitly. The article mainly focused on verbal clues as an element of polygraphy that helps detect lies. According to the authors, comprehensive meta-analysis has confirmed that verbal clues can effectively discriminate between true and false statements. However, the reliability of such clues is circumstantial. For instance, even with automated verbal clues detectors of deception and complex computational techniques, machines cannot fully describe the human cognitive system.

Consequently, the application of polygraphy in lie detection is limited to the nature of the information required and the individuals involved. The authors concluded that polygraphy needs to avoid “the ossification of canon,” often associated with tendencies for technical fields to develop voluminous literature that makes it almost impossible to challenge the status quo. According to the authors, verbal detection in polygraphy is mainly pegged on using experimental psychology to respond to questions of high practical importance alongside an unwillingness to accept outcomes of solid science. As a result, polygraphy results based on the interpretation of verbal clues only offer optimism on lie detection without providing a commanding conclusion.

Part 2

The principal objective of any criminal justice system is to uphold justice and fairness. As a result, the need to ensure criminal proceedings are founded on substantial and credible evidence has broadly been cited as the strongest pillar of justice and fairness in criminal justice. Naturally, one would expect all stakeholders within the criminal justice system to embrace any technology that seeks to increase efficiency in criminal investigations and the accuracy of collected information. However, polygraphy, primarily hyped as a significant technological breakthrough in lie detection, is yet to offer the required efficiency and accuracy. Despite the considerable gains from lie detectors, there is a need to address some inherent flaws that limit the reliability of the technology in criminal investigations.

Principally, technology is an indispensable component in every sector of modern society. Despite criticism, lie detectors have significantly improved criminal systems’ justice and fairness. For instance, according to Peleg, Ayal, Ariely, and Hochman (2019), the mere introduction of technology in criminal investigations has significantly reduced dishonesty, especially when the victim’s or suspect’s moral integrity is in question. The beneficial outcomes of lie detectors are mainly pegged on overcoming human errors in criminal investigations. For instance, unlike traditional oral questioning, lie detectors provide data for future reference, thereby eliminating potential personal bias leading to the criminalization of innocent individuals. Secondly, polygraphy has significantly increased credibility in criminal investigations. At any given time, there is always a reference point between the recorded polygraphy readings and the victim’s natural data (pulse, blood pressure, heartbeat rate). Therefore, one cannot claim to have been framed or taken out of context. Hence, regardless of the minor flaws and weaknesses, the reliability and performance of the lie detectors are tied to the circumstances under which the technology is recommended and the nature of the truths under investigation.

Contrary to the dominant public perceptions, polygraphy is only a partially machine-executed process. According to Peleg, Ayal, Ariely, and Hochman (2019), lie detectors work on neuroscientific technology, which combines machine capabilities and psychological manipulation. As a result, the accuracy and reliability of the technology are more tied to the victim being cross-examined than the technology itself. For example, for first-time victims, the belief that the polygraph machine will independently generate results to detect truth and lies significantly affects their behavior during interrogation. For instance, the guilty and innocent often try to be as truthful as possible to avoid incorrect profiling by the machine. While the guilty try to remain honest to avoid potential “legal wrath” for lying, the innocent equally remain truthful to avoid criminalization despite their innocence. The biggest test of the technology comes from repeat offenders with previous experience. For instance, anyone with prior knowledge that the detection of lies and truths in polygraphy is based on human analysis and interpretation of the graphical changes in heat beat, blood pressure, skin conductivity, and other stress indicators can easily manipulate the technology to get a favorable result. As a result, lie detectors are only partially perse. However, criminal justice systems cannot implement them as independent technologies. Existing literature has shown that such technology exhibits inconsistencies likely to trigger investigative errors and criminal injustice.

The contributions by Kotsoglou (2021) present another side of the lie detector technology that has attracted extensive legal criticism; the legal admissibility of lie detectors. As previously stated, lie detectors are based on psychological manipulation and physiological responses. Peleg, Ayal, Ariely, and Hochman (2019) further emphasized that the outcomes of the polygraphy tests significantly impact the victim’s morality. The most significant legal question becomes; at what point is polygraphy admissible as an investigative tool in a criminal investigation? Based on the nature of the admission of polygraphy tests and some of the established impacts on the victim’s mental well-being, the technology must be administered to a particular group of criminals who either keep changing their statement versions or are unlikely to tell the truth when subjected to conventional procedures. Such decisions may often require a court order alongside a comprehensive mental examination report before admission. However, in most jurisdictions, such as Wales and England, polygraphy is often deployed as part of the ordinary tools for collecting information from suspects and victims. Worse still, the polygraph test results in such jurisdictions are considered cardinal truth to constitute the foundations of subsequent criminal proceedings despite the glaring inconsistencies and weaknesses of the technology.

Similarly, existing literature has proven that lie detectors cannot be entirely approved as technological solutions to truth detection in criminal justice systems. While the principal objective is establishing the truth and initiating subsequent legal procedures based on such truth, lie detectors are equally bound to lie. According to Schindler et al. (2020), lie detectors are more effective in laypeople with a natural phobia of technology than in repeat offenders and knowledgeable victims with either previous experience with the technology or a clue about the working principles of the lie detectors. Consequently, it is possible for some culprits to successfully and consistently prove innocent on polygraph tests when guilty. How can the above loophole be rectified to increase lie detectors’ efficiency, credibility, and accuracy? Principally, criminal justice cannot be implemented as an automated process where machines are programmed to collect information, process data, and give verdicts; there is constant human intervention at every point.

Consequently, the same interventions should be maintained even with the introduction of technology in criminal justice. For instance, before admitting the tests, efforts should be made as much as possible to retrieve data on the victim’s previous criminal records, mental health, and involvement in incredible activities. While the above information may not give a holistic criminal profile, it is critical in analyzing polygraphy results to detect potential lies presented as truths.

Analysis of existing literature indicates two significant research gaps regarding adopting and incorporating lie detectors in criminal justice systems. First, there is a need for research on the analysis and interpretation of polygraph test results. Technological changes often require additional skills and knowledge to implement and manage such technology effectively. For lie detectors, competent analysts must have a combination of criminal investigation skills and training in human psychology. Hence, there is a need to research the adoption procedure of lie detectors in criminal systems and the personnel managing the technology. For instance, some of the shortcomings of the technology could be tied to human weaknesses in handling the technology. Secondly, systematic rigidness can hinder the success of lie detector technology in criminal justice. Hence, there is a need to research systematic and structural readjustments in the criminal justice system regarding incorporating polygraphy in criminal investigations.

Researching the analysis and interpretation of polygraph test results is also necessary to determine truths and lies. According to the current literature, an increase in heartbeat, pulse rate, blood pressure, and skin conductivity are interpreted as potential signs of deceit. On the other hand, a steady or insignificant change in the parameters above is regarded as truth. In some incidences, verbal clues support the results of analyzing stress indicators. While the above practices are consistent in several jurisdictions, it is worth noting that changes in stress indicators are not necessarily tied to truths and lies. For example, changes in one’s health may trigger stress, whose exhibition is no different from what manifests during polygraph tests. Secondly, a victim who resolves to let fate take control may exhibit similar results on polygraph tests as an innocent person. Such individuals are neither shaken nor frightened by what awaits them, which leads to insignificant changes during lie detection tests. As a result, there is a need to research the criminal and psychological techniques used to make determinations in polygraphy to increase public awareness and support of the technology of criminal justice.

In conclusion, criminal justice is a susceptible legal sector due to its implications on the lives of the affected persons. Just like incomplete investigations can significantly affect the verdicts in criminal cases, wrong and manipulative procedures may equally lead to the criminalization of innocent victims. As a result, the criminal justice system must be flexible enough to adopt robust and efficient technologies to increase the credibility and accuracy of judicial verdicts. However, there is a need for caution in embracing technology, especially where the practice has significantly identified flaws likely to compromise the criminal justice system. Lie detectors are only partially new gadgets in modern criminology. In some jurisdictions, such procedures are implemented as mandatory processes in criminal investigations. In such technologies, the criminal justice system has been designed to embrace technology with human aids, to monitor and periodically review outcomes for improvement. Consequently, jurisdictions intending to adopt and implement polygraphy as part of their criminal investigation procedures must train sufficient personnel and implement adequate checks to avoid potential manipulation and abuse of technology for selfish interests.


Brennen, T., & Magnussen, S. (2022). The Science of Lie Detection by Verbal Cues: What Are the Prospects for Its Practical Applicability? Frontiers in Psychology13.

‌Kotsoglou, K. N. (2021). Zombie forensics: the use of the polygraph and the integrity of the criminal justice system in England and Wales. The International Journal of Evidence & Proof25(1), 16–35.

Peleg, D., Ayal, S., Ariely, D., & Hochman, G. (2019). The Lie Deflator – The effect of polygraph test feedback on subsequent (dis)honesty. Judgment and Decision Making, 14(6), 728-738. doi:10.1017/S1930297500005441

Schindler, S., Wagner, L. K., Reinhard, M., Ruhara, N., Pfattheicher, S., & Nitschke, J. (2020). Are criminals better lie detectors? Investigating offenders’ abilities in the context of deception detection. Applied Cognitive Psychology.

‌Yu, R., Wu, S. J., Huang, A., Gold, N., Huang, H., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2019). Using Polygraph to Detect Passengers Carrying Illegal Items. Frontiers in Psychology10(322).