Choy (2020) described Google Merchandise Store as an online store run by Google selling Google-branded merchandise. Besides, Google Merchandise Store sells merchandise or goods coming from other Google brands like YouTube and Android. According to Emma (2018), Google Merchandise Store was established on 11 March 2015 selling various lifestyle products, clothing, and stationery worldwide. This paper will give a quantitative analysis of the Google Merchandise Store Website’s digital performance utilizing various instruments and digital theoretical techniques. To meet this, the report will provide a well-detailed argument on the web accessibility and User experience assessment, analysis of social listening and state of media engagement as well as analysis of social media sentiments or comments in the Fashion/Merchandise industry. Moreover, the report will incorporate a detailed assessment of data collected from the Google Merchandise Store’s analytic account applied in assessing the operation state of the store taking a strategic digital marketing standpoint. Besides, the report provides recommendations to Google Merchandise Store on improving fashion/merchandise sales in the future.
2.0 Comparison of Accessibility and User Experience or UX Analysis of Two Players in Fashion/Merchandise Industry with Google Merchandise Store
2.1 Apple Store
Bernd (2020) stated that there are particular User experiences or UX interface values that can be applied in optimizing the user experience and maximizing adaptations. The Apple Store comprises of retail stores chain retained and run by Apple Inc. Apple stores engage in selling various Apple products inclusive of iPhone smartphones, Mac personal computers, iPad tablet computers, Apple TV digital media players, Apple Watch Smartwatches, software, as well as Apple-branded and various selected third-party accessories (Bernd, 2020). Apple Inc is a software giant that utilizes branding strategies like a concise copy, neutral colors, and others in providing users with a plane experience while on the firm website. Apple has excellently provided users with a unified experience when using the Apple Store website via the use of design strategies such as the F pattern, white space, concise copy among other techniques. Some of the ways Apple Store designs its website take into mind user experience (Perri, 2018).
One of the designs is highlighted as “less is more, especially on the homepage.” In this case, Perri (2018) argued that it turns out to be easier for the website users to become overwhelmed especially where there is much-taking place on the website. Flashy design techniques such as slideshows, pop-ups, and the animated intro screen have the likeliness of causing a distraction to the real crux of the site, thus driving away from the users before starting a search for what they require. Apple’s website stands by the maxim, “Keep it simple, silly” (Perri, 2018). After one enters the website and sees the homepage, they receive greetings with white space and simple, visually pleasing imageries. After approaching the website, the eyes of the users are attracted to the first image which is the new iPhone X that is hyperlinked to the informational page and presents the user the option of purchasing the product (Bernd, 2020).
Figure 1 showing the homepage of the Apple Store Website
Source: Perri (2018).
Besides, at the Apple Store homepage, the user can find the navigation menu that directs one to the desired support section or product. Rather than having various navigation layers before users reach their desired products, Apple Website has provided the user with a menu having the exact thing they want, an indication it prioritise functionality and does away with middlemen (Perri, 2018).
Figure 2 showing the Apple Website navigation menu
Source: Perri (2018).
After users scroll further on the Apple homepage, they come across concise copy integrated with a few images introducing the most popular or new products. Users are redirected to find the information they require to enable extra discovery with no information overload(Perri, 2018). With the simplified design, users are allowed to have the capacity of navigating the website easily while lowering the bouncing rate, thus increasing users’ likeliness of making purchases.
Figure 3 showing Apple page details of a new product or most demanded product
Source: Perri (2018).
Another core feature about Apple Website design is the “F Pattern layouts and varied font sizes that maximise on scan-ability” (Perri, 2018). The Apple website has been designed in line with the F-Pattern which helps the users in skimming the web content. The feature has the name “F” which is an indication that it encourages the viewers to read the content either scanning horizontally, scanning vertically, learning more on the subsequent sections, and continuing reading down the left side vertically (Shirley, 2020).
Figure 4 showing different ways Apple website user can read the web content
Source: Perri (2018).
In the case of Apple’s website, the use of the F-pattern has helped in accomplishing various things. Ganotra (2020) noted that most of the Apple web users tend to start reading from the top left corner, where the Apple logo is found for establishing brand identity. In addition, the navigation bar is placed at the top of the screen all through as well as on the product pages whereas the second navigation bar provides a list of products in their respective category (Perri, 2018).
The other significant feature about the Apple website regards to “responsive design that increases the conversion rates whereas decreasing bouncing rates”(Perri, 2018). Apple has been able to maintain the design integrity of its website UI consistently all-over various devices. Besides, Apple has been diligent by maintaining a fast page load time which provides users with a seamless experience.
Figure 5 taken from iPhone 6 where user finds where to learn about iMac Pro and making direct purchases from the website
Source: Perri (2018).
2.2 Amazon Prime
According toAriella (2020),Amazon Prime is a predictable, usable, and expected platform with psychological reasons to why users are addicted to shopping like convenience and anonymity. One core design of the Amazon Prime website is easier learnability which regards the aspect of visibility and feedback. Amazon Prime has well-implemented elements that well communicate activity to the platform users in a simple manner.
Figure showing the aspect of Amazon Prime learnability
Source: Ariella (2020).
Ariella (2020) provided a mapping example applied in the application, especially where the user has the capacity of controlling the scrubber bar via moving the finger right or left for easier rewinding or forwarding parts of the track.
Figure showing a mapping example in the user application
Source: Ariella (2020).
Ariella (2020) highlighted the aspect of affordance which has been won by Amazon. An example of this is the website design offering the “add to cart” and the ill-reputed “buy it now” buttons. In this case, these buttons have been slightly raised to allow the platform users to understand that they need to be pressed like a button as it could be for a non-digital product.
Figure showing the affordance aspect of Amazon Prime website
Source: Ariella (2020).
Another aspect is memorability, which from the product page, the website visual design has designed principles and elements creating and enhancing streamlines memorable flow. Actions, objects, and options are available which allows the shoppers to effortlessly circumnavigate their ways while shopping (Ariella, 2020). Besides, the platform provides satisfaction to users which is enhanced through simple surveys to the customer regularly. The simple survey helps in measuring the user’s satisfaction level which has enhanced communication with customers, thus improving user loyalty and improved retention.
Figure showing Amazon Prime product page
Source: Ariella (2020).
Another crucial website design that has enhanced user experience is inclusion. According to Ariella (2020),Amazon has a vision of becoming the Earth’s most customer-centric firm, and the firm has worked hard to ensure there are easier ways for disabled customers to enjoy everything offered by Amazon across firm services, devices, and more. The page is considered as the gateway for accessibility feature with the ability to improve the Amazon experience. Besides, Ariella (2020) indicated that the Amazon website tends to be accessible while the firm has extended efforts to enhance the shopping experience for visually impaired users. Ariella (2020) highlighted that the Amazon Prime app is screen-reader friendly following the adoption of other accessible features like voice search option, instant alerts, one-button access, and direct links for Amazon callbacks.
Figure showing Amazon Prime homepage
Source: Ariella (2020).
3.0 Social Listening and the State of Social Media Engagement in the Industry
Social media according to Clark (2020) has been an extension of various brands and an excellent place for brands to experience growth and leverage community power. Several brands in the merchandise and retail industry have used social media platforms in attracting customers and increasing revenue. In the industry, social media has been a crucial driver of online sale growth. Besides, social media has emerged as an essential part of the merchandise retailing businesses since it provided access to a vast audience base and exceptional engagement levels (Clark, 2020). However, for some of the merchandise retail business, social media has become complicated since several brands have engaged in active competition for a spot in the user feeds. Clark (2020) stated that 90% of the merchandise firms have demonstrated that marketing via social media has helped in increasing their business exposure. Despite this, retail merchandise firms are preferring walk-in customers in brick-and-mortar stores.
Various measures are used in collecting data. Some of the metrics are relevant hashtags, brand mentions, industry trends, and competitor mentions (Garrett, 2010). Clark (2020) noted that social media for the retail and merchandise businesses allows listening to the customer base and learning more about the customers. Such can be leveraged by replying to the customers and making the best out of the conversations on social media. The conversations are assessed and demonstrated through social listening to give an insight into the prospect’s personality interests, traits, and challenges.
4.0 Analysis of Social Media Comments in the Industry
Social media listening has helped firms in the industry to have a better understanding of what their audience desires from the brand. For instance, a customer can tweet detailing how they love a particular product (Clark, 2020). In addition, a company can come across a conversation where the customer could be in search of solutions offered by a firm product or service. In the merchandise and retail industry, Zappos can be taken as an example since it is well known for its legendary customer services as well as consistency in social engagement with fans.
Figure showing a tweet by a customer about Zappos
Source: Newberry (2021).
Moreover, Zappos has been keeping an eye out for conversations especially where users give recommendation for the form as an alternative shoe shopping platform. The firm tends respond using positive comments or additional recommendations. Newberry (2021) argued that social listening has to do with insights on what customers highlight about a brand or product. In addition, it is about what people say about rivals and the industry. Such gives an essential understanding of the marketplace. A conversation can demonstrated a gap in the market which a firm can take advantage off. Discovery of the new opportunities and threats helps in planning and responding in real-time (Clark, 2020).
In addition, customer feedback as stated by Newberry (2021), are guide resources for the business growth. Through active collection of customer feedback, merchandise retailers are informed on the needs of their audience. Customer stories need to be explored via online interviews on social media. Customer feedback are at the heart of social media especially in the merchandise and retail business (Clark, 2020). Ability to reach out the customers individuals will help in opening up a conversation which should start through open-ended questions. For example, Imprint Products is a gifts and clothing brand with capacity of putting their customer reviews on the brand Instagram page. In every review, the firm ensures it tag the product on the customer giving the review which ease potential customers shopping from the Instagram.
Source: Newberry (2021).
5.0 Analysis of Google Merchandise Store Data
Digital Analytics Measurement model or DAMM can be used in analysing Google Merchandise Store Data. Using the DAMM model, the firm website and business objectives can be elaborated in converting them to measurable metrics. The metrics vibrate with the final managerial objectives of the firm and have the ability to objectively assess the efficiency of Google Merchandise’s digital performances. In addition, coming up with the model enhances the digital tool to stay relevant and accurate over time. From the table below, there is a detailed description of the model citing three different areas of Digital Marketing. All through the analysis, a steady solution has been developed for the achievements’ possibilities.
|DAMM for Google Merchandise Store|
|Business Objectives||Understanding customer desires and preferences and aligning firm value proposition.||Providing the final customer experience for stimulating customer loyalty and increasing Customer Lifetime Value or CLV.||Increasing sales level and maximization of the firm margins|
|Website Goals||Driving relevant and efficient traffic to the firm website||Improving customer satisfaction and visitors purchase experience||Make the e-commerce platform as user friendly and effective as possible|
|KPIs||Cost per acquisition
Number of visits
|Average order value
|Targets||Increasing number of user visits of 30%
Reducing CPA of 2%
|Increasing repeat visits of 25%
60% of page depth >1
|Increasing conversion rate of 3%
Increasing the average order value by 25%
|Payable search purchasers and non-purchasers|
On the other hand, Google Analytics Implementation Audit is a tool applied in revealing the significance and functionality of particular measurement metrical for assigning the overall score to the website digital tracking apparatuses. Taking consideration of the Google Merchandise Store, some of the key metrics used in tracking relates to forming completion tracking and transaction tracking. In this case, the transactions tracking is related to the purchases made whereas the form completion tracking relates to the eCommerce forms that are filled at the checkout procedure. It remains crucial for the firm to have an understanding of the products purchased by the customers from the store and determine the process part customers halt or leave unfulfilled. Presently, the aspect of tracking the transactions has been functioning efficiently whereas there is not sufficient visibility from the user end on the way the form completion is deep in tracking works in determining the conclusive score for the tracker.
Besides, some other crucial metrics relate to goal setup, account setup & governance, funnel setup, Adwords and campaign tracking, event tracking, product brand tracking, and site search tracking. For the firm website, tracking of campaigns, Adwords, the funnel, and site quests tend to work as described. As a result of the simplistic aspect of the campaigns, data hardness tends not to be optimized but fails at tracking the issue moderately campaign issues. Apart from the issue, the trackers tend to work as projected and do not demonstrate any issues.
For the case of goal arrangement, event tracking, and product brand tracking, there exist core improvements that must be set out. Since the firm has the interest of opening up to reach a wider audience, goals must be established comprising more details to attain clear segmentation of the audience and highlighted the desired audience. Event and product brand tracking are active despite various entries being under the “not set” container thus rendering monitoring relatively upsetting mainly for the new viewers. In the case of account arrangement and ascendency, the nature of the Google ecosystem website, controlling the score and status for the tracker tends not to be exclusively founded on the merchandise store, thus there are no regulated weight and score allocated.
Finally, the resolute “nice-to-have” metrics are used for tracking error page tracking and code deployment tracking. The website has previously used tracking codes for various instances like the foundation of traffic, merchandise observing behaviors, and trailing for opinions of withdrawn or inaccessible pages. Nonetheless, organized tracking codes can be reentered for the avoidance of irregularities and inconsistencies in reporting.
Going down to Google Analytics data, four core perceptive pieces of information need to be enhanced, addressed, or transformed. In the website Dashboard, some graphic representation demonstrated relevant data that has been further investigated in Key Insight Analysis.
Figure showing Google Merchandise Store Dashboard
5.1 Insight on Target Market Personification
Objective: Target Market Personification
Precedence Level: High
|Some of the Key Trends and Insights:
The number of men visitors surpass the number of women in all the age groups
The revenue from the male visitors is demonstrated to be high than that of female visitors
There are similar revenue levels excluding the age group of 34-44 years
Audiences aged between 25 to 34 years represent the largest group followed by audiences aged between 18 and 24 and those aged between 35 and 44 years.
The method used to visit the website greatly depends on the technology that is regularly used by audiences aged between 25 and 34.
The design and method used to connect with and user experience reflects the age bracket of 24 and 34 years.
The merchandise provided tends to meet men’s demands, desires, and interests.
Redirecting the campaigns and aligning them with 25 to 35 age brackets
The goal is to increase the count of male visitors aged between 25 to 34 years
Target, in this case, is increasing the number of male visitors aged between 25 to 34 years by 10 percent (this will be from 25,000 to 27,000) within three months.
The method relates to the A/B Test;
A relates to Current Website Design whereas;
B relates to Male aged between 25 to 34 years of age, with key interest focusing on the item as highpoint (largely the technology, media, and entertainment).
The supposition being precise high-pointed item pitched in the direction of the strongest demographic calls for 25 to 34 male users by increasing it by 5 percent.
Website being Home Page Update
The goal is keeping or ensuring visitors bounce back or return from the home page
Key Understanding: From the insight, it is evident that the majority of the visitors are men aged between 25 and 34 years and have an interest in the section of technology, entertainment, and media.
The goal, in this case, is to open the Website to the general public, thus the need to understand the present audience which can help in building the core target customer of the Google Merchandise Store. Thus, it remains essential to get prepared for future advertising determinations and Website development in line with the key audience.
Individuals aged between 24 and 34 years comprise the most audience visiting the firm website. As noted, the audience is associated with the most revenue for the firm’s website. Thus, the strategies and methods used to connect with the age group need to be accustomed accordingly. This incorporates the ads applied on different platforms, websites, and website designs.
Part of the recommendation act regards the need for Google Merchandise Store to indicate items that are of interest to the audience aged between 25 and 34 years, particularly the male segment of the age group. In this age group, the determined items are technology, entertainment, and media types which are greatest searched thus giving the sense of being demonstrated.
5.2 Insight on Count of Visits per Demographics
Objective: Shift count of visits from 1 to 2 – 5
Priority Level: Medium
Key Trends & Insights:
From the analysis, most of the website visits 67.42% was from the audience viewing the website once within 3 months.
At least 25 percent of the visits were from users making a return to the website for 2 times to 5 times
Revenue for every visit increased while more visits were being made
Revenue per visit was only $0.63
Revenue growth per visit maximized at the fifth visit by the user at $6.71 every visit.
Six or more visits demonstrated a varied revenue and visitor numbers were very small.
Extra visits past the first visit could lead to a potential gain in the revenue
Revenue at the first visit started at $0.63
Maximum revenue growth per visit is $6.08, which is at the fifth visits
Minimum revenue growth every visit is $1.53 at the second visits
In addition, 48.8% of the total revenue was from visitors who returned to the website at least 2 to 5 times.
Visitors who viewed the site at least two to five times accounted for 25.57% of the visits.
Revenue coming from the segment was half of the total revenue.
Revenue accounted for visits that surpass five visitors remain high than one visit but it is challenging to forecast as a result of fluctuation.
Target increasing the points of links, especially for the advertisements and the target audience as well as other payable and non-payable efforts.
The goal, in this case, is changing the count of visits per visitor from the first to second to fifth visits.
The target is to increase 30 percent of the total visits within twelve months.
To attain this, the method to use is introducing advertisement on Google platforms such as Waze, Google Playstore, YouTube, among others.
Key Understanding: People visiting the website more than one held higher revenue per visit
From the insight, it can be noted that the majority of the Website visitors only visited once and contributed 67.42 percent of the total visits. The other proportion of 32.58% of visits is associated with visitors coming to the website at least more than one time. This can be broken down to demonstrate that 25 percent of the visits were from viewers who made a return to the website at least two to five times, thus representing the treasured part of the audience.
Besides, it can be noted that the number of one-time visitors was several than the case of repeated visitors. However, on average, visitors making more views spent almost $1.53 and could go to $6.71 per view. Besides, the top number of visits was in the range of two to five since most of the visits beyond this demonstrated a declining revenue per view.
On the part of recommended action, the Google Merchandise Store needs to consider increasing points of contact or links between advertisements and target audience together with other payable and non-payable efforts. The objective of the effort is to ensure the visitors make more returns to the firm website or make at least more than one visit from the initial view. Google Merchandise Store needs to increase the total number of visits from two to five repeat users to almost 30 percent in the next twelve months. Such can be met by the introduction of advertisement campaigns mostly on Google Platforms like Waze, YouTube, and the Google Playstore.
In the report, the Google Merchandise store’s digital performance has been demonstrated. Using the Digital Analytics Measurement model, for aligning Google Merchandise Store with the firm purposes and having awareness of the successful measures. Besides, things have been narrowed down by focusing on the firm website functionalities as well as the digital tracking tools via coming up with the Implementation Audit. Also, data on visits and marketing acquisitions was explored which has helped in finding useful insights for the firm management. In addition, the insights were directed on establishing inventive, treasured, and quantifiable optimization or growth arrangements in core categories of audience demographics, paid campaigns, and traffic networks.
Garrett, J. J. (2010). Elements of user experience, the: user-centered design for the web and beyond. Pearson Education.
Emma, A.W., (2018 March). The Ultimate Guide to Google Analytics for UX Designers. [Online] Retrieved from: https://uxdesign.cc/google-analytics-ux-alice-emma-walker-958d6f0f0af3
Perri, J, (2018 June). 4 Website UX Design Takeaways We Can All Learn from Apple. [Online] Retrieved from: http://marketing.sfgate.com/blog/4-website-ux-design-takeaways-we-can-all-learn-from-apple
Bernd, B, (2020 May). 8 Things I Learned Analysing Apples Product Pages. [Online] Retrieved from: https://uxplanet.org/8-things-i-learned-analyzing-apples-product-pages-9a5284681b37
Shirley, E, (2020 June). How Apple Created the World Best e-commerce Experience During Covid-19. [Online] Retrieved from: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/how-apple-created-worlds-best-e-commerce-experience-during-shirley/
Ganotra, K, (2020 August). Redesigning the Apple Music Experience- A UX Case Study. [Online] Retrieved from: https://uxdesign.cc/ui-ux-case-study-apple-music-redesign-46ff1f433363
Ariella, G., (2020, Sept). Usability, Accessibility, and Ethics- Amazon Prime. [Online] Retrieved from: https://uxmag.com/articles/usability-accessibility-and-ethics-amazon-prime
Choy, D, (2020 Oct). Web Analytics on Google Online Merch Store. [Online] Retrieved from: https://nycdatascience.com/blog/student-works/googlin-merch-data-analysis-of-google-merchandise-store/
Clark, S., (2020 October). What Can Social Listening Do to Improve CX? [Online] Retrieved from: https://www.cmswire.com/customer-experience/what-can-social-listening-do-to-improve-cx/
Newberry, C., (2021 November). What is Social Listening, why it Matters, and 10 Tools to Make it Easier. [Online] Retrieved from: https://blog.hootsuite.com/social-listening-business/
Carbon And Energy Management Sample Assignment
Carbon (greenhouse gas) emissions and management of energy have developed a major precedence in the process of making decision for organisation worldwide, with the firm European legislation framework being a key driving force (Giama and Papadopoulos, 2018, pp. 21-29). As a result, reducing energy demand and selecting solutions that result in low carbon are among the key priorities for most governmental and non-governmental organisations in Oman. These solutions aim at helping the organisation, and the government of Oman, in general, meet its carbon or greenhouse gas emission targets, minimize the extent and the impacts of climate change, and a most significant reduction in the costs of operation. However, many companies and organisations face challenges in estimating their carbon footprint (Giama and Papadopoulos, 2018, pp. 21-29). In addition, it is also challenging to link the results resulting from the process of evaluation of the environment with an integrated management system for energy, which will ultimately lead to a solution that is energy-efficient and cost-efficient.
Carbon management can therefore be described as steps and processes that are advanced to measure and manage the emission of greenhouse gas within an organisation and extend the reduction of these gases beyond the organisation. It involves internal activities within the operation, consumption of products or services of the organisation and, eventually, incorporates issues related to understanding and integrating available carbon data into the strategic organisational decision-making process (Morris and Govier 2021). On the other hand, energy management is the processes and strategies involved in tracking and optimizing energy consumption to conserve its usage in buildings and facilities. A few steps are involved in the energy management process. These include gathering and analyzing constant data identifying optimizations in equipment schedules, setpoints, and flow rates. Therefore, energy and carbon management are critical in identifying the main means and strategies to minimize emissions, cut costs, and ensure compliance with the statutory requirements.
Therefore, this research paper will investigate carbon and energy management in schools within Oman. School buildings, just like many buildings around Oman, are rapidly aging and becoming more and more inefficient, resulting in pointless emissions of carbon and a high cost of utilities. Beyond Oman, buildings and other school facilities can offer some of the most cost-effective energy management and carbon abatement opportunities (Odell, Rauland, and Murcia, 2021, p. 46). However, very few schools focus on quantifiable energy management and carbon reduction. This is disdain to the mounting emphasis on sustainability of schools in Oman, and hence, there is a notable gap in the literature in this area.
Seeb international school is a British Curriculum School catering to approximately 1318 students aged 3 to 18 years from 36 nationalities. The school is located in Al Khoud, Seeb, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, and offers several activities that use energy and emit carbon to the environment. Therefore, this research paper will select Seeb International school as a case study to analyze its energy and carbon management strategies.
Scope of Study
This research paper covers energy and carbon management in Seeb International School and will review the carbon footprint adopted by the school in enhancing its carbon and energy management strategies. The study will review the three scopes; scope 1, 2 and 3 of carbon footprint.
Aim of the Study
This study seeks to establish carbon and energy management adopted by Seeb International School. Therefore, the research paper will evaluate the school’s carbon footprint, taking into account calculations under Scopes 1, 2, and 3.
- Carbon emission
- Greenhouse gases (GHG)
- Energy management
- Carbon footprint
- Climate change
2.0 Critical Evaluation
This section of the research paper will incorporate a critical evaluation of carbon and energy management of Seeb International School. The section will consider carbon footprint calculations; Scope 1, Scope 2, and Scope 3.
Carbon footprint concept has over the years become a broadly utilized term in the public debate on management and reduction action of carbon and other greenhouse gases against the threat of change in climate in the recent past. It has had an incredible increase in public presence over the last few years with the increase in interest in climate conservation. It is now a buzzword largely used in governments and media. Carbon footprint, therefore, is defined as the measure of the effects human activities, either directly or indirectly, have on the environment, particularly on climate change (Müller et al. 2020, p.29). It relates to measuring or quantifying the entire greenhouse emission in a particular region or institution due to human activities undertaken with the regions or institutions. Quantifying carbon or greenhouse gas emissions is critical in helping understand what key emission sources are available with an area of interest, how an organisation donates to regional and worldwide emissions, and the opportunities are available for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
When undertaking carbon footprint by an organisation, it can be broken down into the various parts of greenhouse gases to indicate the relative significance of the distinct greenhouse gas sources. Below is an example of a breakdown that can be adapted;
Fig 1: Chart indicating an example of the organisational breakdown of carbon footprint
The chart above shows the percentages of each human activity contributing to the carbon footprint. From the chart, electricity, being mostly used, contributes a bigger percentage (37%) of the greenhouse emission of the environment followed by consumption of gas. With such information emanating from the computation of carbon footprint, an organisation can easily and effectively achieve control and management of carbon footprint. Therefore, carbon footprints are essential in the following manner;
- To categorize which human activities donate the most towards carbon footprint. This is critical in identifying the most significance areas for emission decrease efforts. For instance, from figure 1, electricity contributes the highest percentage of carbon footprint hence being a priority area.
- For setting a target for the process of emission reduction.
- The carbon footprint computation can be done over time; hence, it is important to quantify changes in carbon emissions over the period and screen the effectiveness of lessening activities for effective decision-making.
An organisation can then come up with a carbon minimization plan, recognizing ways to minimize its footprint and bound emissions from possible future human activities and quantify the what progress the organisation.
Once the organisation’s carbon footprint is calculated, it can be reported internally or externally. There are unlike kind of carbon footprint, e.g., for organisations, individuals, products, among others. These distinct types of footprints have dissimilar methods of computation and boundaries of computation. They include organisational assessment, product assessment, and other types of carbon footprints. This research paper will focus on the organisational assessment of carbon footprint as it involves the calculation of carbon footprint with a school.
The Organisational assessments of carbon footprint involve quantifying or measuring the direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions related with a particular organisation, for instance, a school. In this case, Seeb International School is a particular organisation in which the research paper seeks to establish its carbon footprint. Under organisational assessment, direct emissions results from the burning of fossil fuels in organisational-owned vehicles or equipment and greenhouse gases that escape from the organisation’s facilities, such as refrigerant gas. On the other hand, indirect emissions are all due to the activities of an organisation but which result from amenities, equipment, or vehicles owned and controlled by other. For instance, the consumption of electricity by an organisation causes carbon emissions at the generating plant indirectly, which is owned and controlled by another organisation other than the organisation in question. According to convention greenhouse gas reporting (Greenhouse Gas Protocol Standard), Organisational assessment categorizes emissions into three distinct categories, i.e.,
- Scope 1: Emissions under this category are direct emissions
- Scope 2: Emissions under this category are regarded as indirect emissions.
- Scope 3: Emissions under this category incorporate all the other indirect emissions associated with the activities and operations of the organisation, such as business travel (Guillermo, Rocío and Sebastián, 2019).
In the computation of Seeb International school, all the three mentioned scopes will be considered as the activities of the schools can be distributed in all the scopes. For instance, the school owns vehicles used in day-to-day activities, thus necessitating scope 1. The school uses electricity purchased from electricity suppliers in Oman, which can result in emissions; hence scope two and lastly, business travel activities of the school fall under scope 3.
Direct emissions that result from the activities and operations of an organisation and which can be controlled by the organisation. Examples of emissions under this scope include on-site fuel burning, refrigerant losses, and institution owned equipment and vehicles. For Seen International School, Scope 1 will include company-owned vehicles and refrigerant gas losses. For the school-owned vehicles, over one year, the vehicle travels a distance of about 100000km consuming 7.5 liters for every 100km. Therefore, the carbon footprint will be computed as follows;
Figure 2: CO2 emitted per unit of energy consumed by the school
100km = 7.5 litres
The school-owned vehicles consume diesel. From figure 2, CO2 emitted per 1 liter of diesel unit is 2.7 kg; therefore, the carbon footprint from school-owned vehicles will be;
Figure 3: Refrigerants gas loss for the year
From the table, the refrigerants gas loss results in a total greenhouse gas emission of 3456.40125 kg hence the scope one calculation of Seeb International school will be as follows;
Scope 2 accounts for Indirect emissions from any electricity among others the school purchase and utilize in its operations. Although it might not control the emissions directly, it is indirectly accountable for the release of CO2 to the environment by consuming such energy.
Figure 3; Indirect loss of CO2 consumed by the school
Since the emission emanating from consumption of electricity purchased by the school accounts for scope 2 of the school, the total scope two emissions for the school will therefore be;
7939.62kg of CO2 for the years.
Any other indirect emissions of greenhouse gas from sources not within the direct control of the institution. Examples of Scope 3 emissions include outsourced transportation, particularly air transport of the school staff and heavy-duty trucks. Therefore, scope three computation will be as follows;
Figure 4: Carbon footprint resulting from heavy trucks hired by the school
Scope 3 calculation of carbon footprint of heavy vehicles will be 8888.8 CO2 kg/year
Table 5: CO2 emission resulting from air travel for the one year
The scope three calculation of the carbon footprint of the school will therefore be as follows;
3.0 Issues Related to Carbon and Energy Management
Carbon and energy management is key stewardship towards attaining sustainable development and natural resources since it aims at enhancing better climate and availability of natural resources for both todays and future generations. Under carbon and energy management, green space, technology, and renewable resources are key. For instance, solar as a source of energy will ensure minimal depletion of natural non-renewable energy sources facilitating sustainable development and natural resources (Hannan et al. 2018). However, in balancing the needs of the generation today and that of the future, several issues and challenges tend to come up. These issues range from the consumption of energy and improving energy efficiency. In managing energy and carbon emissions, Seeb International School experiences several issues, including;
- Energy Consumption and efficient energy use
Energy such as electricity and energy generated from the consumption of fuel fossils are heavily utilized by the school. Over the years, the school has invested in using non-renewable energy sources in driving its activities and operations. However, the school has advanced the use of clean energy by implementing green spaces to facilitate the efficient use of energy over the recent past. The cost of implementing the use of green energy by the school poses a great challenge to today’s generation as it has to incur all the expenses in attaining efficient consumption and use of energy. Sustainable development tends to balance the needs of today’s generation and future generation, but enhancing sustainability tends to undermine the needs of the school today’s generation.
- Manually processed systems used by the school
Modern technology is critical in facilitating carbon and energy management. For instance, storage and dissemination of carbon footprint data are critical in enhancing all carbon and energy management levels. The school uses manual spreadsheets to store relevant information regarding its carbon footprint, which can either be lost or distorted in the event (Hannan et al., 2018). Carbon footprint information is critical in facilitating energy and caron management and once distorted, the needs of both today’s generation and that of the future hang in the balance.
4.0 Evaluate The Issues Associated with The Implementation of Natural Policy Related to Climate Change
Climate changes affect the needs of both today and future generations. The change in climate being experienced today with the increase in the levels of global warming and adverse shifts in weather and temperature patterns is a threat to sustainable development. As a result, Seeb International School, like most institutions, has advanced several policies to minimize climate change and its impacts. One of the policies advanced is the natural policy related to climate change. This policy touches on the utilization of natural resources and procedures in limiting the extent of climate change (Seddon et al. 2020). For instance, green spaces and renewable environmentally friendly energy sources are incorporated as natural policies related to climate change.
As part of natural policy related to climate change, Seeb International School has implemented green spaces and solar energy as an environmentally friendly energy source. However, with the high initial costs involved in implementing such policies, the schools’ efforts are greatly undermined. For instance, the cost of buying solar panels to generate enough energy to run the school’s operation will require high initial capital, which can greatly limit the implementation process. In addition, natural policies are also affected by natural events. E.g., solar energy utilization is greatly dependent on the amount of solar power generated by the sun (Seddon et al. 2020). On some days and can run up to weeks, the amount of sunlight can be limited, thus limiting the amount of energy that will be available for use by the school, further limiting the extent of implementation of natural policy related to climate change by the school.
5.0 Energy Audit Based on The Perspective of Environmental Protection
The energy audit can be regarded as comprehensive supervision and review of energy production, conversion, and consumption of institutions (Kluczek and Olszewski, 2017, p.34). As a new kind of scientific control and management method for energy, an energy audit is a significant manner of improving energy management benefits and conducive to consolidation management of energy and transforming it into a more standardized and scientific approach. It is also valuable in promoting energy management and conservation within an institution. Carrying out an organisation’s energy audit needs to undertake inspection and analysis of the energy consumption process of the institution. This section will therefore analyze the consumption of energy within Seeb International School based on the institutions’ land size, building, and vehicle fleet size.
The table below indicates the land size underutilization by Seeb International school.
|Land use||Land size (m2)|
|Buildings and classrooms||1000|
|Total land size||7400|
The total land size underutilization by the school is 7400m2. Buildings and classrooms account for the highest percentage of electricity consumption and gasoline through the heating and air-conditioning needs of the school. The swimming pool area consumes water, while storage facilitates associated with school waste.
The school has a vehicle fleet size of 15 vehicles, all owned by the institutions and were used over one year. The energy consumption for the year is therefore indicated below;
|No.||Energy source||Annual consumption||Amount (OMR)|
Over the period, the school consumed 12.8 kWh of electricity amounting to OMR 800, the cost of fuel consumption summed up to 7500litres amounting to OMR 2100, and gasoline amounted to 8cylinders amounting to OMR 1000.
Carbon (greenhouse gas) emissions and energy management have become a major priority in the process of making decision for governments and companies worldwide, with the firm European legislation framework being a key driving force. With the growing interest in carbon and energy management worldwide, a different school in Oman has since advanced carbon and energy management strategies. Therefore, this research paper looks at the carbon and energy management of Seeb International School. The school is located in Seeb, Muscat, Oman, and has about 1300 students seating in approximately 7200m3 pieces of land. The school has a different operation that consumes energy and emits greenhouse gases to the environment.
Carbon footprint is defined as the measure of the effects human activities, either directly or indirectly, have on the environment, particularly on climate change. It relates to measuring or quantifying the entire greenhouse emission in a particular region or institution due to human activities undertaken with the regions or institutions. It can be calculated based on three categories as per the Greenhouse Gas Protocol Standard. These categories are scope 1, scope two, and scope 3. Scope one incorporates direct activities of the school, which the school itself can control. In contrast, scope 2 and 3 accommodate indirect activities of the school that are beyond the control of the school itself.
Carbon and energy management is key stewardship towards attaining sustainable development and natural resources since it aims at enhancing better climate and availability of natural resources for both todays and future generations. Under carbon and energy management, the use of green space, technology, and renewable resources is key. Therefore, energy consumption, efficient energy use, and manual process are key issues related to the case of Seeb International School.
Climate changes affect the needs of both today and future generations. The change in climate being experienced today with the increase in the levels of global warming and adverse shifts in weather and temperature patterns is a threat to sustainable development. As a result, Seeb International School, like most institutions, has advanced several policies to minimize climate change and its impacts. The utilization of green spaces and environmentally friendly energy sources are among the key natural policy related to climate change advanced by the school.
Lastly, as a new kind of scientific control and management method for energy, an energy audit is a significant manner of improving energy management benefits and conducive to consolidation management of energy and transforming it into a more standardized and scientific approach. The energy audit can be regarded as comprehensive supervision and review of energy production, conversion, and consumption of institutions.
Books and Journal
Giama, E. and Papadopoulos, A. (2018) Carbon footprint analysis as a tool for energy and environmental management in small and medium-sized enterprises. International Journal of Sustainable Energy. 37(1). pp.21-29.
Guillermo, F. Rocío, S. and Sebastián, L. (2019) Determining the 2019 Carbon Footprint of a School of Design, Innovation and Technology. Ed. 2nd. Oxford University Press. London.
Kluczek, A. and Olszewski, P. (2017) Energy audits in industrial processes. Journal of cleaner production. 142(2) pp.34.
Müller, L. Kätelhön, A. Bringezu, S. McCoy, S. Suh, S. Edwards, R. Sick, V. Kaiser, S. Cuéllar-Franca, R. El Khamlichi, A. and Lee, J. (2020) The carbon footprint of the carbon feedstock CO 2. Energy & Environmental Science Journal. 13(9). p.29.
Odell, P. Rauland, V. and Murcia, K. (2021) Schools: An untapped opportunity for a carbon neutral future. International Journal of Sustainability.13(1). p.46.
Seddon, N. Chausson, A. Berry, P. Girardin, C. Smith, A. and Turner, B. (2020) Understanding the value and limits of nature-based solutions to climate change and other global challenges. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 37(10). p.20.
Morris, S. and Govier, C. (2021) Operational efficiency through effective energy and carbon management [Online] Available at: https://ee.ricardo.com/sustainability/energy-and-carbon-management [Accessed: 26th Feb 2022]
Annotated Bibliography: The Power Of Jealousy In Othello Sample Assignment
Jealousy manifests on several instances in William Shakespeare’s work, Othello. This jealousy has been shown to be more destructive than productive. It has wreaked havoc, caused death, and division. The following seven articles annotate the elements of jealousy in Othello and the aftermath.
Helsinger, Rosalind. “False Flesh: Shakespeare and Adultery.” Fsu.digital.flvc.org, 2021, fsu.digital.flvc.org/islandora/object/fsu763404
According to this article, Roderigo and Iago meet Desdemona’s father in the middle of the night in Othello’s first scene. When Barbantio’s daughter marries a sloppy black general, the play’s key white male character is heartbroken. Barbantio foretells the infidelity that will show later in the play. He is an expert at giving people what they want to hear to get them to respond the way he wants them to. This guy is a master at using words to get out of sticky situations and avoid conflict. Barbantio’s jealousy over Desdemona’s relationship to Othello is fueled by Iago’s twisting of words. It was Iago who pointed out that Barbantio had no legitimate cause to be envious or even unhappy about his daughter’s wedding. It is ironic that Iago’s jealousy gets transferred to Barbantio, and Roderigo eventually hurts him as a result of this. All three characters in Shakespeare’s Othello have distinct personalities and ways to solving difficulties.
Song, Eric. “Othello and the Political Theology of Jealousy.” English Literary Renaissance, vol. 51, no. 1, Jan. 2021, pp. 96–120, https://doi.org/10.1086/711603.
According to this article, jealousy is a trait that all three of them acquire during the course of the play. The direction each person takes is determined by the development of their character. Iago is the first character to openly admit his feelings of resentment and enmity against the other characters. To Roderigo, he protests that he has not been promoted to lieutenant. Since Othello stole the lady of his dreams from him, Roderigo can empathize with Iago’s feelings of jealously. Roderigo joins up with Iago to undermine Othello out of anger and jealously for the man who has caused him so much pain: Othello. After Barbantio’s outburst, the opening scene of the play doesn’t come to a conclusion. Roderigo’s jealousy manifests itself the very same night for the same reason. Roderigo was previously turned down by Desdemona when he begged for her hand in marriage. This breaks Roderigo’s heart. When Roderigo learns that Othello will be Desdemona’s spouse instead of him, he feels betrayed. When Iago tries to explain that Desdemona and Othello’s love for each other is really a façade, his jealously grows. To sum up, Iago begins with a mandate, follows with a solution to the question he poses to himself, and concludes with a forceful claim. Roderigo gives up all he has ever known. Jealousy engulfs his thoughts, making him eager to go to any lengths to get the lady he feels he deserves. Roderigo would sell all he has in Italy and give up his life to get his hands on Desdemona. Because he didn’t get the promotion he wanted, as well as the suspicion that the general had slept with his wife, Iago’s plots to destroy the Moor and Cassio are self-evident.
Rauch, Beth, and Meg Clark. Othello and Jealousy: The Reason behind the Spousal Abuse. 2017, themusesfunhouse.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Othello-and-Jealousy-The-Reason-Behind-the-Spousal-Abuse-FINAL.pdf.
This article also identifies various instances of jealousy. After Iago discovers another man with the same burning drive to get back at Othello, he instantly constructs a deadly plot to destroy the individuals who have conferred this jealousy upon him – Othello and Cassio. Iago’s jealousy stemmed from the fact that he hadn’t been promoted. Cassio was put in danger because an inexperienced general was appointed in his place. His jealousy of Cassio’s elevation and his status as an employee of the Moor may be readily seen. Iago tells him that he’s being unfaithful to incite Roderigo’s jealousy. Early on, Iago’s malicious schemes and deceptive personality begin to take shape, continuing throughout the rest of the play.
Olson, Rebecca. “‘Too Gentle’: Jealousy and Class in Othello.” Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies, vol. 15, no. 1, 2015, pp. 3–25, https://doi.org/10.1353/jem.2015.0006.
The authors of this article note that in order to avenge his wife’s betrayal by the Moor, Iago decides to sabotage Othello’s marriage. While Iago feels he knows everything, there is not enough proof to support his claims. Because of this, it is evident that Iago’s acts are motivated by hatred of Othello, and Shakespeare makes it plain that this envy guides Iago’s thoughts and actions throughout the play. A prostitute, Bianca ultimately erupts at the notion of her boyfriend, Cassio, seeing someone else. She hides her jealousy better than any other character in the novel. In the end, Bianca confronts Cassio about the handkerchief he had ordered her to replicate. She refuses to reproduce the handkerchief’s design since she “knows” it’s from another lady. Every character in the drama appears to be infected with the disease of jealousy. Jealousy is at the heart of the plot, and Othello’s downfall directly results from it. Iago hopes that Othello will not have any resentment against him in the future. Iago will begin to sow doubt in Othello’s mind at this point. Karl Zender thinks that Othello’s thoughts regarding his wife’s affair with Cassio only intensify despite his pleas. Due to his lack of concern for anybody else, Othello is easily swayed by Iago, and he will begin to question everything his new wife does. She’ll be accused of infidelity for everything and everything she says. Othello never confronts his wife or Cassio about their affair. Iago is the one person Othello can rely on since he is “helping” him. Othello is so consumed by envy that he thinks the only way to free the world and himself of the unfairness is to murder Desdemona. That Desdemona has been disloyal is a falsehood he has been persuaded into believing and, like the figures before him, acts on it. He is convinced that she has been having an affair with Cassio, and he lashes out at her in retaliation. Othello, ironically, claims that he is not envious in any way. Desdemona’s death and his result from his inability to see beyond the deceptions Iago threw at him. What Othello believed he understood after the play led to the tragedy.
Rai, Ram Prasad. “Jealousy and Destruction in William Shakespear’s Othello.” Crossing the Border: International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, vol. 4, no. 1, Oct. 2017, pp. 53–58, https://doi.org/10.3126/ctbijis.v4i1.18430.
According to this article, jealousy was at the center of the play’s plot. Their grievances with each character lead them down separate paths to exact revenge on their adversaries. Othello, Cassio, and Desdemona are on Roderigo’s list of revenge targets, as is Iago. In each case, the envy that causes this response is not rooted in actuality. Their acts are based on the erroneous idea that they are the ones who know best. “Beware of envy,” the tragedy warns us. When the truth is revealed, and the chaos cannot be undone, the play ends. In the end, Othello murders his wife due to Iago’s deceit, which is the most prominent example of jealousy in the narrative. According to the author’s statement, “in a minute!… she has been murdered!… Emilia has come to tell me that Cassio has died!”. Because of the cruel brainwashing that Iago has put Othello through, Othello is now in the process of murdering his wife, Desdemona, and is doing it because he believes she is cheating on him with Cassio.
Khalsa, Akasha. The Power of Modern Othello the Power of Modern Othello. 2019, commons.nmu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1103&context=conspectus_borealis.
According to the article, in the opening of the play, Iago’s jealousy causes everything to fall apart because he wants Cassio’s place. Keep an eye out for him and ruin his joy by announcing your intentions to do so publicly. He says, “Plague him with falsehoods, despite his living in a fertile area”. Even though his excitement is genuine, he continues to cause such upheaval that it begins to fade. Iago’s desire to destroy Cassio’s life while ruining Othello might be seen as a sign of his intense resentment at Othello for not elevating him to a higher political position. He seeks to ruin the lives and reputations of Othello and Cassio because Iago was envious and sought vengeance for not getting his way.
Hind Abdullah Alkoli, and Shi Ji. “An Analysis of Power Desire of Iago in Shakespeare’s Othello from Psychological Perspectives.” Journal of Literature and Art Studies, vol. 8, no. 3, Mar. 2018, https://doi.org/10.17265/2159-5836/2018.03.010.
The authors note that the power of destructive jealousy is illustrated in the play Othello and today’s society since one can’t be pleased for someone else. Because he suspected Cassio of having an affair with Desdemona, Othello set out to have him killed. Because Iago failed to achieve his goal, Othello committed suicide, and Desdemona’s death was blamed on Iago. We may observe this in our own lives, whether at school, home or even with our friends. Some individuals, like Iago, go too far in their envy and end up killing others as a result. This demonstrates the truth that jealousy in a man’s heart may be the one thing that wrecks his world.
Helsinger, Rosalind. “False Flesh: Shakespeare and Adultery.” Fsu.digital.flvc.org, 2021, fsu.digital.flvc.org/islandora/object/fsu763404.
Hind Abdullah Alkoli, and Shi Ji. “An Analysis of Power Desire of Iago in Shakespeare’s Othello from Psychological Perspectives.” Journal of Literature and Art Studies, vol. 8, no. 3, Mar. 2018,
Khalsa, Akasha. The Power of Modern Othello the Power of Modern Othello. 2019, commons.nmu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1103&context=conspectus_borealis.
Olson, Rebecca. “‘Too Gentle’: Jealousy and Class in Othello.” Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies, vol. 15, no. 1, 2015, pp. 3–25,
Rai, Ram Prasad. “Jealousy and Destruction in William Shakespear’s Othello.” Crossing the Border: International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, vol. 4, no. 1, Oct. 2017, pp. 53–58,.
Rauch, Beth, and Meg Clark. Othello and Jealousy: The Reason behind the Spousal Abuse. 2017, themusesfunhouse.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Othello-and-Jealousy-The-Reason-Behind-the-Spousal-Abuse-FINAL.pdf.
Song, Eric. “Othello and the Political Theology of Jealousy.” English Literary Renaissance, vol. 51, no. 1, Jan. 2021, pp. 96–120.