Graves’ Disease Symptoms And Treatment Homework Essay Sample

In an ideal and healthy organism, all systems and organs work perfectly and harmonically. However, genetics and environment may affect one’s body and cause various diseases. It may happen that a system or an organ fails due to a virus, an unhealthy lifestyle, or poor heredity and knocks the rest of the body off the right rhythm. The purpose of this paper is to explore the symptoms, diagnostic methods, treatment, and possible prognosis of Graves’ disease.

Graves’ disease is an autoimmune condition that is believed to be caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. The condition is located in the neuroendocrine system, which is made up of gland cells and nerves (Cancer Research UK). Overall, there are numerous organs that can be included in the neuroendocrine system (Figure 1). According to Barry and McFadden, it can be divided into two: a diffuse system and a glandular system. The former comprises the “cells dispersed throughout the skin, thyroid, lung, thymus, pancreas, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, biliary tree, and the urogenital system,” while the latter consists of “the pituitary, parathyroids, paraganglia, and adrenal medulla” (Barry and McFadden 941).

Organs that contain neuroendocrine cells 
Figure 1. Organs that contain neuroendocrine cells 

Further, it is essential to explore the process of the disease in order to understand its symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment methods better. As noticed by researchers, certain causes of Graves’ condition are unknown. What they are certain about is that one’s “immune system makes an antibody called thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI)” that acts like a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and attaches to the thyroid cells (National Institutes of Health). Because of TSI, the thyroid, which is a gland in the shape of a butterfly in the front of one’s neck, creates excess amounts of thyroid hormone, which make the body’s processes speed up (National Institutes of Health). Numerous problems occur because some parts of the body, including the thyroid itself, work harder than they need to.

Since, in most cases, an early diagnosis can guarantee a successful outcome, it is vital to be aware of the most common signs of Graves’ disease. First, as stated by medical professionals, the symptoms of this condition may include the signs of hyperthyroidism, namely, weight loss, shaky hands, trouble tolerating heat, enlarged thyroid gland, irritability, and irregular heartbeat (National Institutes of Health). Second, eye issues may involve bulging, irritated, and puffy eyes, double vision, light sensitivity, and eye pain (Gardner). Finally, there can also be skin problems, with the skin becoming thick, rough, and reddish. Figure 2 highlights some other most common symptoms and shows their locations.

Signs and symptoms of the disease 
Figure 2. Signs and symptoms of the disease 

To diagnose Graves’ disease, it is required from a medical worker to administer certain tests. First, blood analysis should indicate the levels of hormones produced by the thyroid: triiodothyronine (free T-3) and thyroxine (free T-4), as well as the levels of TSH (Gardner). If the former is too high and the latter is abnormally low, it is likely that the patient has Graves’ disease. Further, since the thyroid requires iodine to produce hormones, it may be effective to take a radioactive iodine uptake test to determine the levels of iodine.

The two key objectives of any treatment are to relieve discomfort and restore the levels of the thyroid hormones. Therefore, beta-blockers can reduce symptoms but do not affect the disease itself (Gardner). Antithyroid medicines can lead to the lower creation of TSI but have many side effects (National Institutes of Health). Radioiodine therapy can be used to destroy the thyroid gland’s cells (Cleveland Clinic). When the aforementioned methods cannot be selected, the doctor may choose surgery to remove part of the thyroid gland.

Finally, as mentioned above, it is crucial to have an early diagnosis to have better outcomes because, if left unaddressed, Graves’ disease can lead to the patient’s death. According to Cleveland Clinic, the treatment is a life-lasting process. If the treatment is thyroidectomy or radioactive iodine, the person will eventually develop hypothyroidism, and in case they take antithyroid drugs, this process will never end. At the same time, the prognosis is quite positive as it is possible to control the condition.

It is essential to mention some engaging facts about the neuroendocrine system and related diseases. For instance, neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are challenging to be identified, and about ninety percent of NET patients receive wrong diagnoses (Cancer Research UK). Second, it is interesting that “the pituitary gland, the parathyroid glands and the inner layer of the adrenal gland (adrenal medulla) are almost all made up of neuroendocrine cells” (Canadian Cancer Society). This system plays an essential role in one’s body, performing the function of the messenger.

To draw a conclusion, one may say that being diagnosed with Graves’ disease is not a sentence. While it often requires lifelong treatment, when addressed and taken under control, the condition does not worsen the patient life and does not make it extremely uncomfortable. The main purpose is to pay attention to the symptoms and visit a doctor in a timely manner to receive a diagnosis and develop an adequate treatment plan.

Works Cited

Barry, Linda, and David W. McFadden. “Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors.” Shackelford’s Surgery of the Alimentary Tract, edited by Charles J. Yeo, 8th ed., vol. 1, Elsevier, 2019, pp. 939-950.

Canadian Cancer Society. “The Neuroendocrine System.” Canadian Cancer Society, Web.

Cancer Research UK. “What Are Neuroendocrine Tumours (NETs)?” Cancer Research UK, Web.

Cleveland Clinic. “Graves’ Disease.” Cleveland Clinic, Web.

Gardner, Stephanie S. “Graves’ Disease.” WebMD, Web.

MedlinePlus. “Graves’ Disease.” MedlinePlus, Web.

National Institutes of Health. “Graves’ Disease.” NIH, Nov. 2021, Web.

Millay’s “I, Being Born A Woman And Distressed”

Blazing the trail for a new philosophy is always a challenge; however, the task becomes excruciating when the idea in question is as unpopular as the concept of feminism at the dawn of its development. Edna St. Vincent Millay was one of the few American poets who managed to skewer the social status quo with her incisive and insightful works. By discussing the themes of gender roles, sexuality, and sex, Millay promotes a groundbreaking notion of a woman being at the helm of her own life in the poem titled “I, Being Born a Woman and Distressed.”

The poem incorporates a number of metaphors to explore the themes of gender roles, sexuality, and sex. For instance, the concept of gender roles is subverted by Millay mentions the urge to “bear your body’s weight upon my breast,” implying her desire to take the role of a leader in relationships (Millay, 1923, line 5). Similarly, Millay (1923) renders the themes of female sexuality and its expression as she describes her feelings with the following epithets: “undone, possessed” (Millay, 1923, line 8). Finally, mentioning “the needs and notions of my kind,” Millay (1923, line 2) renders the complexity of the female sex and the oppression that she suffers as a result of it.

With her bold analysis of the themes of gender norms, female sex, and sexuality, Millay pokes holes at the patriarchal notions of womanhood and encourages personal and political agency in women. The poem uses various metaphors to masterfully express the complicated and confused feelings that the protagonist experiences. Thus, “I, Being Born a Woman and Distressed” makes an important statement about the absurdity of gender roles and the importance of female agency.


Millay, E. (1923). I, being born a woman and distressed.

So Cal’s Water Agency: Racism, Sexual Harassment, And Retaliation

Business ethics presupposes that companies and organizations should promote equality and integrity of employees and other stakeholders. However, So Cal’s water agency has not adhered to this provision and has gone ahead to put fewer efforts into promoting employees’ rights and integrity. The agency has reported several racial discrimination, sexual harassment, and retaliation cases (Elmahrek, 2022). Organizations that defend employees’ rights state that organizations that do not value their employees make them susceptible to harassment and unfair treatment. So Cal’s water agency has failed to adhere to ethical codes of conduct between employees and stakeholders. Women in the agency are faced with sexual harassment while they are undertaking their duties. Furthermore, numerous cases of racial stereotyping are faced by employees and retaliation (Elmahrek, 2022). Practices of unequal hiring have been experienced by employees in So Cal’s Water Agency. Employees affected by these issues aired their grievances to different media and 9to5 Women Employment Organization to find remedial solutions.

The stakeholders in this ethical case include women employees vulnerable to sexual harassment, So Cal’s Water Agency, men and women employees, and 9to5 Women Employment Organization. The best approach to handle this case is for So Cal’s Water Agency management to have their scrutiny of the issues in the company. The agency, through its respective management, should then inspect these issues by taking legal action against perpetrators of unethical acts faced by employees. The agency should also set rules that will hold accountable those who will be found violating ethical codes of conduct while at work. Promoting actions that do not enhance enabling employee working environment is unethical. The agency needs to create a public platform where aspiring employees can freely and fairly submit their applications for hiring (Elmahrek, 2022). More so, So Cal’s should establish a body in its management that will defend employees’ rights while working in the agency.

The case was solved adequately; however, I would reach So Cal’s stakeholder management and educate them on the correlation between a favorable employee working environment and resultant organizational success. I would also request the agency’s management to create a department that will be vigilant in scrutinizing employee complaints. Legal actions should then be taken against those breaking business ethics laws. For this reason, the issue of racism, sexual harassment, and retaliation will be addressed effectively.


Elmahrek, A. (2022). Racial discrimination, sexual harassment, and retaliation inside So Cal’s powerful water agency. Los Angeles Times. Web.