Pricing objectives pursued by Great Wall Motors in the Australian market
Great Wall Motors is a Chinese carmaker known for its expertise in the manufacture of SUVs and SAVs. The company has been doing well in China and other parts of the world due to their quality. Motor vehicles from this company are extremely effective when compared to other models in the market.
The company has in the recent past come up with a marketing strategy of extending its markets beyond the Chinese market (Kim and Mauborgne 2005, p.98). The company has come up with a pricing strategy that will enable them to venture into the Australian market. To compete with other players in the Australian market, the company carried out market research to know more about the buying behaviors of Australian consumers.
This helped the company to come up with a pricing strategy to ensure that they sell their motor vehicles to Australians. The aim of ensuring that their prices are appealing to the market is the maximization of profits by maximizing sales. If a company tries to venture into a competitive market with oppressive prices, customers may never be able to purchase their vehicles.
The prices for each model of their vehicles should match the incomes of the target consumers. This encourages consumers to buy more because of affordability. Consumer behavior may be triggered by the perception people have towards the cost and quality of products presented in the market. This means that Great Motors Company should ensure that they maintain the quality of their vehicles regardless of the low venturing prices.
This will encourage consumers in the Australian market to buy from the company which is already known for quality in China. If many people turn to buy their motor vehicles due to affordability, the company will have increased sales volume hence increased profits.
Toyota Marketing manager’s responce to the threat posed by Great wall Motors Ute model
To counter the threat posed by Great Motors Ute model, Toyota’s marketing manager should first of all consider carrying out market research. This is vital because it is going to expose them to the tactics and strategies their competitor is using to trigger the effect in the market (Rao 2009, p.56). The manager should come up with ideal decisions regarding what they observed from the market. This means that they should be able to introduce a pricing system that will caution the rate at which consumers are shifting to buying the competitor’s vehicles.
Also, they should come up with a promotion strategy aimed at reminding their loyal customers that Toyota Hilux is the best vehicle in the market. This can help in countering the Ute’s threat. Since customers know that Toyota’s Hilux is an excellent truck, they will have to consider it before making a final decision to buy Great motors’ Ute model. Failure to communicate to consumers is dangerous as they may shift from the company’s brand those of competitors venturing into the market (Pandey 2007, p.91).
The marketing manager should consider developing a sales promotion strategy to encourage customers to buy their products, as opposed to those of their competitors. For example, they may come up with price cuts hence making their vehicles cheaper than those of the competitor. They should ensure that consumers are kept in touch by running advertisements in various mediums. Marketing communication is particularly valuable in countering threats from competitors since customers require to be reminded that the brands still exist in the market.
Kim, W C & Mauborgne, R 2005. Blue Ocean Strategy: How to Create Uncontested Market Space and Make Competition Irrelevant, Harvard Business Press, London.
Pandey, S 2007. Pricing Management, Global Vision Publishing Ho, London.
Rao, V R 2009. Handbook of Pricing Research in Marketing, Edward Elgar Publishing, Sydney.
Early Church History: Persecution Of Christianity
The early Christians endured persecution not only from non-believers but also from believers who sought to change their faith. The reasons for these persecutions were mainly due to the fear of Christianity by the Romans, as they dubbed it a mere superstition rather than a belief. It is imperative to understand that, the Roman Empire adopted policies of incorporation where foreign religions and gods were incorporated into their culture. However, it is ironic that the Romans were to be specifically hostile to Christianity as a religion. This can be explained by their belief that the loyalty to the state was based on the religious attitude towards the Romans1. They believed that stable religions were those that were old and since Christianity was just growing, it could not be recognized as a stable religion. Considering that most incidences of persecutions occurred in the 1st and 2nd century AD, the uncertainty that came with the unknown fuelled disgust and anger as well as the fear that it would break the social unity that kept the empire alive.
One of the rulers who greatly persecuted Christians was the emperor Nero who ruled from 64 to 68 AD. Paul and Peter remain as the most outstanding martyrs during this period. There was specifically a large fire in Rome that destroyed most parts of the city and Nero took this chance to not only rebuild the city of Rome in his preference but also to curve out a huge part of the city for his prestigious palace. The suspicion that followed thereafter that he had burnt the city intentionally forced him to blame the fire on the Christians and ordered their torture which at times was just for his entertainment. Though the persecutions of Christians by Nero were localized and short-lived, it opened the way for further persecutions and the spread of the campaign against Christianity in the entire Rome Empire and beyond. The persecution of Christians was actually at one time regarded as ‘Institutum Neronianum’ (the institution of Nero). This opened the way for the total criminalization of Christianity, which offered pardons if a person condemned Christ and agreed to make sacrifices to the other gods.
The Pax Romana was a period of relative peace in Europe, as Caesar Augustus reduced military activities. The period lasted for about 207 years which were mainly from 27 BC to 180 AD. This period was characterized by a free movement that promoted Christianity, as missionaries could travel all over the Roman Empire to spread Christianity to non-believers. There were open and safe roads throughout the empire and people were more open to learning new things hence the wide acceptance of Christianity2. At the same period, due to the integration of the languages, people used the Roman language, which made it even easier for the missionaries since everyone understood their teachings.
Heresies were doctrines that disputed the established Christian beliefs and the teachings of Jesus, his disciples, and the early church leaders. Most heresies were started between the first and the third centuries and of particular interest was Docetism which was introduced by Julius Cassianus. He taught that Jesus’ body was just an illusion or an aberration3. Therefore, he solicited Gnostic beliefs where God could not be associated with physical matter as the matter was considered evil. This heresy taught that the spirit of Jesus had come to liberate matter and that it had entered a human body when he was baptized and left when he was crucified, hence, disputing the story of his resurrection.
Ferguson, Everett. “Baptism in the early church: history, theology, and liturgy in the first five centuries”. Journal of Religious Studies Review 36 issue 1, (2010): 81-93.
Franz-Steiner, Verlag. “The evidence of the conversion of to Christianity: book 16 of the theodosian code.” Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte (1993): 66-78.
Gartenstein-Ross, Daveed. “No Other Gods before Me: Spheres of Influence in the Relationship between Christianity and Islam.” Denver Journal of International Law and Policy 33 (2005): 223-234, Web.
- Verlag Franz-Steiner. “The evidence of the conversion of to Christianity: book 16 of the Theodosia code.” Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte (1993): 76.
- Everett, Ferguson. “Baptism in the early church: history, theology, and liturgy in the first five centuries”. Journal of Religious Studies Review 36 issue 1, (2010): 82.
- Daveed Gartenstein-Ross. “No Other Gods before Me: Spheres of Influence in the Relationship between Christianity and Islam.” Denver Journal of International Law and Policy 33 (2005): 226.
Chinese Culture, Society Language, And Religion
The cultures of the east have always intrigued me, especially that of the Chinese people. There are billions of Chinese people around the globe. China towns have been built wherever there is a significant number of Chinese people in the area. These towns are oozing with Chinese culture. The architecture of the place is very distinct with bright red paints, statues of dragons, temples, and those Chinese characters written all over the place.
Chinese culture is famous for its authentic cuisine. Chinese food has always been among the top focus of many people in the culinary industry. Spices have been played out to cook mouth-watering dishes. I had been very curious about the Chinese population and their culture. I find Chinese society very conservative but I don’t seem to fully understand the importance of understanding their society which is crucial in this paper.
Mandarin is one of the most spoken dialects around the world. This is the language that is spoken by the Chinese people. Language is part of a culture’s traits. In this paper, the religious beliefs and myths will also be discussed to fully understand the culture.
Bruce Lee and Jackie Chan are one of the most famous Chinese movie stars in the world. They are known for their martial art skills. Martial art by the name itself is one of the most famous arts of the Chinese which is not only taught for self-defense but more is presented as art, thus martial arts! Chinese literature is one of the oldest in the world. This will also be tackled in the said paper. This paper will serve as an introduction to Chinese culture. A brief analysis of the said culture’s components will be provided, as well as the analysis of culture as a whole.
In Chinese history, since the reigning periods of the three sovereigns and five emperors, China had developed a meritocracy society where government officials and social statuses were earned through objective means. Men who were considered intelligent due to test results were given social statuses and positions, thus the Chinese culture highlights the importance of hard work and education. Men are trained to study hard and increase their IQs to uplift their family statuses.
As for Chinese women, they have always been trained to be the best wives for their husbands. To determine the most capable and desirable wife, tests were conducted. Even today, women are trained to master the arts and virtues of women in ancient China. Though in modern times, such a society no longer exists in China, the mindset of working hard is still present among Chinese people. They believe that through good education they will be able to uplift their social statuses in life.
In Chinese society, the husband and wife are the basic units of the family. The importance of Chinese marriages highlights the significance of Chinese marriages. Chinese families would arrange marriages between a man and a woman with different surnames. In the Confucian sense, the importance of marriage is the cultivation of virtues. Incest is considered to be the marriage of two people with the same surnames since in the said school of thought; a valid marriage is the union of two people from different families to continue the paternal clan’s family line. Chinese families with sons enjoy the benefits and demerits of marriages.
In China, such belief has been practiced to an extreme of one-child policy where daughters were disowned or thrown away because the family preferred a son. The pressure of marriages also brings about the disowning of children when they fail to obey their parents’ wishes in marriage. Romantic love is permitted in Chinese society but the choice of partners in life and marriage involves the decisions of the whole family members not just the couple.
The Chinese language, mandarin is one of the most commonly spoken languages in the world. They have preserved the language from ancient times. In the past, China’s provinces had different languages and dialects but during the era of Mao Zedong, Mandarin was mandatory to everyone. In ancient times, scholars, writers, and philosophers were the only privileged ones who can both speak and write about Chinese characters. These men were highly respected in society as they were the key people who recorded the history of China, helped flourished the arts in terms of poetry writing and calligraphy, and later on, some daring individuals depicted the lives of the common people which often gave displeasure to some authorities.
The Chinese language has been present for a long time. The spoken languages in the different provinces of China are not the same but the written characters are the same. I find it amazing that each clan has a different way of speaking the characters but how such are written and the understanding it brings about is the same.
Religious Beliefs and Myths
The Chinese have always believed in the presence of heaven and spiritual beings. Taoism as well as Buddhism are common religious practices in China but events and things that cannot be explained by human logic or by the said religious beliefs are explained by folklores. Just like in any religious setting, the Chinese had synced their calendar of events with the religious and mythical beliefs of their society.
The Moon Cake or the Mid-Autumn festival is one popular holiday based on the legendary myth of Houyi and Change. Buddhist and Taoist temples are the most prominent in China. Some Chinese even build their altars at home where the burning of incest is a common practice among Chinese homes and families. Ceremonies are held to honor religious figures such as Guanyin, the Jade Emperor, and other deities. Religious and mythical beliefs also influenced Chinese medicine where the importance of the yin and yang energy, as well as the chi, are a focus.
Though some have already converted to Christianity, the core values of such religious practices and beliefs such as the cultivation of the mind and body, the seeking of inner peace, and filial piety are still instilled among the Chinese core values. Buddhist and Taoist teachings still prevail in Chinese homes and culture as a whole even in modern Christian families.
Arts and Crafts
Chinese arts and crafts are influenced by society, as well as the religious and mythical beliefs of the people. Commonly in paintings, artists present works of art in the form of high ceilings of temples and palaces were stories of the deeds of religious figures and/ or deities. are told These paintings are still available in many historic places in China where ancient encounters and stories are told through works of arts. Drama is quite popular in the Chinese culture where actors wear heavy and elaborate make-ups to depict the characters of religious stories or myths. Music was played to set the moods. The Beijing opera is one of the most famous theatrical performance where stories of ancient China are retold.
Porcelain pottery was one of the prominent forms of art in Chinese culture because it was one of the first ones. Painters in the early days painted images using blue ink on jars, plates, cups, and the like. These are considered artifacts now and are placed in Chinese museums. Chinese paintings are the most prominent forms of art as they are the records of Chinese histories and preserve legends of mythical folklore.
Another form of art is martial arts where the use of the body is key. Martial art is a physical demonstration of skills. This can be called Kung Fu or in some Wushu. Initially, the martial art was considered a form of self-defense for survival but over time it became more of an art where monasteries teach to achieve health benefits by increasing the energy level of the individual.
Chinese literature began as a form to keep records and documents of the current events of the ancient era. Later on, as the educational system of China improved and teaching methods advanced, writers, experimented with writing stories, poetry, and even philosophical beliefs. Chinese literature developed and flourished as the number of scholars in ancient China grew. Common writings include poetry, astrology, astronomy, calendar, constellations, and religious and mythical stories.
Chinese cuisine was developed through the countless party planning of emperors. About a hundred people were involved in food preparation, whenever an emperor would host a banquet. As the future progressed and societies became civilized such dishes became part of ordinary people’s everyday dishes. Another culture under the cuisine bracket is the tea culture where tea ceremonies are considered the be an art.
Unlike the tea culture in Europe (Britain) or Japan, the one in the Chinese culture is different. Methods in preparing and tasting tea are different in Chinese culture. In Chinese society, tea drinking is associated with respect. Such a ceremony is also used in family gatherings when sons or daughters are leaving home to work in a foreign place or get married. It can also be used to apologize or express gratitude.
When I was asked to choose a culture I couldn’t think of any other than that of the Chinese. I find their culture to be very rich. The Chinese culture made me realize that culture can never be built overnight but it would take centuries. Reading about the Chinese culture made me define it as a set of common social beliefs and practices associated with the history of a group of people. Before beginning this project, I thought that the Chinese acted in the way they were acting because they were told to do so and no questions could be asked but after that, it came to my attention that there were reasons why they acted the way they did. Now I know that such actions were influenced by their own culture.