Harley-Davidson’s Financial Statements And Projections Free Essay

Harley-Davidson, an American motorcycle manufacturer, has gained a worldwide following due to its legendary status (Wahlen et al., 2022). Even with this, the company has had significant difficulties maintaining its market position recently. Especially considering the declining interest in motorcycles among the younger generation. This study aims to get a more thorough understanding of Harley-present Davidson’s financial health potential for the foreseeable future by analyzing the company’s financial statements and projections.

Financial Statements and Projections

The financial statements prepared by Davidson give an overview of the company’s status as of a specific date. The company reported revenues of $4.05 billion for 2020, a decrease of 24% from 2019. The COVID-19 pandemic caused a precipitous drop in motorcycle sales, accounting for most of the revenue shortfall. The company’s net profit of $531 million was 40% lower than the previous year’s total. Reduced revenue and increased restructuring costs due to the company’s cost-cutting initiatives led to a decrease in net income.

The company has $6.46 billion in assets and $3.21 billion in liabilities, as shown on the balance sheet. There is now $3.25 billion in stockholder equity. Reduced inventory and receivables are the primary reasons for the 7% drop in the company’s total assets compared to the beginning of 2019. The decline in motorcycle production contributed to supply shortages and was primarily attributable to the pandemic. Accounts payable and accrued liabilities have decreased the most, bringing the company’s total liabilities down by 3% from 2019.

According to projections made for the fiscal year 2021, Harley-Davidson anticipates sales of $4.53 billion. It is a 12% boost from their 2020 sales projections. The company’s expansion strategies include concentrating on its most valuable customers and introducing new models targeted at younger riders. Despite facing significant market challenges, the company is taking proactive measures, as evidenced by its forecasts, to improve its financial performance. Despite facing many challenges still, it has come this far.

Income Projection Statement

Harley- Davidson’s financial forecast statement succinctly outlines the company’s expected revenues and expenses for the next fiscal year. Based on projected sales of $4.53 billion and operating expenses of $3.88 billion, the company projects an operating profit of $654 million for 2021. As a result, revenue from the activities will start coming in gradually. This is a significant increase above the corporation’s operating income of $159 million in 2020.

The launch of brand-new models and expanded marketing initiatives will be the main drivers of the anticipated growth in revenue for the company. The company intends to consolidate its manufacturing facilities throughout the globe as part of its continuing restructuring efforts to decrease expenses and the number of people it employs globally (Reddipalli, 2020). Nonetheless, it is projected that rising reorganization expenses and expenditures in the company’s electrification plan would continue to harm the business’s profitability.

Forecasted 12-Month Profit and Loss

The revenue and costs anticipated to be incurred by Harley-Davidson over the next year are broken out in great depth in the company’s projected profit and loss statement for the next 12 months. The anticipated revenue for the firm is in the amount of $4.53 billion, while the anticipated gross profit is in the amount of $1.36 billion. The firm anticipates generating a net income of $370 million after deducting all of its operational expenditures and taxes. It is mainly owing to the launch of new models and improved prices that the firm anticipates achieving a gross profit margin thirty percent greater than its average during its whole existence. Compared to the year 2022, it is anticipated that the operational expenditures of the corporation will be lower, principally due to attempts to minimize costs. Nevertheless, the company’s net income is still anticipated to be affected, both positively and negatively, by more significant investment in the company’s electrification plan as well as by higher restructuring expenses.

4-Year Profit and Loss Projection

Harley- Davidson’s projected income and expenditures over the next four years illuminate the company’s long-term financial health. New product lines and enhanced advertising are expected to boost yearly sales by 4 to 6 percent over the next four years. The corporation is specific that implementing its reorganization plans would result in considerable cost savings and increased earnings. The projections assume the company will keep pouring money into research and development to maintain a culture of innovation and stay in pace with consumer demand. By 2021, the business hopes to have released its first electric motorbike and will offer a more comprehensive selection of electric cars. The business’ electric vehicle selection will grow over the next several years. The company’s profit goals for the next four years are a 30% gross profit margin and a 5-8% net income margin. The company forecasts a rise in net income from $370 million in 2021 to $560 million in 2025, a CAGR of about 10%.

Sales Forecast

The sales estimate that Harley-Davidson provides an overview of the company’s anticipated motorcycle unit sales for the following yeaComparedson to the sales it anticipates making in 2020, the business anticipates making 170,000-185,000 motorbike sales in the next three years, representing an increase of 30-40%. This expansion is something that the firm hopes to do by concentrating on its most valuable customers and developing new models that appeal to younger riders. The sales projection made by the corporation is based on the assumption that the COVID-19 pandemic will continue to affect the market but that the vaccine distribution will progressively restore consumer confidence and buying power. The firm believes that it will also profit from its brand’s widespread familiarity and the dedication of its consumer base.

Cash Flow Projection

Harley-Davidson estimates that in 2021 it will earn $3.8 billion, spend $3.5 billion, and generate $328 million in positive free cash flow. An increase in projected revenues and improvements in working capital management is driving the company’s cash inflows. A variety of things may increase revenue. Due to Harley-increasing Davidson’s global reach and the release of several new models, market demand is predicted to rise. The expanding customer base of the business should be advantageous for General Goods and Parts & Accessories.

The business anticipates that reducing inventory levels, optimizing the supply chain, and boosting production efficiency would improve working capital management. These steps are being made to reduce the amount of money utilized in the company’s daily operations, enabling more of it to be reinvested in the company. Dividend payments, debt service, and capital expenditures are the firm’s key sources of cash outflow. Harley-Davidson anticipates investing $450 million in the capital in 2021 to support its growth goals. The company wants to broaden its selection of electric bicycles and improve its ability to produce them. The company also plans to repay $200 million in loans soon to reduce its current debt and improve its financial flexibility. After all this, Harley-Davidson will distribute $140 million in dividends to its stockholders. This is a crucial technique for paying back investments.

Projected Balance Sheet, Income statement for the Next 3 Years

The income statement and balance sheet projections for Harley-Davidson for the next three years provide valuable insight into the company’s predicted financial health and performance. The projections assume the firm will go on as planned, generating the anticipated income and cutting expenses as planned. In the next 3 years, the revenue for the company will increase by 5-6% annually, and henceforth it is expected to be $20 billion. In addition, by bolstering its growth efforts, the business will realize considerable cost savings, which would, in turn, enhance profitability over time.

The business expects its net income to grow from $370 million to $1 billion during the next three years. According to the balance sheet, the firm expects to generate positive free cash flow over the next three years, which will boost liquidity and strengthen the financial situation (Ahlers, 2019). In the following three years, the company’s total assets are expected to rise from $7 billion to $9 billion. On the other hand, we anticipate a reduction in overall liabilities from $4 billion to $2 billion over the next three years. In the next three years, shareholder equity will grow from $3 billion to $6 billion, signaling more robust financial health and a higher equity-to-assets ratio.

Payback Calculation

The payback calculation for Harley-Davidson determines how long it will take the firm to recover its investment in its restructuring strategy. In order to realize considerable cost reductions and boost its long-term profitability, the firm anticipates investing around $200 million in restructuring expenses over the following years. By 2023, it is anticipated that the reorganization plan will save the corporation $160 million annually in costs, according to forecasts made by the company. Applying for these numbers, the estimated payback time for the restructuring investment is 1.25 years, which means the business will recover its investment in slightly over a year. This payback time highlights the company’s commitment to long-term financial performance improvement and the possible financial rewards of its restructuring efforts. The firm hopes to achieve continuous development and provide value for its shareholders by lowering expenses and boosting profitability.


In conclusion, due to younger generations’ decreasing interest in motorcycles, Harley-Davidson has had considerable difficulties recently, including decreased sales and net profits. Nonetheless, the business has taken aggressive measures to enhance its financial performance, including concentrating on its core clientele, launching new models to draw in younger riders, reorganizing to generate cost reductions, and investing in electrification. The firm still has many market obstacles to overcome, but its financial statements and predictions show it is improving its financial health. A longer-term look at the company’s anticipated financial performance is provided by its four-year profit and loss forecast, which projects revenue growth of 4-6% yearly, a gross profit margin of 30%, and a net income margin of 5-8%. The company’s sales prediction for 2021 predicts a rise in motorcycle unit sales of 30–40%, while the cash flow projection predicts $328 million in positive free cash flow.


Ahlers, T. J. (2019). The Impact of Emotions on Consumer Decision-Making: A Consumer Behaviour Analysis of Hedonic Consumption as Related to the Harley-Davidson Brand (Doctoral dissertation, Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh).

Reddipalli, R. (2020). Report on Analysing consumer’s Psychological association with the brand-Harley Davidson, comparing with Triumph Motorcycles and understanding Attitude formation leading to Strategic Branding Decisions in India. Available at SSRN 3745730.

Wahlen, J. M., Baginski, S. P., & Bradshaw, M. (2022). Financial reporting, financial statement analysis, and valuation. Cengage learning.

Essay On Hegemonic Masculinity Sample College Essay

Maintaining hegemonic masculinity affects most societies negatively as it promotes the subjugation and marginalization of women while promoting criminal activities among men. However, we can move closer to achieving our goal of establishing a society that is more just and equitable for everyone if we advocate for non-hegemonic forms of masculinity and challenge the power dynamics that drive hegemonic masculinity. The idea of hegemonic masculinity significantly affects contemporary thinking regarding men, gender, and the general social relationship order (Jewkes et al., 2015). Hegemonic masculinity enables us to understand how different societies maintain different power relations and gender inequalities. This proposal will discuss the construction of hegemonic masculinity, its implications in the Canadian context, and appropriate initiatives that can help deal with the negative consequences of hegemonic masculinity.

The term “hegemonic masculinity” characterizes the existing ideology, social structure, and power dynamics perpetuating male dominance. As a result, most men view it as a normal and necessary thing to make them continue enjoying some power over their fellow men and the majority of women. The concept of hegemonic shows how men and women regularly give in to systems of oppression. However, resistance to hegemonic masculinity plays a significant role in advancing gender justice. According to Connell & Messerschmidt (2005), masculinity manifests in four categories that include hegemonic, complicit, subordinated, and marginalized, which are more relational than personality characteristics. In each given culture and period, the hegemonic viewpoint represents the standard of masculinity that is generally accepted. Therefore, the hegemonic male represents the ideal kind. However, this representation shifts through time and across locations and can even be contested within a society.

The second group, the complicit, includes the vast majority of men. These men buy into and contribute to the hegemonic masculinity systems to reap the substantial, corporal, and figurative rewards of female subjugation while avoiding subordination. They do this through fantasies in which they experience and grow to love a position of power over others. There is a clear hierarchy between the four roles. A man in a junior role may look like he has what it takes to rise to the top, but he nevertheless finds himself there. If men fail to conform to gender roles to the hegemonic system and ideology, they risk being subjugated. Men who openly identify as LGBT are the best examples (Connell & Messerschmidt, 2005). According to this philosophy, gay men just are not just men. Aiming for dominance is beyond their scope of validity. The widespread use of the insult “Be a man” is a form of active gender policing that serves to instill in its targets the subjugation fear, the legitimacy loss, and the descent into involvement. Most often, disabled men of color represent marginalized males who cannot even seek hegemony. When marginalized sets seek legitimacy, they can contest their status by appealing to be men too.

Connell & Messerschmidt (2005) employs hegemonic masculinity in a second context to explain the existing system of gender relationships: the way contemporary “con figurations of practice” organize social connections and institutions favors males over women and some men over others. Connell emphasizes the four dimensions that revolve around power, labor assignment, emotional interactions, and the process through which these reconfigurations of practice occur. Connell argues that the maintenance of men’s superior status is institutionalized as part of hegemonic masculinity, giving the impression that it is natural and inevitable. Government, the market, and the family are just a few of the key societal institutions designed to support and reproduce male hegemony through institutional design, credentialing, and figurative social manifestations. Other instances of how social institutions and cultural expectations depict the hierarchical interactions of men with other men include the ban on openly gay service members and the stereotyping of traditionally female positions like a librarian, elementary school teacher, and nurse.

The third way hegemonic masculinity is used is as an ideology, which justifies the legitimacy and continuation of patriarchy. Although men’s and women’s experiences vary due to racial differences, social class, and sexuality, hegemonic manliness as thought shapes how everyone experiences and, hence, knows the world (Buschmeyer & Lengersdorf, 2016). Hegemonic complicity is an ideology that may be measured along four categories: ideal form masculinity, hierarchy ranking of oneself and others, the subjugation of women, and acceptance of woman-type conduct. The concept of ideal-type masculinity holds that there is just one correct way to be a man. The conviction in one ideal type indicates this trait, although various kinds of people can present alternative ideal types and raise questions about their definitions.

Putting oneself and others in a hierarchy is an underexplored aspect of hegemonic masculinity. Some academics have viewed competition as a limiting aspect of masculinity or an impediment to genuine connection. However, the inner, reflective nature of dynamic hierarchical evaluation is overlooked in this framework. Males engage in constant, active comparison with other males and their own ideal type to establish a hierarchy (Kiesling, 2005). Overt and covert sexism and homophobia include the demotion of females and everyone or everything deemed feminine. Some might say that overt sexism and homophobia are on the decline. However, their lingering or residual impacts are still alive and well in the shape of attitudes about males, females, and sexuality.

The concept of hegemonic masculinity manifests in various aspects in the Canadian context. The commonly affected areas include economics, politics, media, and person-to-person relationships. In the political sphere, people always associate political leadership with masculinity. To qualify as a leader, one must possess certain traits that make them distinct from others. For instance, they must be strong and assertive and possess high competitive power. As a result, less privileged people may be denied an opportunity to express their leadership capabilities (Thomson, 2020). The most affected group is women and the marginalized genders. This belief also promotes negative gender stereotypes, which promote injustices and inequalities in the country. Female politicians always suffer from harassment and sexist comments, discouraging them from politics as most people believe leadership is meant for men. Women possess certain traits that could help them interact with the needs of people and advocate for their rights. Such traits include teamwork and empathy, although most men view the characteristics as weaknesses and therefore use them to discourage women from getting involved in politics.

Economically, hegemonic masculinity connects to the idea that men should be family’s sole breadwinners. While women manage families, men are expected to provide for the needs of their families. As a result, wage gaps and women’s discrimination are increased in different places of work. Society may also fail to recognize the role of women in building society as women appear as weak gender. In Canada, the majority of women in Canada earn fewer wages compared to women. The majority of women have high representations of women in low-paying jobs. Majority work as cleaners, caregivers food service jobs. Such jobs have less value in society, denying women an opportunity to advance in their careers, social life, and politics (Thomson, 2020). Still, the jobs are tiresome, and women are forced to work long hours, widening the poverty gap among less privileged families. Also, the issue of competition and individualism promotes the notion that men should remain self-sufficient, putting less value on the role of women as caregivers in their families. The cycle keeps revolving, and women’s neglect promotes high rates of gender inequalities and the persistence of hegemonic masculinity.

The media also demonstrate hegemonic masculinity through gender roles and relationship representation. The messages conveyed in the media, including the news, movies, books, songs, and commercials, significantly affect the formation and development of identities (Miele, 2020). People’s socioeconomic status, race, religion, and nationality-based identities are shaped by the cultural norms they meet and face through media consumption. Media culture’s outputs are the raw materials from which we construct our very selves, our sense of self, our understanding of what constitutes to be male or female, our class consciousness, our ethnic and racial identities, our nationalities, our sexual orientations, and our feeling of “us” and “them.” Media images significantly impact how we see the world and the values we hold most dear, whether those values are good, bad, moral, or immoral. Stories in the media provide the symbols, misconceptions, and resources that we use to create a shared culture and to integrate ourselves into that society. Most media platforms in Canada portray men as a dominant and powerful gender while women take part in subordinate roles. This contributes to increased rates of gender stereotypes which increases gender-based harassment and violence in the country. Women are highly sexualized and sexual harassment seems common among many people and gives rise to a culture that promotes toxic masculinity. The hostile environment promotes marginalization of women and makes their impact in the society less effective.

In relationships, hegemonic masculinity promotes a toxic culture that expects to have sexual dominance over women, be aggressive and emotionally detached. This promotes violence among partners, whether in marriages or relationships. When the society views men as emotionally detached, it becomes difficult for them to seek for mental help which has become prevalent in the entire society. As a result, it becomes difficult for men to develop positive relationships with others and increase the cases of violence. Sexual dominance also increases the normalization of sexual harassment and assault which affects an individual’s ability to relate well with others.

Combating the harmful effects of hegemonic masculinity requires a society that actively promotes gender equality and welcomes people of various identities and orientations. This includes fighting against sexist assumptions about leadership and promoting more opportunities for women and other traditionally underrepresented groups to hold political office. This includes promoting economic policies that increase the value of traditionally female-dominated fields and ensure that women and other oppressed groups receive equal pay and access to such fields (Jewkes, et al., 2015). In the media, this involves working to reduce negative gender stereotypes and increase depictions of all genders. Toxic masculinity and gender-based violence must be confronted, and positive, respectful relationships must be encouraged. The #MeToo movement is one such Canadian endeavor challenging hegemonic masculinity. The movement started in US and later it entered to other nations Canada being among them. The #MeToo movement’s main agenda is to advocate for the rights of women who have survived sexual assault and harassment (Levy & Mattsson, 2022). The movement encourages women to come out and voice their concerns and experiences which helps to boost their self esteem. The major issues the movement address is gender based violence and toxic masculinity. The movement highly condemn the normalization of sexual harassment among women. Among the policies prompted include promotion of work regulations and rules that prohibit actions that contribute to increased cases of sexual assault and harassment. Still, through anti-sexual-harassment awareness campaigns, women receive the courage to come out and speak against such injustices. Those who have been molested have a place where they can seek for counseling and also medical help.

In conclusion, hegemonic masculinity touches different facets of our cultures. It manifests politically, economically, socially and through media. The concepts is highly associated with dominion and power over other people. Hegemonic masculinity severely affects both men and women, and it represents a major contributor of oppressive stereotypes in the society. Women are the major victims of the concept and it denies them an opportunity to express their potential either politically or socially. However, advocating for policies that advocate for equality, social justice and contend against stereotypes that promote oppression in the society.


Buschmeyer, A., & Lengersdorf, D. (2016). The differentiation of masculinity as a challenge for the concept of hegemonic masculinity. NORMA11(3), 190-207. https://doi.org/10.1080/18902138.2016.1217672

Connell, R. W., & Messerschmidt, J. W. (2005). Hegemonic masculinity. Gender & Society19(6), 829-859. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243205278639

Jewkes, R., Morrell, R., Hearn, J., Lundqvist, E., Blackbeard, D., Lindegger, G., … & Gottzén, L. (2015). Hegemonic masculinity: combining theory and practice in gender interventions. Culture, health & sexuality17(sup2), 112-127.

Kiesling, S. F. (2005). Homosocial desire in men’s talk: Balancing and re-creating cultural discourses of masculinity. Language in Society34(5), 695-726.

Levy, R., & Mattsson, M. (2022). The effects of social movements: Evidence from# MeToo. Available at SSRN 3496903.

Miele, R. (2020). Hegemonic Masculinity and the Ideal Male Hockey Player: The Constructions of NHL Injuries in Popular Canadian Newspapers, 2016-2017 (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Western Ontario (Canada)).

Thomson, K. (2020). By the light of the corona (virus): revealing hegemonic masculinity and the double bind for men in responding to crises. Health Sociology Review29(2), 149-157.

Impact Of Divorce On Children And Child’s Behavior Free Essay

I. Introduction

According to a study conducted by Williams-Owens (2017), 40% of children in the U.S. experience divorce before they attain 18 years. Divorce is a significant life event that has far-reaching consequences for children. It affects their physical, psychological, and emotional health in numerous ways. Divorce can lead to changes in behavior, such as increased aggression, anxiety, and depression. As a result, it may lead to lower academic performance and poorer social skills and make it more difficult for children to form relationships with peers or adults outside the family system, among other severe effects. All these factors have an immense impact on the child’s growth and development throughout their lives.

The impact of divorce on children and their behavior is a topic that should be studied because it affects the lives of so many people. According to the United States Census Bureau, there were 2245404 marriages in 2019 and 827,261 divorces, translating to 37% of marriages that ended in divorce (Petrelli Previtera, LLC 2023). U.S. Census Bureau data shows the current divorce rate in the U.S. is 3.2 per 1000 population (Petrelli Previtera, LLC, 2023). This means that millions of children have been or will be affected by this life-changing event at some point during their lifetime. It is essential to understand the effects it can have on them and how best to support them through what can often be a traumatic experience for all involved. In light of this, the focus of this study is to explore the impacts of divorce on children and their behaviors.

II. Literature Review

The purpose of this study is to explore the impacts divorce has on children and their behaviors and some of the research questions and hypotheses for this study include;


The experience of parental divorce has a significant impact on the development, behavior, and well-being of children

Research Questions

  1. What are divorce’s emotional, psychological, and physical effects on children?
  2. How do boys and girls respond to parental divorce? Do younger or older children react differently?
  3. What role does family structure play in determining the outcomes of divorce?

The debate about the effects of divorce on children has been a topic of intense discussion among various authors for many years. Some argue that divorce can hurt children’s emotional and psychological health, while others maintain that it does not necessarily damage them in the long run. In the following section, this study will examine how various authors have debated the effects of divorce on children.

According to Williams-Owens (2017), the effects of divorce on children is likely to have short-term effects and long-term effects. Some of the short-terms effects include high-level of regression, acute separation anxiety and abandonment issues. The impact of divorce on children and their behavior is a complex issue. According to Malone et al. (2004), this can be studied by looking at “latent change score models,” which measure the effects of life events, such as divorce, on child behavior problems over time. The study found an increase in child behavior problems after parents divorced compared to before the event occurred. This suggests that children are more likely to display behavioral issues following parental separation or divorce than before.

This finding has important implications on understanding the psychological effects of family dissolution on young people’s lives and development trajectories into adulthood. These findings suggest that adverse consequences may arise from experiencing a parental breakup. They also indicate potential areas where intervention strategies could be developed in order help support those affected by it cope better with its associated challenges (Malone et al. 2004). For example, providing counseling services for both parents and their children during times of transition could help mitigate any long-term stressors resulting from changes brought about by familial restructuring due to separation or divorce (Malone et al. 2004). According to Demo and Acock (1988), divorce directly impacts children’s behavior, academic performance, social relationships, mental health status, and future family formation. Jacobson (1978) also found that when parents separate or get divorced, it significantly increases the risk of psychological disturbances in their offspring. Children may struggle with feelings such as sadness due to losing contact with one parent or guilt because they feel responsible for their parent’s separation or divorce. They may also display behavioral problems such as aggression towards peers or adults, withdrawal from friends, difficulty sleeping, increased anxiety levels, depression symptoms like low self-esteem, and lack of motivation in school activities (Demo and Acock 1988). Additionally, Jacobson’s research suggests that parental conflict before separation can further increase these adverse outcomes by exacerbating existing issues between the child and either parent.

According to FamilyMeans (2019), when parents divorce, it can lead to many adverse effects on their children. Poor academic performance is one such effect that may arise from divorce as the child’s focus shifts away from schoolwork due to emotional distress and changes within the family dynamic (FamilyMeans 2019). Additionally, a child may lose interest in social activities or have difficulty adapting to change due to feeling overwhelmed by life’s new adjustments (FamilyMeans 2019).

Furthermore, emotions are heightened for both parent and child during this difficult time which could result in feelings of guilt or anger, or irritability for either party involved (Familymeans 2019) Furthermore these emotions, which are not correctly managed, could ultimately lead to towards more destructive behavior such as drug use or criminal activity amongst teens who experience parental divorce (Familymeans 2019). Similarly, divorce can cause increased stress-related health problems, such as depression and anxiety (Familymeans 2019) and loss of faith in the marriage family unit.

Although there are many potential adverse impacts associated with divorce on children’s lives, there are steps that both parents can take together to reduce some of its negative consequences. For instance, having an open dialogue about what happened during the marriage, providing emotional support and attending therapy sessions together if needed all have been shown empirically help improve overall adjustment among young people affected by parental breakups(Jacobson 1978).

III. Method

A. Participants

The study to establish the Impact of Divorce on Children and Child’s Behavior would require participants to succeed. The study participants could include children who have experienced a divorce and their parents and those who have not gone through the experience. This will allow comparing how family dynamics affect a child’s behavior.

In terms child going to be studied, the study will look at various factors such as communication between parent and child, changes in academic performance or social activities since the divorce occurred, and any behavioral issues that may arise from it (such as aggression or withdrawal). The study will also explore if there are any differences depending on the age when it comes time for them to deal with their parent’s separation or divorce. For the sample group size, enough participants will be recruited to make the results statistically significant. However, the sample size will be small enough that resources will not be stretched too thin to manage all the data collected from each participant. Therefore, around 20-30, families should suffice for this project. The study will utilize random sampling techniques such as drawing names out of hats or assigning numbers associated with potential individuals within specific criteria (for instance, divorced parents whose children range between ages 5-10). By doing this, the study will ensure an adequate representation across gender while maintaining some control over who participates in the research project.

B. Instrumentation

The instrumentation process for a study on the impact of divorce on children and child behavior will involve several methods to measure variables. First, interviews with parents and their children will be conducted to gain insight into how each family member has been affected by the divorce. This could include questions about how they felt before, during, and after the divorce and any behavior changes that may have occurred since then. Additionally, surveys can be administered to assess stress levels or emotional distress among participants due to separation or other related factors. Surveys may also ask about behaviors such as aggression towards peers or siblings that might have changed following a parental split-up.

Another way of measuring variables will be through observation techniques which will be helpful when studying younger children who cannot verbalize their feelings accurately enough for an interview setting but still show signs of being impacted by a significant life event like this one through nonverbal communication cues such as facial expressions or body language shifts over time (before versus after). Furthermore, school records will be consulted if available since these often provide valuable information regarding academic performance, which could indicate whether there was any significant change in achievement level resulting from parental separation or divorce. This would help establish correlations between educational outcomes and family structure more concretely than relying on personal accounts from parent and child interviews or surveys.

Similarly, quantitative data analysis will form part of the research design so that all results collected via these various instruments can then be compared against one another statistically speaking. This will allow the researchers to identify patterns within individual cases and across them, thereby allowing them to draw broader conclusions regarding what effects exactly divorces tend to produce when it comes to their influence upon young people’s lives.

C. Procedures

When using quantitative data, survey methods or interviews will collect information from parents about their experiences with divorce and its effects on their children. When using qualitative data, interviews will be conducted with participants who have gone through a divorce and those currently going through it.

Ethical considerations must also be taken into account when collecting data to ensure that all participants are treated fairly and respectfully throughout the process. This will include obtaining informed consent from each participant before any interview so they fully understand what they agree to participate in and how their information will be used afterward. Additionally, researchers should strive for confidentiality by not sharing personal details obtained during an interview without prior permission from each participant involved in the study.

Moreover, after analyzing results collected during this research project, careful consideration will be given to interpreting findings objectively rather than making assumptions based on personal bias or opinionated views regarding specific topics discussed within this field, such as custody battles between divorced couples or financial implications associated with raising children after a separation has occurred between two spouses.

IV. Analysis

The type of data analysis used will depend on the research goals and objectives. For quantitative results, tables and graphs will be created to visually represent the data collected from participants to identify patterns or trends within groups. In addition, statistical analyses such as t-tests or chi-square tests will be conducted to measure differences between two variables (for instance divorced parents vs. non-divorced parents).

Similarly, qualitative methods will also be used for this type of research project to gain more insight into how individuals perceive their experiences with divorce and their effects on their children’s behavior. This will involve interviews with participants where they are asked open-ended questions about what they have observed regarding changes in their child’s emotional state since going through a divorce process or having experienced it growing up as a child. Through these conversations, researchers will uncover themes related to how people feel about divorces affecting them emotionally, which would not necessarily show up quantitatively but still provides valuable information that should not be overlooked when trying to understand this complex issue further.

In addition, qualitative and quantitative approaches will be potentially incorporated together using surveys that incorporate both closed-ended items (quantitative) and open-ended items (qualitative ), allowing for comparisons across different types of responses from each participant while still gaining some depth understanding of individual perspectives. All three approaches will offer unique ways for analyzing the information gathered during this study providing comprehensive insights into how exactly divorces affect children’s behaviors over time.

V. Discussion

The proposed research to establish the impact of divorce on children and child’s behavior will have certain limitations. One limitation is that it would be difficult to measure the long-term effects of divorce on a child’s behavior since such products may not manifest until much later in life. Additionally, it can be challenging to control for factors such as family background or other environmental influences that could affect a child’s behaviors and attitudes toward their parents after a divorce. Furthermore, there could also be ethical considerations when dealing with minors involved in this study due to their vulnerability during this period.

If successful results were found from this research project, one implication would involve providing better services for divorced families where both parents remain actively involved in raising their children even after separation. This type of service might include counseling sessions for adults and children so they can learn how best to cope with any changes brought about by the end of a marriage or civil union. These services should also help lessen any negative emotions associated with going through an emotionally taxing event like divorce so that everyone involved can move forward positively into new stages of life without feeling overly burdened by past experiences.

Another possible result stemming from this study would involve making policy changes at the government level, which ensures more excellent protection against parental alienation syndrome (PAS). PAS occurs when one parent deliberately influences their offspring against spending time with another parent following separation. Thus, laws protecting vulnerable parties affected by PAS are essential. All these findings should help gain further insight into how divorces affect individuals – especially young ones -and provide guidance on how best to assist them during transitionary periods within familial relationships.

VI References Cited

Demo, D. H., & Acock, A. C. (1988). The Impact of Divorce on Children. Journal of Marriage and the Family50(3), 619. https://doi.org/10.2307/352634

FamilyMeans. (2019). What are the effects of divorce on children? Family Means. https://www.familymeans.org/effects-of-divorce-on-children.html

Jacobson, D. S. (1978). The Impact of Marital Separation/Divorce on Children. Journal of Divorce1(4), 341–360. https://doi.org/10.1300/j279v01n04_05

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