Harriet Tubman: Female Union Spies In Civil War Writing Sample

Harriet Tubman is a significant mention in the American history. She is among the few women who participated in the American Civil War. She began her life as the daughter of a slave and later on she started working in the fields as her family (Agard, 2020). However, she began plotting her escape and later lead many slaves into freedom. Consequently, she played a critical role in the abolition of slavery.

Harriet Tubman developed unique navigational skills while working in the plantations that aided her to develop the underground railroad network. She managed to escape from slavery to the free lands on her own. Tubman made several return trips to Maryland to help other slaves to navigate to reach the free states. She liberated 70 fugitives into freedom and guided several others on how to make their escape (Green, 2020).

Furthermore, Harriet Tubman continued to play the critical role of liberation even outside her home. During the Civil War, Tubman volunteered to offer her services as a nurse, a cook and a scout. She had acquired unique navigational skills as the rail road conductor (Murray, 2020). Consequently, she was allowed to leave the traditional women duty and allowed to take the role that matched her exceptional route-finding abilities. She served on the front line of the Civil War in South Carolina. She actively led scouting parties of men and they obtained critical intelligence for their troops. Tubman’s most notable achievement in the civil war is the raid at Combahee River. Harriet Tubman led the navigation through the pro -slavery fields where they burnt their plantations and freed slaves. Over the years, Tubman formed a network with other prominent abolitionists such as Martha Coffin Wright, Frederick Douglass (Murray, 2020). Harriet was also an active advocate for women suffrage and she fought courageously for the rights of the people of color.


Agard, S. A. (2020). Harriet Tubman: A Journey to Freedom (Trailblazers). The School Librarian, 68(2), 112.

Green, H. (2020). She Came to Slay: The Life and times of Harriet Tubman. Civil War Book Review. doi:10.31390/cwbr.22.2.14

Murray, H. (2020). The Role of Female Union Spies in The Civil War. New York: Cavendish Square Publishing.

Hospital Waste Recycling As A Policy Change

Hospitals produce a large amount of waste daily from plastics, cardboard, needles, mixed papers, glass, and hazardous waste. Inappropriate waste disposal methods significantly impact the environment and have indirect health effects. I would not recommend landfills and incineration of waste widely practiced by hospitals. Disposing of hospital waste in landfills contaminates the soil and water sources, indirectly risking contaminated diseases (CDC, 2015). Large volumes of non-biodegradable wastes produced by hospitals cannot be decomposed. Recycling with adequate systems is environmentally sound to maintain patient safety and the environment.

Environmental recycling should be classified to preserve the health of patients and workers in your hospital. The World Health Organization estimates that 85% of hospital waste is non-hazardous, whereas 15% is hazardous (WHO, 2018). While incineration is the most effective management for hazardous material, solid non-hazardous waste poses a challenge to landfills. However, unlike regular waste, solid waste in hospitals is contaminated with micro-organisms from infectious patients that, if not disposed of and handled with an efficient procedure, risk causing harm to anyone who comes in contact with them. Therefore, the recycling process in hospitals is conducted with much care and follows a standard procedure to mitigate contamination threats.

A recycling department would be effective in handling solid waste in hospitals. The recycling department will have a functional organizational structure will a leader and other groups performing specific functions. Before recycling, the solid waste from hospitals should be chemically disinfected with the appropriate precaution to prevent contamination risks. All waste generated from hospitals, despite their material, should be considered hazardous or infectious (Adelodun et al., 2021). The waste will then be sorted according to material and recyclability. Recycling will convert solid waste into substitute raw materials for new products such as paperboard and building insulation. I want to establish a recycling department to manage paper, cardboard, non-medical, and packaging waste.


Adelodun, B., Ajibade, F. O., Ibrahim, R. G., Ighalo, J. O., Bakare, H. O., Kumar, P., & Choi, K. S. (2021). Insights into hazardous solid waste generation during the COVID-19 pandemic and sustainable management approaches for developing countries. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 23(6), 2077-2086.

CDC. (2015). Medical waste. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

WHO. (2018). Health-Care Waste. World Health Organization.

The Results Of The American Civil War

When it comes to the Civil War’s outcomes, these were monumental: the establishment of a stronger federal government, validation of the United States’ single political entity, and, evidently, freedom for millions of enslaved African Americans. In terms of the latter, the rights of newly liberated people were sought to be established and protected immediately after the end of the war. According to Watson (2018), this period of time is referred to as Reconstruction and is considered to last from 1865 to 1877. In the early years of Reconstruction, there were legal attempts to further maintain Black people’s suppression. New southern legislatures under President Andrew Johnson passed the Black Codes, the restrictive laws to control the life and labor of African Americans. The North’s indignation about these codes led to the undermining of the support for the Presidential Reconstruction approach and, as a consequence, the triumph of the Republican Party’s radical wing. So-called Radical Reconstruction began when the Reconstruction Act of 1867 was passed; during that time, Black people managed to obtain a voice in the government – for the first time in the country’s history.

Reconstruction saw Congress passing and enforcing laws promoting civil and political rights for Black people in the South. As per Watson (2018), the most remarkable among these laws were the Amendments to the Constitution of the United States: the Thirteenth, the Fourteenth, and the Fifteenth. African Americans were actively exercising citizenship rights, responsibilities, and opportunities. For one, during Reconstruction, a few hundred Black men held elected public office; two were United States Senators, and fourteen were the House of Representatives, members. Over a thousand more Blacks, male and female, were appointed to government jobs. It seemed that finally came the times for no limitations for Black Americans as compared to their white folks. The federal government, headed by Republicans in Congress, was resolute about the necessity of civil and political rights for Black people in spite of the ferocious opposition of white Southerners.

Eventually, reactionary forces led by these white Southerners reversed Radical Reconstruction’s changes through a wave of violence that reestablished white supremacy on their territories. Everyone knows about the Ku Klux Klan; however, as noted by Watson (2018), several other groups were seeking to bring back the suppression of Black people after the end of slavery, for instance, by the early 1870s, a union known as the Redeemers emerged with intentions of reimposing the South’s old order. The Redeemers were a fully white, pro-Democratic-Party group of wealthy businessmen, traders, and farmers, all of whom had disdain for Republicanism and the granting of rights for African Americans. The group’s collective goal was the destruction of the race relations and political institutions that had developed during Reconstruction. In other words, the Redeemers aimed at ending state governments controlled by Republicans and restricting Black people’s common right to equality, concurrently removing them from political positions.

Groups such as the Redeemers resorted to violence and threats of violence for the weakening the Republican vote. According to Watson (2018), by the 1876 presidential elections, there were only three states in the South of which white Democrats had not yet gained control: Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana. The results of the election – featuring the democratic candidate Tilden and the Republican candidate Hayes – are believed to be the result of negotiations between the parties leaders. It became known as the Compromise of 1877, according to which Hayes won in return for a great number of benefits for the South, including the withdrawal of Federal troops from the states remaining unoccupied. As these forces were withdrawn, Reconstruction came to an end.


Watson, H. L. (2018). Building the American republic, volume 1: A narrative history to 1877. University of Chicago Press.

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