Hazard Recognition, Risk Assessment, And Control University Essay Example

On January 4th, 2011, an incident at a warehouse resulted in the death of a 63-year-old supervisor who was hit by discarded clothing bales that fell on her. The victim, the shoe manager, was struck by two bales adjacent to the entrance on each side as she returned from a break. Even though the entrance was often utilized, the bales were dumped next to it and piled six bales high by a forklift operator. The event resulted in one death, which may be considered the sole death and injury it caused. However, as these were worn garments and there were no other reported losses outside the woman’s death, the occurrence brought no further damages. In recent years similar accidents have been occurring in different workplaces when carrying out our daily activities, causing death or permanent damage of some losing their body parts.

Hazard Overview

The gravity danger, whose possible connected injury might result in a fracture, long-term injuries, concussions, dislocations, lacerations, bruising, or death, as in the occurrence under investigation, contributed to the incidents. This kind of risk may be brought on by slips, slides, falls, or falling items that were unintentionally positioned in the way of people. Frequently, things, particularly those that are overweight, are carelessly put such that they may harm individuals if they fall on them.

Similar to the instance presented above, the forklift operator sets the bales next to a door often used by employees, lowering the likelihood that anybody struck by one of the bales would survive (Watjanatepin & Prodano, 2018). Of course, there are other locations where the bales might have been put. If that was the only location where he wanted the used clothing bales to be placed, he could have also attempted another way of stacking them, maybe up to a maximum of three or even placing them in the normal ways they were keeping them before. Considerable care should be made to prevent such risks from happening to anybody shortly (Leso et al., 2018). The seriousness of the hazard, which in many circumstances may be dangerous, has been demonstrated to be one of them.

Ways of prevention of the hazard

There are several ways the same danger may have been avoided and eliminated by following the four phases of hazard management and control in the workplace. The first stage is hazarding identification, which may teach employees and forklift operators about the many risks and how to spot them (Watjanatepin, & Prodano, 2018). Gravity is the danger in this situation, implying that objects can fall and may do so to the point where they strike a person which is not supposed to happen. This could result in permanent injuries such as concussions, dislocations, lacerations, bruises, and fractures, or it could be even more dangerous and result in the victim’s death (Fox et al., 2018).

Of course, there are other techniques for discovering hazards, some of which include moving about the workplace and identifying both safe and harmful objects. When choosing where potentially dangerous equipment could be located, it is also crucial to consider how people and the operator move and they can be protected from similar dangers. Like in the case scenario, the forklift operator should have done enough research on the location to know that the workers frequently used the door he was staking the bales on and that using such tools in the industry could result in injury and that stacking them in a path that almost every employer uses were not a safe activity (Fox et al., 2018). He should have warned everyone about the issue before they stampeded into it after stacking the bales and discovering that they were unstable and even after that try to make them to be stable to prevent that from happening.

Once the danger has been located, the risk assessment is next conducted. The bales may be stacked adjacent to the entrance (Johannessen, 2018). Still, you should make the employees aware that it is unsafe for them to approach the items in this example, the bales, especially if you know that any external pressures applied to such materials might cause toppling. Unless one is sure it will not hurt anybody at work, one should do risk assessments on everything labelled dangerous. Ask them if their everyday tasks require the employees to adopt uncomfortable or prolonged postures, move repetitively, or do both (Fox et al., 2018). Once you are sure they are there or you have evaluated the hazards associated with the item or danger, go on to hazard control.

The level one measure is the most suitable and efficient one according to the hierarchy of hazard management. The optimum course of action in this circumstance would be elimination, which is the most convenient method. After seeing the repetitious employees’ movement, the forklift driver might have removed the bales from the entrance to avoid the accident. By doing this, the incident may have been avoided, and under the given circumstances, this approach could have worked well.

He may have, instead, marked the space and the entrance as dangerous and isolated it. To do this, it could have required time to inform everyone about the present situation and put each employee in the loop (Li et al., 2022). As a result of their tight working relationships, teaching them about the dangers of the bales beforehand rather than revealing them after it is too late and they need to be made aware of what is happening, as happened in this instance, may prove to be useless. Lastly, the risk should be evaluated to make sure that every precaution taken does not prove harmful in any way, and if it does, then all actions should be taken to guarantee that the employees are free from the risks in the workplace (Fox et al., 2018).

Hazard control defence

Hazard management procedures should be frequently carried out in every workplace to ensure that operational activities do not harm employees. Additionally, regularly conducting this helps the organization avoid many hazard-related risks (Johannessen, 2018). There should be a written document identifying the locations where these bales are to be stored, and those locations should be open, well-spaced, and away from the employees’ usual pathways. Hazard control procedures should be regularly carried out, and most importantly, the risk evaluation associated with such hazards to ensure that future accidents are prevented is a requirement as a safety measure for hazard control. For example, the incident could have been prevented if the forklift operator had known where such bales should be stored (Leso et al., 2018).


It is true that some accidents cannot be prevented as sometimes the machines which we use sometimes are faulty but it always good for each and everyone should try to prevent this from happening. This can be done by introducing safety measure in the working in the workplaces which can be even giving the working staff some protective gears like helmets, safety boots, gloves and other considerable equipment which will help to prevent or even reducing the impact of the accident incase it occurs. Even educating the staff on the types of dangers which may occur in these workplaces is important as they will be able to keep them safe and know what to do when the accidents occur. It can be also be good if the workplaces can be designed in a better way and standard on in which can be setting special areas to put the items which can cause the dangers. Also constructing spacious workplaces which I believe it will help to reduce the amount of the accidents and the hazards that occur a good example is in this case if the workplace was spacious the victim could maybe walk a distance from the bales or even the driver would have stored it away from the door. At sometimes some accidents that occur can be avoided and this will be a big step to reduce the amount of them making the work be done well and all the working staff feel safe and cared for.


Fox, M. A., Spicer, K., Chosewood, L. C., Susi, P., Johns, D. O., & Dotson, G. S. (2018). Implications of applying cumulative risk assessment to the workplace. Environment international115, 230-238. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412017319864

Johannessen, J. A. (2018). The workplace of the future: The fourth industrial revolution, the precariat and the death of hierarchies. CRC Press. https://library.oapen.org/handle/20.500.12657/43897

Leso, V., Fontana, L., & Iavicoli, I. (2018). The occupational health and safety dimension of Industry 4.0. La Medicina del lavoro109(5), 327. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7682172/

Li, Y., Xie, D., He, L., Zhao, A., Wang, L., Kreisberg, N. M., … & Liu, Y. (2022). Dynamics of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in the indoor air of an office. Building and Environment223, 109446. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360132322006771

Watjanatepin, P., & Prodano, D. (2018). Tools for assessment of occupational health risks of some engineered nanoparticles and carbon materials used in semiconductor applications. Occupational Health and Safety-A Multi-Regional Perspective. London10. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=E3eQDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA39&dq=).+Hazard+and+risk+assessment+of+workplace+exposure+to+engineered+nanoparticles:+Methods,+issues,+and+carbon+nanotube+case+study&ots=QSTecKUGPN&sig=-U4ihayuhOQ7zJlS5fJkD-MoLNw

Hazard Reduction Programs Free Sample

Programs for reducing risks of disease, injury, and death brought on by dangerous working conditions and environmental dangers are known as “hazard reduction programs.” These programs often incorporate prevention techniques, including setting up safety gear, instructing staff members in correct safety procedures, carrying out routine safety inspections, and giving staff members access to safety resources. Additionally, designing evacuation plans, hazard mapping, and emergency response procedures may all be included in hazard reduction initiatives. Natural or manufactured disaster mitigation programs can be applied in managing the risks as they differ based on the type of disaster involved.

Natural disasters mitigation programs

Flood Mitigation: Programs to mitigate the effects of floods on people and property are called flood mitigation measures. This may include structural measures, like building levees, flood barriers, and flood control systems, as well as non-structural ones, including managing floodplains, educating the public and enforcing land-use restrictions. Usually, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or state and local governments serve as the source for these programs. Floods impact mitigation plans ensure that localities are better ready to handle these catastrophes when they happen. This might include producing precise flood maps, designing structures with flood protection, and offering flood insurance(Yuan et al., 2021).

Earthquake Mitigation: Programs for earthquake mitigation aim to lessen the effects of quakes on people and property. This may include non-structural measures like public awareness campaigns, land-use restrictions, seismic zoning, and structural ones like upgrading structures to make them more robust to seismic activity. Usually, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) or state and municipal governments serve as the source for these initiatives. In order to make sure that societies are more equipped and prepared to handle these catastrophes when they happen, communities’ experiences with earthquakes are reflected in mitigation initiatives. This might include producing precise seismic maps, designing seismically sound structures, and offering earthquake insurance.

Wildfire Mitigation: Programs for reducing the effects of wildfires on people and property are known as “wildfire mitigation.” This may involve structural measures like the construction of fuel and fire breaks and quasi-ones like public awareness campaigns, land use rules, and fuel management. Usually, the United States Forest Service (USFS) or state and municipal governments serve as the funding source for these initiatives. Wildfires impact mitigation initiatives to ensure that localities are better ready to handle these catastrophes when they happen (Yuan et al., 2021). This may include producing precise fire maps, designing structures with fire resistance, and offering fire insurance.

Manufactured disasters mitigation programs

Cybersecurity Mitigation: Programs for cybersecurity mitigation aim to lessen the effects of cyber-attacks on individuals and businesses. This might include structural measures like reliable authentication and encryption techniques and non-structural measures like public outreach, awareness raising, and the enforcement of security guidelines. Usually, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) or commercial security companies serve as the source for these programs. Cyber-attacks impact mitigation plans by ensuring that companies are better ready to handle these catastrophes when they happen. This may include designing safe systems, offering cyber insurance, and generating precise threat models.

Terrorism Mitigation: Programs for terrorism mitigation aim to lessen the effects of terrorist attacks on individuals and organizations. This might include both structural and non-structural actions, such as the deployment of effective counterterrorism programs and the enforcement of security regulations. Usually, the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) or private security companies serve as the programs’ sources. Terrorism impacts mitigation strategies by ensuring institutions are more equipped and ready to react to these catastrophes when they happen. This may include establishing secure systems, constructing precise threat models, and offering terrorist insurance.

Chemical Disaster Mitigation: Programs to mitigate chemical catastrophes are intended to lessen the effects on individuals and organizations. This might include structural measures, such as establishing strict safety rules, and non-structural measures, such as public awareness campaigns and enforcing safety regulations. Usually, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or commercial safety companies serve as the source for these initiatives. Chemical accidents impact mitigation strategies to ensure that businesses are better ready to handle these catastrophes when they happen (Bronfman et al., 2019). Examples include developing precise risk models, designing secure systems, and offering chemical insurance.

Depending on the kind of catastrophe, different programs are implemented. In order to lessen the potential effects of flooding, for instance, floodplain management often involves the identification of flood danger regions and creating of zoning rules, land-use restrictions, and other measures. Directed burning, fuel treatments, and other strategies are used in wildfire prevention to lower the danger of wildfires. The creation of building guidelines and guidelines for new construction, as well as the retrofitting and strengthening of existing structures, are all aspects of earthquake mitigation (Rijal et al., 2020). The creation of emergency preparedness plans for dealing with artificial catastrophes is part of emergency management planning (Bronfman et al., 2019). The correct handling, labelling, and disposal of potentially dangerous items are all part of hazardous materials management. Implementing safeguards against online attacks and other unwanted behaviour is part of cybersecurity.

 Impact of the programs, including the program effectiveness and unresolved issues

Numerous communities are now more prepared and able to react to natural and artificial catastrophes due to the programs’ tremendous effect. Reduced loss of life and damage, quicker emergency responses, and more public knowledge are all signs of the program’s efficacy. To further improve program efficacy, specific extraordinary challenges must be addressed (Canton, 2019). These problems include insufficient money for mitigating measures, a lack of public awareness and education, and insufficient implementation of security and safety laws. Governments, corporations, and communities must collaborate to ensure that mitigation measures are appropriately financed and executed to address these concerns effectively.


Bronfman, N. C., Cisternas, P. C., Repetto, P. B., & Castañeda, J. V. (2019). Natural disaster preparedness in a multi-hazard environment: Characterizing the sociodemographic profile of those better (worse) prepared. PloS one14(4), e0214249. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214249

Canton, L. G. (2019). Emergency management: Concepts and strategies for effective programs. John Wiley & Sons. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=-rKMDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP13&dq=Identify+the+sources+for+each+of+the+programs+and+explain+the+influence+of+disasters+on+mitigation+programs&ots=5PL8K0e1wY&sig=71zYaP9mhUyk5foU0_Vj5W3r4YY

Rijal, S., Adhikari, S., & Shrestha, A. (2020). Guiding documents for disaster risk reduction and management in health care system of Nepal. JNMA: Journal of the Nepal Medical Association58(230), 831. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7654482/

Yuan, Y., Pan, Y. T., Zhang, Z., Zhang, W., Li, X., & Yang, R. (2021). Nickle nanocrystals decorated on graphitic nanotubes with broad channels for fire hazard reduction of epoxy resin. Journal of Hazardous Materials402, 123880. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304389420318690

Health Policy Paper Essay Example

The Clean Air Act, authored by Senator Edmund Muskie and Congresswoman Edith Green, was signed into law in 1970 by President Richard Nixon. The Act was sponsored by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (Kuklinska et al., 2015). It was created to protect public health and welfare from the effects of air pollution by regulating the emissions of hazardous air pollutants from industrial and mobile sources. The Clean Air Act sets National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for six major air pollutants, also known as criteria pollutants. These pollutants are ozone, carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter. The Clean Air Act also sets standards for hazardous air pollutants and limits vehicle emissions (Koman et al., 2018). Additionally, the Act requires states to develop plans to control air pollution, providing the EPA with authority to enforce the regulations. The Clean Air Act has been amended numerous times since its passage, most recently in 1990, to reduce air pollution further and protect public health and the environment.

The study by Koman et al. (2018) explores the potential risks posed to pregnant women from exposure to air pollution and the potential for the Clean Air Act to help reduce these risks. By analyzing exposure to air pollution and assessing the potential health risks posed to at-risk populations, the authors find a correlation between exposure to air pollution and an increased risk of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. Furthermore, this risk is further elevated in the presence of social determinants of health, such as poverty, education level, race/ethnicity, and health insurance coverage (Koman et al., 2018). The authors suggest that the Clean Air Act could be used to help address this risk by targeting the most vulnerable populations through pollution control strategies. This could include improving air quality by reducing emissions from industrial sources and encouraging cleaner transportation. The Clean Air Act could also reduce air pollution exposure through improved public health campaigns and education. The authors’ findings indicate that exposure to air pollution is associated with an increased risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnant women (Koman et al., 2018). This risk is further elevated in the presence of social determinants of health, such as poverty, education level, race/ethnicity, and health insurance coverage. The Clean Air Act could target the most vulnerable populations and reduce their exposure to air pollution.

The study by Kuklinska et al. (2015) reviews the air quality policies in the US and the EU, including the Clean Air Act (CAA) in the US and the Air Quality Directive in the EU. The authors discuss the key elements of the CAA and the directive of the European Parliament, including the goals and regulations, and analyze how effective the two regulations have been in improving air quality. The CAA, passed in 1970, is the primary piece of air quality legislation in the US, and its goal is to reduce air pollution and protect public health (Kuklinska et al., 2015). The CAA sets National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for six criteria pollutants and requires states to meet these standards. The CAA also sets emission standards for various sources of air pollution and requires states to develop plans to reduce emissions. The directive, passed in 2008, is the primary piece of air quality legislation in the EU, and its goal is to protect human health and the environment from air pollution. The directive sets the limit and target values for air pollutants, including particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. It requires Member States to monitor and report air quality (Kuklinska et al., 2015). The AQD also requires Member States to take action to reduce air pollution when the prescribed limit values are exceeded.

The article by Boubel et al. (2013) provides a comprehensive overview of the Clean Air Act and its role in regulating air pollution. The authors explain that the Clean Air Act was enacted in the United States in 1970 to reduce the emissions of pollutants that contribute to air pollution and harm human health. They discuss the types of pollutants that the Clean Air Act regulates, including ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, and lead. The authors also discuss the sources of air pollution, such as cars, factories, and power plants, and how they are regulated by the Clean Air Act (Boubel et al., 2013). Finally, they discuss strategies for reducing air pollution, such as reducing vehicle emissions and improving energy efficiency. The article provides a detailed overview of the Clean Air Act and its role in protecting human health from air pollution. The authors found that the Clean Air Act successfully reduced air pollution and improved air quality nationwide. They also found that although the Act has significantly reduced air pollution, more must be done to protect human health from the effects of air pollution (Boubel et al., 2013). The authors recommend strategies such as reducing vehicle emissions and improving energy efficiency to improve air quality.

The article by Kelly and Fussell (2015) discusses the increasing risks posed by air pollution to human health. The authors argue that air pollution is becoming a major global health issue and that it is important to understand the emerging risks of air pollution. They also suggest that the Clean Air Act, passed in 1970 in the United States, is an important part of managing air pollution. The authors point out that air pollution comprises various pollutants, such as particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. These pollutants can have both short-term and long-term impacts on human health. In particular, the authors note that long-term exposure to these pollutants can lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses and cancer (Kelly & Fussell, 2015). The authors also argue that the Clean Air Act is important for managing air pollution and reducing its health impacts. The Clean Air Act mandates limits on certain pollutants and requires certain industries to install pollution control measures.

The Clean Air Act has enormously impacted air pollution and its threat to health. This legislation has been responsible for implementing safeguards that protect the public from the dangers of air pollution. The Act requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set and enforce national standards for six types of air pollutants, including ozone, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, lead, and sulfur dioxide. By setting and enforcing limits on the amount of air pollutants released into the environment, the Clean Air Act has helped reduce air pollution and its associated health risks. Additionally, the Clean Air Act has encouraged the development of new technologies that can reduce emissions and improve air quality. These advancements have allowed for more efficient energy production, transportation, and industrial processes that help to reduce air pollution further. By reducing air pollution, the Clean Air Act has helped to reduce the threat of health problems caused by air pollution, such as asthma, lung cancer, heart disease, and other respiratory illnesses.

There are several pros that arise from the Clean Air Act. First, the Clean Air Act (CAA) has successfully reduced air pollution in the United States. The CAA has helped to reduce the levels of hazardous air pollutants by more than 70% since its passage in 1970 (Kelly & Fussell, 2015). This has reduced the number of premature deaths and other health problems related to air pollution. Second, the CAA has helped to create jobs in the renewable energy sector and other areas of the economy dedicated to improving air quality. This has benefited the economy, creating new sources of employment and revenue. Lastly, the CAA has incentivized businesses to invest in cleaner technologies and energy efficiency, which helps reduce air pollution and energy consumption. This can lead to cost savings for businesses, as well as help to reduce environmental impacts.

However, the Act also presents several cons. First, the CAA can be costly for businesses to comply with, as they may need to invest in new technologies and infrastructure to reduce their emissions. This can be a burden for businesses, especially small businesses that may not have the resources to make such investments. Second, the CAA has been criticized for giving too much power to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which some argue may be overreaching in its enforcement efforts (Boubel et al., 2013). Overregulation could lead to a decrease in economic competitiveness and innovation. Lastly, the CAA can be difficult to enforce, as some businesses may not be willing to comply with the regulations. This can lead to a lack of enforcement and inadequate air quality standards.

In a nutshell, the Clean Air Act has successfully reduced air pollution in the United States and helped to protect the public from the health risks associated with air pollution. The Act has also benefited the economy, creating new sources of jobs and revenue and encouraging businesses to invest in cleaner technologies. The Act is an important tool for managing air pollution and reducing its health impacts, and its implementation has been a major step towards improving air quality and public health.


Boubel, R. W., Vallero, D., Fox, D. L., Turner, B., & Stern, A. C. (2013). Fundamentals of air pollution. Elsevier.

Kelly, F. J., & Fussell, J. C. (2015). Air pollution and public health: emerging hazards and improved understanding of risk. Environmental geochemistry and healthpp. 37, 631–649.

Koman, P. D., Hogan, K. A., Sampson, N., Mandell, R., Coombe, C. M., Tetteh, M. M., … & Woodruff, T. J. (2018). Examining joint effects of air pollution exposure and social determinants of health in defining “at‐risk” populations under the Clean Air Act: susceptibility of pregnant women to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. World Medical & health policy10(1), 7–54. https://doi.org/10.1002/wmh3.257

Kuklinska, K., Wolska, L., & Namiesnik, J. (2015). Air quality policy in the US and the EU–a review. Atmospheric Pollution Research6(1), 129-137.https://doi.org/10.5094/APR.2015.015