Health And Wellness Assessment Essay Sample For College

The health and wellbeing of an individual, family and society are critical to the development from a societal point of view and the country as a whole. A healthy family translates to a stable environment. On the other hand, an unhealthy family becomes an obstacle both to breadwinners and the whole community. Health and wellness programs are protocols set to ensure that the health of individuals improves. Based on reports from CDC (2015), chronic illness has been known to lower the productivity of an individual, which intern affects their lifestyle. Consequently, it also renders even family career unproductive. Therefore health assessment is a critical facet that needs to prioritize to ensure minor issues which can be controlled do not erupt into massive problems. A wellness plan is a course of action designed to help individuals achieve optimal health. Multidimensional health and well-being may be defined as a condition of personal healthiness (Frost, 2018). Each aspect of personal wellbeing must be cultivated, strategically maintained, and developed to achieve the best possible state of well-being. This article conducts a health assessment on three different individuals (an old adult, a mother, and a child) and provides a key wellness plan to improve their overall optimal health.

Health assessment

An adult (61 years)

I interviewed a 65-year-old woman currently under government employment in the first individual health assessment. The woman describes her life as busy with limited to no time for herself. She indicates that while currently, she does not have has a medical prescription. She hails from a family where strokes, heart attack, CA, and diabetes often affect family members. When asked whether she smokes tobacco, she affirms that she has smoked tobacco since she was 18 years up to date (cumulating to 43 years of smoking). The onset of COVID-19 has greatly impacted herself and her family members. Based on her responses, her husband, a critical facet of her life, was diagnosed with COVID-19 resulting in his full dismissal from his employment. Consequently, he lost his health insurance, which led to his wife (the assessed) applying for full-time employment just to get the insurance. She narrates that currently, she lives with her mother and husband, who are both reliant on her for basic things. On top of this burden, she is dealing with type 2 diabetes brought about by her smoking and has to care for her “twin girls, one of which is mentally retarded and has autism.”

Based on the assessment, her lifestyle is wanting, and she cannot be able to afford better safety equipment. Some of the safety concerns mentioned are loose rugs, extension cords, and bathroom safety. Due to most of these stresses, the assessed suffers from diabetes type 2. Research conducted by Surgeon General’s Report in 2014 reiterates that smoking is a key contributor to these types of diabetes. The fact that the woman has smoked tobacco for 43 years shows high chances of other illnesses such as heart attack and stroke. Smoke emitted from tobacco contains a chemical that causes the cells lining blood arteries to become enlarged and inflamed, contributing to cardiovascular sicknesses such as Coronary Heart Disease, Atherosclerosis, and Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD). Her lack of proper vision may indicate fatigue, exhaustion, or her weakening general health. However, the fact that she has no friends, family, or social groups indicates the likelihood of depression resulting from not sharing her problems. Social interaction is vital since it allows people to share some problems.

Mother (breadwinner, 30 years)

The second assessed individual is a woman in her early thirties with seven children and currently dating and considering moving in with her partner. From a general point of view, the assessed is insured under the employer. She wears glasses which is a clear sign of a vision problem. When asked about her family, the assessment states that she has seven children, one suffering from autism. She further states that while it is hard to care for all the children, they (children) are of age and normally help with most of the house chores. This allows their mother (the assessed) to have at least an hour every week to relax.

The key stressors, however, include co-parenting with abusive ex-partners. Consequently, the assessed has developed PTSD as a result. The emergence of COVID-19 has affected her greatly, resulting to “career burnout” due to this, she hopes to rejoin school in abiding to increase her job career options. On the medical threat, the assessment was a constant tobacco user taking four times a day. However, she affirms that she has quit. Nonetheless, she is recuperating from alcoholism. Throughout all these problems, the assessed states that she has a concrete support system comprising “Matt, significant other, Family, and three best friends.”

Based on the assessed narrative, there is a clear indication of excess stress emanating from the burden of caring for seven children, dealing with her ex-partners, and the impacts of COVID-19. All these stressors explain the reason why she has developed PTSD. Similarly, she does not state the reason behind her alcoholism and constant smoking habits. One can deduce that being a mother at a young age and dealing with the problems facing her may develop PTSD, depression, and other lines.

Child 10

The last person assessed was a child of 10 years. Due to the fact that the child is too young to respond to the questionnaires fully, the article seeks an adult guardian to provide the vital details. While the child does not suffer from allergies, he has asthma, ADHD, and autism. He was further born prematurely in a family with an autism history. Based on the guardian, the child was diagnosed with autism at ten years despite observing the child’s conditions much earlier. To ease adaptation, the guardian would buy the child sensory things like a weighted blanket, Fidget toys, which would keep his (child’s) hands busy.

Some of the child’s problems often start at school, where people do not understand his condition and often result in a lot of “fun-making,” which emanates from autism. Similarly, his stepmom was accused of abusing him and his brother resulting in child support intervention and separation from his mothers and brothers. He is not allowed to visit his see, visit or play with his two stepbrothers and cannot understand. When the guardian was asked about the child’s hobbies, he stated that the child likes to play mine craft but can only play it when he goes to his aunts’ house. He can only watch u tube videos at home. He is oral sensitive and prefers crunchy things such as celery; smooth things like gum and fruit snacks. Unless medical modifications, sleep disturbance, and sense of danger, the child has normal growth. The child who already suffers from autism has a likeability of conducting PTSD. The fact that the child feels alone and neglected may trigger PTSD. He was further abused and separated from his stepbrothers.

Wellness plan

According to research, implementing a wellness strategy may lead to a happier and healthier life. Healthy living encompasses not just the physical body but also the mind, soul, and emotions, as defined by the National Institutes of Health. There are many ways to improve one’s quality of life, such as adding stress-relieving activities into one’s daily routine, eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, and practicing mindfulness. As noted from the assessment, the three individuals require a wellness plan to solve each problem.

Wellness plan for woman 61 years

For the first individual (woman 61 years), there are high chances of developing stroke, cardiac attack, and type 2 diabetes. The first illness that the assessed already has is type 2 diabetes. Based on research, people with diabetes make up a significant portion of the workforce in the US. As many as 88 million Americans have pre-diabetes, which affects more than a third of the adult population in the United States. Over 157 million individuals in the United States are covered by their employer’s health insurance, which implies that roughly 45 percent of them, or 70 million, have diabetes or pre-diabetes. Short- and long-term difficulties in diabetes patients are more likely if they do not have adequate and cheap access to drugs, technology, healthcare visits, and optimum and intelligible data that promotes health success. This increases the risk of complications. Smoking behaviors were shown to be the primary contributing factor in our instance.

The first step in a wellness program for this patient would be to educate the patient’s physician about the negative effects of smoking on her health. Because of an irregularity in how their bodies utilize insulin, people with Type 2 diabetes have high blood sugar levels. Type 2 diabetics have insulin levels that are sufficient or even excessive, but their systems are unable to adequately use them. Cigarettes contain toxic compounds that may injure your cells and disrupt their regular functions. Insulin’s efficiency may be reduced as a result of this inflammation. Oxidative stress, which occurs when chemicals from cigarette smoke interact with oxygen in the body, may also cause cell damage. Because of this, smokers must give up their habits. Based on a recent evaluation report, the woman has smoked for 43 years, even though her husband is in poor health and her mother is in critical condition. According to Galloway et al. (2019), a diabetic’s overall well-being is greatly influenced by their social network.

Stroke and heart problems are also quite likely for the patient. Stroke is the top cause of mortality in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Strokes strike more than 795,000 persons in the United States each year. A lack of oxygen damages and kills brain cells and tissue within minutes. Smoking is a huge contributor to stroke. The best method to prevent a stroke is to eat healthily, exercise frequently, and avoid smoking and excessive alcohol use. While it is evident that the woman does not take alcohol, the fact that she has smoked for that long means that she suffers from a stroke at any time.

Wellness plan for woman (30-year-old)

This woman was diagnosed with Post-Traumatic-Stress-Disorder after a thorough evaluation (PTSD). Personal or sexual abuse or military conflict might cause someone to suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). When they are exposed to things or activities that remind them of the trauma, they suffer from terrible flashbacks and dreams where they relive the experience. In our case, the encounter with the evaluated ex-partners was the primary cause of her PTSD symptoms. According to studies, therapeutic approaches differ from person to person, but most find that learning to be present at the moment helps to recognize thoughts and feelings that cause anxiety. They can then begin the healing process by learning how to outpower them. Both symptoms, such as intrusive memories and emotional discomfort, may be alleviated by Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) (Kazantzis et al., 2018). Both methods instruct patients on how to deal with their symptoms by discussing and working through their negative emotions such as anger, guilt, and fear and teaching them relaxation techniques such as deep breathing and meditation.

Adoption of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Therapy is another step toward general wellbeing. Those who have been physically assaulted or have had military experiences might benefit from it. This method, which is relatively new in psychotherapy, uses eye movements to reduce the impact of painful memories.

Another factor that has a significant influence on her well-being is stress. Based on research, employees across all generations reported feeling more anxious than they did a year ago (52 percent). Still, two-thirds of millennials said they felt stressed at work most or all of the time, according to workplace stress research conducted in 2017 (Welkin). In addition, 72 percent of millennials want workplace wellness initiatives to assist them in managing their stress levels. When it comes to reducing workplace stress, employers that provide stress management tools for their workers are taking a crucial first step. Involving, enthusing, and vocalizing about these projects may guarantee that staff is engaged and that quantifiable outcomes are reached, among other things. Stress and despair may occur from juggling several jobs, seven children, COVID-19, and social life. There is a necessity for frequent exercise to restore one’s health. The National Institute of Mental Health reports, “Just 30 minutes per day of gentle walking can help boost mood and reduce stress.”

Wellness plan for a child (10 years)

The last assessed individual was a ten years kid who, through his guardian, was diagnosed with autism. Similarly, through the assessment, it was discovered that the child might also suffer from PTSD and depression. In its most severe form, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complicated developmental and neurological illness that often manifests itself within a child’s first three years of life. It impacts brain function, notably in the areas of social interaction and communication abilities (Roberts & Webster, 2020). Although there is no established etiology for autism spectrum disorder, it is thought that both genetics and environment have a role. Caring for a kid with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be difficult on many levels, and love and compassion ensure that the child grows up successfully. Based on the report, the child has fears and autism symptoms. There is a need to educate the community on what autism is and ways we can make autistic children feel more loved. The segregation will only agitate the child, and his condition may be dire.

As noted earlier, PTSD is caused by a traumatic experience that a person goes through. In this case, the traumatic experience occurred when the child was abused by his stepmothers. With an autistic condition, this may cause the child’s fear and resentment towards others. Similarly, the child cannot be allowed to see or interact with his siblings creates a lonely life. While most of the issues are circumstantial, there is a need to try and educate the child on what happened and how it affects his life. As a wellness designer, the first step would be to try and reach out to other organizations with enough knowledge on how to handle a child with an autistic condition. This will help in the understanding of the child better. Similarly, the child needs to be allowed to play with other children. Play is an essential part of a child’s development. First, educating other children on why the assessed child responds the way he does is important in the overall acceptance of the child by other children. After the children understand why the child is the way he is, the next step is to teach them how to handle the child when playing. Playing is of critical importance, but unsupervised play may harm the child. As noted, these children are picky and sensitive. As a result, unsupervised play may lead to more health issues. Lastly, there is a need to create smooth operational teamwork between the family, educators, and medical practitioners in contact with the child. This will ensure a coordinated initiative that will result in progressive growth.


Health and wellness are a critical part of human development. Wellness extends the normal medical facets to incorporate spiritual, emotional, mental, and psychological matters. When a person is healthy, they can interact effectively with society. Through this article’s health and wellness assessment text, it was evident that the three participants each have their health or/and wellness problems. The elderly woman (61) suffered from a stroke, diabetes, and heart issues. The assessment concluded that part of why she has this illness is due to her smoking habits. Similarly, due to her obligation to her family, it becomes had to create time for herself. Similarly, the second lady thirty years also has health and wellness problems. Having had been abused by multiple partners, the lady developed PTSD, which affects her overall wellness. Part of the solution the article has deduced for her is therapy since counseling will alleviate and help her deal with the problem. Lastly, a ten-year-old child suffering from autism seeks social wellness due to seclusion by society. Having been constantly abused by the stepmother and separated from his set brothers, the child likability of stress and mental issues. In general, the wellness of any human determines how well they will interact with the external environment. A wellness program needs to be put up to assist others in dealing with some of the issues they pass through daily.


Galloway, M., Marsden, D. L., Callister, R., Nilsson, M., Erickson, K. I., & English, C. (2019). The feasibility of a telehealth exercise program aimed at increasing cardiorespiratory fitness for people after stroke. International Journal of Telerehabilitation11(2), 9-28.

Kazantzis, N., Luong, H. K., Usatoff, A. S., Impala, T., Yew, R. Y., & Hofmann, S. G. (2018). The processes of cognitive behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Cognitive Therapy and Research42(4), 349-357.

National Institute Of Mental Health. (nd). Transforming the understanding and treatment of mental illnesses. Retrieved from:

Roberts, J., & Webster, A. (2020). Including students with autism in schools: a whole school approach to improve outcomes for students with autism. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 1-18.

Welkin. (2018). Workplace Wellness Programs: Managing Stress at its Source. Retrieved from:

Health Promotion And Protection Sample College Essay


A young promotion campaign is a group of activities meant to get people and groups to think about their actions and behaviors to help them avoid getting certain chronic and other diseases. Ideally, the program will help people get back to having as much control over their health as before the program was implemented. People who participate in health-development programs are more likely to see a decrease in the occurrence and progression of chronic diseases and morbidity. Clothing and programs that make people less likely to do things that are bad for them are needed.

Health campaigns need to use various marketing methods to get the word out about their campaigns to people. It may be necessary for the company to exert power over an individual or a group of people from time to time. There are a lot of different strategies that each program can use to run its operations and achieve success. These strategies vary in difficulty and complexity depending on the agenda. For the systems to work correctly, they must have rules to help them do their jobs. Please describe how the plans have been used in campaigns and how they have been shown to work. Many ways can promote and prevent disease, and each method has its advantages and disadvantages. Each strategy has its good points and bad points. Medical treatment, behavior modification, location, and the social change method are the four ways to help people. Each of the guidelines shows how it was used during the campaigning process, including mass media pieces and other types of communication, like emails.

They should also have an evaluation of how successful the campaigns have been encouraging the change in the relations to health approaches should examine if the company used in the prevention of the disease and successful and has meant the requirements approaches should also state how far their campaigns have met the aims and objectives of the public health policy on the improvement of the public health for stop the guidelines should also note and our analysis of how relevant theories and models methods I’ve been used in the campaigning to overcome the barriers and increase the public awareness of health risks among the people and societies from the application should also have an explanation on how models all theories justifying behavior change can be used to work on the body is leading to their campaigns the approaches should also have to show the features and the selected drives and strategies to increase the public awareness of the health risks.

Specific ways are used to make sure health promotion and disease prevention campaigns are successful and the success of other health-related campaigns. Behavioral and change policy, medical practice, the educational system, the client-centered approach, and the societal change approach, to name a few, are all examples of what can be done. It is possible to cut down on the number of people who die early because of a medical or preventive strategy that identifies and targets people at risk of getting the disease. Because of this, it is one of the most common ways to do things in the world today.

It’s based on research and standards, and Main Bendigo is making plans for a program that aims to cut down on sickness and premature death (Corcoran,2012). Medical interventions that help people stay healthy and avoid sudden death need to know what kind of health promotion is used. First, second, and third are the three levels of intervention for each approach, and each group has three levels of intervention. You start with “primary intervention,” which we call the first one. Third: The second, called the “secondary intervention,” is the third. Immunization is the primary way to help right away. People are also told not to smoke. Secondary prevention is for people who already have the disease. It includes screening at the tertiary level of intervention to help them lessen the disability and pain they are feeling, and it can also help them get better. Many people in health use the medical approach because it is scientific and emphasizes prevention.

It’s a different kind of approach called behavioral change that encourages and helps us adopt healthy behaviors that are widely thought to be the most important thing people can do to improve their health and well-being. It also considers the things that people do to improve their overall health. According to research, living a healthy life is about eating a balanced diet, controlling your blood pressure, avoiding common viruses, and giving up smoking (Jackson et al., 2006). According to a study, living a healthy life means quitting smoking, drinking only the alcohol of choice, being overweight, and getting enough exercise. People who live a healthy lifestyle eat a balanced diet, keep their blood pressure in check, and stop smoking. It’s essential to figure out and develop practical ways and strategies that serve as role models for healthy behaviors to reach this goal.

A problem with the education method is that it requires people to be educated by giving them information and helping them understand these issues, which is not valid. Well-informed people are better at making decisions because of their well-informed state of mind. When it comes to making their own health decisions, health information doesn’t help people think about their values and attitudes. This gives them the freedom to make their own decisions while also allowing them to work professionally. Making decisions about one’s health Using the client-centered approach, professional works with their client to design a world where they can learn about things they might want to know and things they might need to do, then helps them make decisions that will be best for them.

The method of societal change changes the physical and social environment to make it more pleasant for people to live in. They are worried about me because I exercise my democratic right to be a professional with knowledge and the ability to help them and their democratic right not to be told what to do or how to live their lives.

Understand and evaluate the methods used to improve health campaigns and work better. It’s important to ask detailed questions to stop the crew’s jobs and finish our communication work. How long will it take to make the number and type of needed products if they are made? Yes, the recommendations helped the audience grow or become more aware of new skills. No, the offers did not support the audience to increase or become more aware of new skills. They need to look at how their promotion went first, then how it went, then how it went after it was over, and how it will affect them now that the campaign is over.

They use a lot of different ways to spread the word about their policies, like screening programs, to reach their target audience. When asked if they want to get checked out to see if they have any major illnesses, they might say yes. Because of a screen, they aren’t doing what I said I would. They are not used to improve one’s quality of life, but I will look at one’s body to see if any threats need to be dealt with. There are many ways to make sure that you get the right breast, bowel, and cervical cancer screenings. They were going to leave on Wednesday to help plan and monitor different diseases. As research has shown, most screenings are done when the person is at least 24 years old and above (Smith, 2006). The general practitioner checks the health of young people.

It is essential if the screening process helps keep people safe while being screened. Our screening came to an end. We didn’t find anything wrong with them before the test was available to the general public for sale. It happened in a way that we didn’t expect or understand, and we were separated from each other. Afterward, the researchers went on a journey to learn more about it and came up with the screening process that is now used (Tannahill, 1985).

Planned: Recycling and waste management are two more ways that will be used to help public health policy, according to the plan. Cycling helps to cut down on the health risks of getting sick and the other problems with landfills. It also increases the number of people who do it regularly. The second thing is your energy because it helps you use raw materials to make new things. The result is that raw materials can be extracted and refined more quickly, making water or the air dirty. People who drink contaminated water and get sick because of water pollution might not be able to get a good health. People can be exposed to contaminated air because of air pollution, which is bad for their bodies. Because recycling is polluted, people who work with their hands don’t have to worry about many health risks that could harm their physical health.

As the first step in any help communication or social marketing project, it’s essential to figure out who might benefit from the project. When there is a lot more public awareness about something, groups can better target this group of people. They can bring the right person to ensure that policies are implemented. In this way, health professionals can share information with medical researchers, who can use it to learn more about the people they are interested in studying. You can also get information from many places if you’re a doctor. If a group of people sees an ad for a company, they can see if it makes them want to make a change in their lives. If you speak the same language as everyone else, everyone will be able to understand what you’re saying.

A campaign like a mind can help people with a mental health problem because they can get valuable and credible information about their situation. Demographic research is based on information about the general population and specific groups that we know, like age, income, and education level, among other things (Kickbusch, 1985).

The following are why we should start the campaign: As a writer, I have to think about how people communicate in today’s world. For people who work from home, social media is becoming more and more important in their lives. Before starting an advertising campaign, you should research how people communicate and which platforms and messages work best. While TV is most likely to have the most viewers, careful analysis must ensure that the hours and programs that the target demographic listens to the radio are appropriate for that group of people, not the other way around. In addition, social media sites like Facebook and Twitter can be used to get helpful information about the people who are interested in your business.

In the report, the Research UK and companies like Change4Life, which the government owns, run health promotion initiatives like these (Stokols, 1982). These campaigns use websites, newspaper articles, videos, and other media. Many different ways keep people updated on the ship’s movements. When many people finish the campaign, the oven Orange will be taken off the market. The range Orange will no longer be used to improve the general public’s health. They are used to telling people why the campaigns are essential and how taking part in them could help them in the long run. When government agencies put in place the policies used in the harbor policies, they are held to account for making sure that they take into account recent changes in the health program and make sure that the policies are better. The steps taken to improve the country’s health policy have led to a healthier overall population.

Put up and test the rules already in place to let people go. Then it’s easy to see what’s working and what isn’t working simply. They might be put on hold simultaneously as new policies that work and help people are implemented. A study found that Crones who drink alcohol and coins who smoke are more likely to have health problems in the United Kingdom. Before you can use it, you’ll need people to help with health improvement and disease-prevention projects, and other things. It is good to cut back on the number of activities people do after learning something new. Their drinking rules are in place to make sure that they make good decisions. People’s health and how to keep their health have always been the main goals of organizations that have helped people in need in the past.

It’s essential to think about what’s right and wrong. In ethics, the discipline of moral thinking is the foundation, and the most common example of this is the way people act before campaigns start. In this study, it is essential to think about several ethical issues that affect the people who are the study’s target group. Today, what makes a healthy culture in today’s culture? This is one of the medical questions that people ask. However, they could be aimed at people who live in poor neighborhoods and are surrounded by people who live unhealthy lives rather than the general public. We should be concerned about their health as a whole. They won’t be able to get healthy phones, kormas, clean water, pure air, or good outdoor exercise opportunities until they demand it. Your company should also teach people how to live a healthy lifestyle and what can happen if they don’t, like what foods people should eat to avoid or lessen the risk of diabetes. People who have a specific health problem should take these steps to ensure that they don’t feel wrong about their disease or aren’t to blame for their situation, as they have in the past. This means that the person will have low self-esteem, and as a result, they will be a part of the band’s promotion in its complete form. People should be able to make their own decisions about living their lives, not be forced to do so.

If they are against a way of life that is being mocked, you can help them see their moral responsibilities. A person who is afraid of the company and refuses to help is sad because they cannot do things that could improve their overall well-being. For example, it can’t be hidden that people who are likely to fall for a gaming subscription or buy organic phones are the ones who get help from the health company. It works if you give them money or make them think they have someone else’s disability. They should not be made to feel like they are a victim because of their actions or inactions, and they should not be made to do so by anyone else. To give out benefits, it is essential to know that they will come at a time when giving them to everyone won’t be beneficial.

When looking at data on promotion companies, data used a lot during and after a campaign to compare results to the company’s original goals is taken into account. This is very important when determining whether or not a campaign was successful. Lessons learned can then be used to either continue a successful campaign or make changes to unsuccessful efforts to become more successful in the future, both of which are possible.

Do some math and figure out when the people who start racing in 2010 will be. It was said that the land was sick back in 2011. Visitors are welcome to set up camp at a spot with an Aria theme, and they can do so for free. They are going to drink the juice because they have late-stage cancer. Most people diagnosed with lung cancer lived for five years or more after being diagnosed, but only 5% did.


Human health is thought to be very important to how the body works. As soon as someone isn’t healthy, they can’t do their job well. A health promotion campaign that focuses on preventing illnesses is called a “public health promotion campaign.” These campaigns are meant to help the general public. Through health promotion, people can learn more about their bodies and their more critical health. Many different ways to promote health must be used in conjunction with health campaigns for them to work. People who have problems get help from medical, social, behavioral, and other treatments that work together to solve their problems. It should be the same for health institutions, too. Health promotion activities help people learn more about their health and how to keep their fitness up. The government might want to think about starting health-education programs to teach its people how to drive safely on public roads. Health campaigns and how they’re done and how they’ve been looked at should be incorporated into the design and implementation. Health campaigns also help figure out which groups of people need more information about the importance of good health.


Corcoran, N. (Ed.). (2013). Communicating health: strategies for health promotion. Sage.

Jackson, S. F., Perkins, F., Khandor, E., Cordwell, L., Hamann, S., & Buasai, S. (2006). Integrated health promotion strategies contribute to tackling current and future health challenges. Health promotion international21(suppl_1), 75-83.

Kickbusch, I. (1986). Health promotion: a global perspective. Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Sante’e Publique77(5), 321-326.

Smith, B. J., Tang, K. C., & Nutbeam, D. (2006). WHO health promotion glossary: new terms. Health promotion international21(4), 340-345.

Stokols, D. (1992). Establishing and maintaining healthy environments: Toward a social ecology of health promotion. American psychologist47(1), 6.

Tannahill, A. (1985). What is health promotion?. Health education journal44(4), 167-168.

Health Sciences And Nursing Essay Example For College

Evidence-based practice EBP plays a vital role worldwide as it is used to improve the quality of patient care to offer cost-effective medical services. Therefore, nursing practices must include a combination of the EBP, availability of expertise, and solitary clinical judgment to positively affect the patients. As such, every published article about evidenced-based practices for online graduate nursing students must be thoroughly reviewed to avoid misunderstandings that might lead to adverse outcomes for the patients. Therefore, the report aims at giving a review of the article written by Rojjanasrirat and Rice about Evidence-based practice knowledge, attitudes, and practice of online graduate nursing students. Also, the study is done to determine whether the article should be printed or not.

The Problem and the Theoretical Framework

The study’s main aim was to assess the necessary changes in EBP knowledge attitudes and practice of nursing students before and after completing an online graduate level. Many nurses across the world have graduated with physical degrees. In this case, they had the chance to physically attend classes, perform all the necessary experiments, and meet for group discussions. Consequently, as students, these nurses had the opportunity to develop improved EBP knowledge, attitudes, and practices based on research, experiments, group discussions, and lessons. On the other hand, online graduated nursing students might be at a disadvantage since most lack quality research, group discussions, and physical experiments. Therefore, changes must be made in the EBP for online graduated nursing students. As for the theoretical framework, the authors ensured that they explained all the theories and the specific terms used in the article. For instance, Evidence-based practices were otherwise referred to as EBP.

Sample and Setting

The research was carried out at a private university in the Midwestern USA. Therefore, based on this setting, the study should be considered high quality because Midwestern University is well known for providing high-quality programs, especially in sciences, substantial experiences, exceptional clinical rotations, and a compassionate perspective toward the nurses towards the patients. Also, participants included sixty-three online nurse practitioner students taking a Master’s program. Moreover, the sampling techniques included all the approved online nursing students from the fifth level to the lightweight-level (3rd and 4th year) (n=255) student, which is admirable since only the approved students can aid the researchers in obtaining the best results for the research.

Variables, Design and Analysis Strategies

A suitable sample of the chosen online graduate nursing students who had enrolled in the EBP course was asked to participate in the study. Also, the study’s outcomes were determined by the use of Evidenced-Based Practice Questionnaires (EBPQ) before and after completing the course. Further, the researchers used paired sample t-test and descriptive statics to evaluate the mean difference between the pretests and the post-test scores. The sample test gives an advantage to the researchers as it allows for the comparison of the average values of different data sets. Furthermore, the sample test provides ease of calculation, gathering data, and more accessible interpretation as it tells the mean difference of various samples.

Results and Discussions

According to the results, the overall student’s post-test EBP scores improved significantly over the pretest scores, t (63) =-9.034, p<0.001). Further, statistically essential differences were discovered for the practice of Evidenced-based practices mean scores t (63) =-12.78, p=0.001) (Rojjanasrirat, & Rice, 2016). Nonetheless, no significant differences were found between the pre and post-test results on attitudes and knowledge towards EBP scores. Most frequently, the discovered hindrances to EBP include interpretation of findings, lack of understanding of statistics, insufficient time, and unavailability of adequate library resources.


The language used in the Research Article

The authors, Rojjanasrirat and Rice, used a language that was easily understandable to the specific audiences and any other non-medical audiences. This was done by ensuring that all the abbreviations used in the articles were first interpreted and that every other non-defined term was defined. Also, the research purpose was clearly stated. It related to the problem identified in the literature review as’ the importance of using instructional strategies to enhance the competence of the EBP in online graduate nursing students.’

Sampling Methods

The authors employed stratified sampling, where the participants were selected based on specific characteristics. For example, the school first approved the students based on their performance. Further, the participants were specifically chosen from the fifth level to the lightweight level in their years of study. As a result, the researchers could easily and quickly obtain a sample of students that were just about to graduate and be released to the job market.

Data Collection Methods

Data collection methods included surveys involving either physical or digital questionnaires that enabled the researchers to obtain qualitative and quantitative data from the participants. In this case, the researchers were offered an opportunity for scale distribution. Also, the Evidenced-based practice questionnaires used in this research were cost-effective compared to the other data collection methods. Moreover, the discussion offered is related to the information provided in the results sections.

According to the results offered, it is true that the pretest and the post-test effects the attitudes and knowledge towards the EBP scores. This is based on the fact that although the post-test on the EBP scores were highly improved over the pretest, the results show that the only statistical differences noted were found on the EBP mean scores, t (63) = − 12.78, p = 0.001) (Rojjanasrirat, & Rice, 2016). Consequently, the results show that the significant blockade for the EBP included inadequate time, inadequate library resources, misunderstanding of the statistics, and a proper interpretation of findings.

Significance and Value of the Research

The research is significant in that it offers knowledge to build the base for clinical practices and the reinforcements of the following; enhancement of quality patient care, enhancing end-of-life care, and the management of various disease symptoms. From the results obtained in the research, some of the significant barriers to Evidence-based practice were given to help the nurses make the necessary adjustments toward improving the EBP. Further, since there was no difference in the attitudes and the knowledge test scores, the nursing management can now know what to do to enhance the EBP practices.

Consequently, the research was valuable enough to the extent that it offers the nurses knowledge to improve their skills to effect positive results for the patients and others within the healthcare systems. As the healthcare systems get more varied and the needs of the patients become more and more complex, nurses need to use the EBP by incorporating such research results with their professional experiences and the preferences of the patients. Therefore, conducting such research may be used in everyday practices to improve their skills and knowledge and teach others using the results.

Strengths and Weakness of the Research

The questionnaire method of collecting data offers several benefits. For starters, questionnaires are an excellent method of collecting lots of information from many people within a short period. Further, the only required costs in using questionnaires are printing expenses used to print the copies (Mercieca-Bebber et al., 2018). Thus, this research was cost-effective. Moreover, the questionnaires used in the study are reliable in that they are standardized so that the same questions phrased in precisely the same way are used for all the participants.

Nonetheless, despite the various strengths, this research has weaknesses that may include inflexibility and lack of depth. Even though some may argue that questionnaires are flexible since they offer a chance to ask many questions simultaneously, questionnaires are relatively inflexible. For instance, some phrases used in the question may confuse various participants. It is already late for the researchers to change the terms used in the questions at this stage. Moreover, questionnaires lack depth in that it is difficult to ask anything apart from the general questions that may be suitable to all the participants. Therefore, due to the generalizability of the questions, the results may not be as valid as the results obtained using the other data collection methods.

Why the Article Should Be Printed

The research article is eligible for publication as it meets the criteria for selecting the research articles to be published. For example, the author reports original scientific research since the results have not been published by any other researcher or submitted elsewhere (Trierweiler, 2021). Furthermore, as elaborated in the evaluation section above, the research objective is of outstanding scientific importance as it enhances the knowledge of the online graduated nurse based on the EBP. Also, the authors give a conclusion of interest to the interdisciplinary readership.


Due to the importance of EBP, nursing practices must include a combination of the EBP, availability of expertise, and solitary clinical judgment to bring about a positive result for the patients. Therefore, every research article on EBP practices should be properly vetted and approved by article reviewers to avoid publishing unnecessary information. The report reviewed above can be published since it meets the criteria for publication. Also, the research object and the results are essential to the interdisciplinary readership since the information enhances the quality offered to the patients and the entire healthcare system.


Mercieca-Bebber, R., Calvert, M., Kyte, D., Stockler, M., & King, M. T. (2018). The administration of patient-reported outcome questionnaires in cancer trials: Interviews with trial coordinators regarding their roles, experiences, challenges, and training. Contemporary clinical trials communications9, 23-32.

Rojjanasrirat, W. Rice, J. (2016). Evidence-based practice knowledge, attitudes, and practice of online graduate nursing students.

Nurse Education Today. 53/48-53.

Trierweiler, L. (2021). Selection criteria for publications in the PSYNDEX reference database.