Health As Expanding Consciousness And Culture Care Diversity University Essay Example

Margaret Newman’s theory of health as expanding consciousness is directly applicable today because it outlines a nursing paradigm built on the concepts inherent in healthcare and medical science. Its central assumption is that disease manifests as the result of the underlying pattern of the person, and this pattern as a cause always precedes the disease as an effect (Pharris, 2014). If healthcare professionals cure the disease itself but leave the underlying pattern unaddressed, the patient will, in all likelihood, encounter the same health problems again.

To ensure a healthier life for a patient rather than merely curing a specific case of a specific condition, one has to address the disease in a broader context of the patient’s existence (Pharris, 2014). Essentially, Newman likens diseases to symptoms while representing personal patterns as causes. Rooted in these fundamental medical concepts, the theory of health as expanding consciousness is straightforward and easy to apprehend, and its focus on the patient rather than the illness ensures it remains applicable.

Another theory that has direct application for a contemporary population a health professional works with is Madeleine Leininger’s Culture Care Diversity and Universality Theory. This theory stresses the necessity of delivering care congruent with people’s cultural beliefs while still achieving medical results (Wehbe-Alamah, 2014). This theory requires nurses to understand how people from different cultures care for themselves and each during health, disease, dying, and death (Wehbe-Alamah, 2018).

Such transcultural knowledge is crucial for addressing the needs of the population I currently work with since it is far from culturally homogenous. Patients with different cultural backgrounds use different behavioral strategies that make them more or less likely to respond positively to various approaches, and, as a nurse, I have to be aware of these intricacies.


Pharris, M. D. (2014). Margaret Newman’s theory of health as expanding consciousness. In M. C. Smith & M. E. Parker (Eds.), Nursing theories and nursing practice (4th ed., pp. 279-301). F. A. Davis Company.

Wehbe-Alamah, H. B. (2018). Leininger’s culture care diversity and universality theory: Classic and new contributions. Annual Review of Nursing Research, 37(1), 1-23.

Wehbe-Alamah, H. B. (2014). Madeleine Leininger’s theory of culture care diversity and universality. In M. C. Smith & M. E. Parker (Eds.), Nursing theories and nursing practice (4th ed., pp. 303-320). F. A. Davis Company.

Managing And Appraising Employee Performance

It is impossible to make an organization function correctly if there is no list of the fundamental company values. In the period of the Talent Management changes (2003-2008), provided by the senior director of Maersk Group’s HR department and the head of HR, a significant meaning was attached to implementing performance measurement standards (Groysberg & Abbott, 2013). Thus, the purpose of this paper is to discuss various aspects of the performance management process, apply the knowledge to establish an appraisal for the Maersk Customer Service, and assume which performance rating scale can be the most advantaging.

Firstly, the performance management system aims to create an incredibly stimulating environment to expose employees’ talents. In order to organize the ststaffvaluation logically, the six-step approach has been invented. Beginning with setting goals to align with a higher level, the primary and concluding influence is exerted by the HRM’s. They are responsible for decision-making and answer the questions of whether an individual should be promoted, paid more, or vice versa. Consequently, they account for administrative decisions rather than for developmental purposes.

Secondly, the company’s leaders spread the organization’s cultural values, describing behavioral expectations and standards toward the employees. The necessary part is to align an individual’s goals with the organization’s strategic plan because it immediately affects either the person’s key performance indicator or the company’s sales and success. In fact, there are different ways of how to ensure such a process. Primarily, HRM should be specific in the target setting, distributing the tasks fairly to each department. For instance, in 2008, Bill Allen at the Maersk’s head of Group HR assisted in changing the HR function to strategic instead of administrative (Groysberg & Abbott, 2013). He used delegation as a promising tool to assign operational responsibilities to different business unit levels. Then, HRM should give real feedback to the staff and do not treat performance reviews as an unnecessary formality. Such monitoring needs to happen regularly. In addition, to guarantee the performance management process corresponds to the strategy plan, diverse colleagues should measure the employees’ performance: supervisors, peers, or even themselves.

There are three substantial approaches to determine performance in an evaluation form. The first one is the trait method, which allows managers to examine employees’ certain characteristics in correlation with the job. In case when the evaluation appraise is designed carefully, the trait method may be mainly unbiased and objective. It includes the graphic rating scale method, mixed-standard scale method, forced-choice method, essay, etc. For example, the trait method could be applicable in Maersk’s customer service, while a person is rated on traits such as politeness and attentiveness toward the customer (Groysberg & Abbott, 2013). However, this method sometimes could be unprecise as the traits tend to be vague and subjective.

The second method is the behavioral method, and it specifically illustrates and enumerates the exhibited actions within a specific job. In other words, the managers track emplemavioral conformity to the company’s rules. The behavioral method includes the critical incident method, the behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS), the behavioral checklist method, and behavior observation scale (BOS) and others. For instance, a person is rated on criteria as “giving a correct greeting to a client via the phone” and so forth.

The third method is the results-based one, and it concentrates on the employees’ accomplishments. According to this approach, achievements define people’s evaluation outcomes. Looking at the sales figures and production output, the objectiveness is transparent despite the previous two performance appraisal systems (Groysberg & Abbott, 2013). Besides counting productivity, there also exists management by objectives. In other words, employee and a supervisor discuss and make an agreement that the performance rate will be based on gaining the goals set mutually. Thus, it is possible to consider the company’s benefit and an individual’s needs. Perhaps, such a method is the most applicable to the sales department.

Identifying the best-suited appraisal for the Maersk Customer Service, one should draw attention to Maersk’s leadership development in the period of Talent Management (2008-2012). Bill Allen has developed the system which divides the staff into “high performers (30%), successful (60%), and less successful (10%)” (Groysberg & Abbott, 2013, p. 6). Therefore, the best and influential appraisal could be the personal scorecard’s record or any other results-based method. Maersk’s culture propagandizes that the company’s plan becomes everyone’s job, so the distribution in a cascading way (from departmental to individual goals) will impact every individual. It will empower staff to improve and provide the feedback grounded on measures.

In conclusion, it is essential to emphasize that all the listed above methods’ pros and cons were thoroughly observed. The majority of HR managers maintain that the method such an essay writing is generally time-consuming even though it provides more detailed information about the staff. Backward, tick-oriented evaluation, such as a mixed-standard scale, is less informative. Moreover, the frequency plays a significant role in performance rating scales accuracy. Thus, the performance management process is the complex system, which should be prudently organized and followed step by step to push forward the organization.


Groysberg, B. & Abbott, S. L. (2013). AP Møller-Maersk group: Evaluating strategic talent management initiatives. Harvard Business Publishing.

Description Of “Buddhism In America” By Seager

This section covers the first seven chapters of the book “Buddhism in America”. The author starts by giving background information concerning the American Buddhist landscape where he explores the different rituals associated with this religion in the US. The second chapter highlights the rudimentary basics of Buddhism including the teachings of Buddha and the formation of the Sangha among other fundamental practices. In the third chapter, Seager (1999) discusses the three broad traditions that have been used to structure Buddhist thought and practice since its emergence including Theravada – the way of elders, Mahayana – the great vehicle, and Vajrayana – the diamond vehicle. Chapter four focuses on the adoption of Buddhism in the American setting, specifically the spread of the different indigenous and new forms of this religion by mainly highlighting the indigenization of dharma.

In the fifth chapter, the author discusses Jodo Shinshu, which is one of the major traditions associated with American Buddhism in what he calls America’s Old-line Buddhists. This tradition has taken over a century to be adopted and mainstreamed in the country. Chapter six is a continuation of the various traditions whereby the author delves into Soka Gakkai under the banner of Soka Gakkai International-USA (SGI-USA) and its Nicherian humanism after it emerged in Japan. One notable argument in this chapter is that over the last 50 years, the Americanization of Nicherian Buddhism “has been deeply influenced by tensions between a highly traditional Nichiren priesthood and the innovative spirit of the laity” (Seager, 1999, p. 70). In chapter seven, the author talks about the concept of Zen and its pioneer institutions in the US such as the Cambridge Buddhist Association in Massachusetts and Shasta Abbey in northern California.

This section is a report on the last seven chapters of the book. Chapter eight is about the Tibetan milieu and how this tradition has been adopted into the American culture, especially after the Chinese occupied Tibet in 1950 thus forcing many locals, including Dalai Lama, to go into exile in various parts of the world. In chapter nine, Seager focuses on the Theravada spectrum to highlighting its origins in 1893 and how its practices were ultimately localized in the US with the establishment of the Buddhist Vihara Society (the first Theravada temple in the US) in Washington in 1966. Chapter ten is a collection of other Pacific Rim migrations, with a specific focus on how immigration contributed significantly to the spread of Buddhism in the US. The formation of the Buddhist Association of the United States (BAUS) in 1964 was a major step towards the Americanization of this religion in the country.

The last part of the book discusses selected issues surrounding American Buddhism. One such issue is gender equity as addressed in chapter eleven whereby Seager talks about how the adaptation of the dharma in the US evolved to accommodate both genders, specifically due to provisions in the American law, which promotes equality. Another selected issue as discussed in chapter twelve is the idea of socially engaged Buddhism, which is “usually used to refer to the application of the dharma to social issues in a more comprehensive fashion than religious charity or philanthropy, one that seeks to redirect the personal quest for transcendence to the collective transformation of society” (Seager, 1999, p. 201). In chapters thirteen and fourteen, the author discusses intra-Buddhist and interreligious dialogue and making some sense of Americanization, respectively.


Seager, R. H. (1999). Buddhism in America. Columbia University Press.

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